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Effective Business Communication

Introduction

The assessment analyses on self-reflection on the communication skills where information would be generated on the chosen 3 diagnostic tools, which are presented on communication issues after the results. Communication issues can be analysed with the issue defined on public anxiety and low tolerance caused in a disagreement. The assessment analyses a wide literature that will focus on certain concepts related with communication issues. During reflection, I also have gained good knowledge on several activities where I can try to handle the communication issues well. In case, these issues will also have good reflection to the Action Plan that would be devised after the literature.

Main Section

1. Diagnosis and Reflection

In this assessment, I have used three diagnostic tools instead of 5 diagnostic tools because I found using 3 diagnostic tools will help to incorporate my area of communication better. The first tool that I have chosen is the Tolerance of disagreement (TFD) scale, which is designed to determine how an individual could tolerate other people for disagreeing on what individual mostly believes to be true. This is where conceptualization is quite similar to argumentativeness. According to Parham (2017), people having higher argumentativeness are probably capable to deal with disagreement than who is less in argumentativeness. While it is certainly believed that conflict arises in interpersonal communication in a major part, and for this, the function of Tolerance of disagreement scale interacts (Arias, Punyanunt-Carter & Wrench, 2016). In case, the alpha reliability estimates for TFD scale is expected to be 85 in a neighbourhood. In TFD scale, I scored 47, which indicates a high TFD and scoring below 32 estimates low while in between score of 32 and 46 indicates moderate.

However, for the Non-verbal ........

erance caused in a disagreement. The assessment analyses a wide literature that will focus on certain concepts related with communication issues. During reflection, I also have gained good knowledge on several activities where I can try to handle the communication