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Developing Management Capability

Introduction

The nature of organisational management is dynamic; hence it has changed over the years. Under the traditional process of management, organisations were more dependent on autocratic leadership style, and power remained in the hand of an upper level manager. However, over the time the style of leadership and management have changed. Organisations are now more dependent on transformational leadership and management style. While an organisation works with a transformational leader, it is essential for the leader to be empathetic towards employee and create a bond of trust. Empathy and trust have been discussed as two major components of successful people management in this report. This report further provides an insight into some important tools like Johari window, Big 5, etc. and their strengths and weaknesses for managing people. Finally, this report has identified two significant areas of improvement with the action plan.

Literature review

Empathy and trust are sources of good management in any organisation. According to Batson et al. (2016), empathy is the addressed as the communication of compassion between employee and employers. On the other hand, according to Tehrani (2015), empathy emphasises concern for other and warm-heartedness. However many leaders or managers get confused between empathy and sympathy. In simple terms, empathise with individual recognise what that individual is facing and understand the emotional impact of that situation for that individual. On the contrary, sympathise with individual involves empathy and sorry feeling for that individual.

As stated by Luhmann (2017), trust refers to firmly believe in the truth or ability of something or someone. Trust has several connotations in a social context. Organisational trust refers to the belief of ability among employee and employers. It ha ........

ever, over the time the style of leadership and management have changed. Organisations are now more dependent on transformational leadership and management style. While an organisation works with a transformational leader, it is essential for the leader to be empathetic towards employee and create a bond of trust. Empathy and trust have been discussed as two major components of successful people management in this report. This report further provides an insight into some important tools like Johari window, Big 5, etc. and their strengths and weaknesses for managing people. Finally, this report has identified two significant areas of improvement with the action plan.

Literature review

Empathy and trust are sources of good management in any organisation. According to Batson et al. (2016), empathy is the addressed as the communication of compassion between employee and employers. On the other hand, according to Tehrani (2015), empathy emphasises concern for other and warm-heartedness. However many leaders or managers get confused between empathy and sympathy. In simple terms, empathise with individual recognise what that individual is facing and understand the emotional impact of that situation for that individual. On the contrary, sympathise with individual involves empathy and sorry feeling for that individual.

As stated by Luhmann (2017), trust refers to firmly believe in the truth or ability of something or someone. Trust has several connotations in a social context. Organisational trust refers to the belief of ability among employee and employers. It has been found, that an organisation with the high level of internal trust has more success story or productivity compared to the organisation which has the low level of internal trust.

Types of Empathy

 

Empathy

Cognitive

Emotional

Compassionate

Organization Chart

 

Figure 1: Types of Empathy

(Source: Morelli, Lieberman, & Zaki, 2015)

Researcher in psychology has distinguished between empathy. In psychology, empathy is a broad term, and it refers the cognitive reaction of an individual to the experience of other (Morelli, Lieberman, & Zaki, 2015). There are mainly three types of empathy which varies in different social context.

Cognitive Empathy

Cognitive Empathy is where one individual successfully relates to the emotional perspective of other individual or successfully put themselves into someone else place. According to Eres et al. (2015), it is a logical process as one does not get involved emotionally with another person without necessity. This is the best process to deal with the organisational negotiation as a manager can easily put himself into the situation of his employment without getting emotionally involved. However, it does not fit the conventional definition of empathy where empathy is defined as 'getting involved with feeling'. Thus it can be stated that that cognitive empathy has a dark side which suggests it is an empathy by thought than the feeling.

Emotional Empathy

Emotional empathy is the most recognised version of empathy. Emotional empathy is when an individual connects with the emotion of another individual. In this empathy, one person can address and understand the situation of other person and directly connect with them emotionally (Köppen & Meinel, 2015).

Emotional empathy either could be good or bad. In case of good emotional empathy, a person can readily respond to the feeling or emotion of another person. This is more important for people who are involved in the caring profession. On contrary empathy could be bad when an individual get overwhelmed by emotion and could not respond to another person.

Compassionate empathy

Compassionate empathy is the most applied version of empathy within an organisation. Compassionate empathy is when an individual understands the emotion of another person and take adequate action for help (Feldman et al., 2016). This is however considered the most appropriate form of empathy.

Theory of Empathy

Hoffman's theory of Moral development

Hoffman's theory of Moral Development helped with the most comprehensive view of empathy. This theory advocates how an individual get distressed by observing another person's distressed (Brabeck, 2016). Five points have been mentioned under this theory to support and explain the logic, and those are mimicry, classical condition, direct association, mediate association and role taking.  This theory further discusses the distress of a person and how that helps to build the moral of other.

Definition of trust

The word "Trust" has many definitions. Trust is an ability to predict what other people do in any particular situation (Ozmen, 2017). Trust means to exchange knowledge with each other about various topics. Trust means to give something now with believing that it will be repaid in future by some other situation or some other way. Trust is like exchanging truthfulness with the close one with the belief that it will be safe with that person.

Interpersonal trust

Interpersonal trust is a belief of one person to another or partner (Lu et al. 2017). It is like when one goes to a physician one believe the prescription without any question. It is a pure belief that the prescribed medicine will cure the disease. Another example is when someone throws a baby in the air; the baby laughs because he/she knows that the person will catch him and he/she will not be harmed. Those are the examples of interpersonal trust.

 Organisational trust

Trust is a valuable asset to any organisation.If the investors think the organisation trustworthy, then they invest their funds, and by that, the organisation will continue his further journey. On the other hand, the organisation has to make a good reputation by which the investors can trust the organisation for their future security. The company have to give the beneficiaries to the shareholder, to make them trustworthy for their growth as well as with shareholders and make a good impact in the market for further investor's investments. Organisational fairness, factors and information about policies are involved in trust equation (Tekingündüz et al., 2017)

Inter-organisational trust

 It is a trusty relation between employer and employee or junior worker with senior worker and high rank with low rank and also with big companies with small companies. When a company take a tender, the owner has the confidence of completing the work within the scheduled time because the owner knows about his workforce and capacity. The owner trusts his employees that they are enabled to do it within the stipulated time.  This trust between the internal employee and employer is considered as inter-organisational trust.  It is essential to maintain the trust between the employees an employer for sustainable organisation growth. It further helps to reduce inter-organisational conflicts (Varoutsa & Scapens, 2017).

Significance of empathy and trust in organisation

According to considering the current complexity within an organisation, it is important for a leader to build an emotional bonding with the employees and build the relationship of trust with the staffs. Empathetic leaders help an organisation to achieve its goal while it helps to satisfy an individual goal of employees.

 

 

Diagnostic tools which provide insight into current capabilities and preference (Big 5, Johari window, Team role inventory score, solicit feedback for openers)

 

Johari Window Model

Johari window is one technique which helps an individual to understand his relationship with them self and others. It is a technique which was created by Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham. This technique can be used to evaluate the relationship of one group with another group (Tran, 2016). This tool can be used for personal understanding and training along with personal or team development, improving communication, enhancing intergroup relationship team development and many other inter-organisational relationships.

Image result for Johari Window Model

Figure 2: Johari Window Model

(Source: Tran, 2016)

Johari Window consists of two factors, first, the understanding of a person about themselves or what other people know about that person. This model has four quadrant areas and in each quadrant, individual shares their information about what they know about themselves. However, it has to be assured that an individual should disclose everything without any hesitation and information should be accurate. This help to build trust with another person by sharing information. This technique helps individual to understand their strengths and weaknesses. The best approach to start with Johari window is by exploring the open area (Figure1).

Big five personality test

Contemporary personality psychologist advocates five basic dimensions of personality which is referred as Big 5 personality traits.  The five personality traits which are mentioned under the theory are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. HR departments of organisation mainly take the help of this tool for the overall personality development of employees. According to Stajkovic et al. (2018), this tool helps to examine and define individual personality and the reason behind their behavioural differences.

Image result for what is Big five personality test stages

Figure 3: Big 5 personality test

(Source: Stajkovic et al., 2018)

The below table discusses big five personality traits

Openness

In this stage people who learn new things and enjoy the learning experience get the high score.

Conscientiousness

A high tendency of self-discipline and aim for achievement.

Extraversion

Energy and the tendency to seek replication of others. This kind of people look for the company of others

Agreeableness

Compassionate and cooperative rather than antagonistic

Neuroticism

A person easily get diverted by unpleasant experiences, such as anxiety or depression

 

Team role inventory score

The Belbin Team inventory is behavioural which access how an individual behaves in a team environment. This behavioural test includes 360-degree feedback from observer along with the self-evaluation of own behaviour and understands the contrast between their behaviour with their colleagues.

Image result for Belbin team  inventory

Figure 4: Belbin nine team roles

(Source: Oke et al., 2016)

Further, nine team roles have been discussed under the Belbin Team Inventory, and those are Resource investigator, team worker, coordinator, plant, monitor evaluator, socialist, shaper, implementer and completer finisher (Oke et al., 2016).

Compare and contrast

 

 

According to the figure it can be stated that solicits feedback and willingness of self-discloser is concentrated on openness more than hidden, blind or unknown facts. Therefore solicited feedback for openers scored 27 (on top axis) and willingness of self-discloser scored 31.

While comparing both the figures it can be found that team work inventory performed better than team role inventory. Monitor and implementer scored better compared to other factors. Thus it can be stated that team work inventory has secured better position than team role inventory.

From the above table it has been found that the score of N is much lowers than other traits (2.5) this holds the emotional traits. The score of O is the highest which is 4.1 and the score of A and C is quite near to each other.

Realistic Plan

The areas which need to get improved are

1. Leadership Skill

 

2. Implementation of better management policy

Areas of Improvement

Issues

Challenges

Action

Plan

Time Period

Leadership Skill

Poor leadership skill can bring conflict within the organisation.

It further bring employee dissatisfaction which can lead to low production of the organisation

It can impact the employment relationship of organisation

Identify the current leadership gap

Follow up with employee to generate feedback

 

Provide skill enhancement training to existing leaders

6 months

 Implementation of better management policy

Low production

Uncertainty

Organisation often get involved in short term planning rather than focusing on the bigger picture

Should prepare a strategic plan which include the risk management plan

Must focus on both short and long term goal

 

A new strategic plan should be completed

Employee should be trained which lead them to fulfil the organisation goal

12 months

 

 

Conclusion

Thus it can be concluded that for any organisation it is crucial to understand the leadership style and follow the best leadership pattern. Considering the changing nature of organisation being empathetic and building a relation of trust is important for the overall development of any organisation. This report further discussed about different tools and technique which can help any organisation to understand and identify the behaviour of individual and team behaviour. These tools should be use in right direction to prepare a strategic plan for the organisation. Finally this study helps to formulate realistic plan which can improve the current situation in terms of empathy and trust building.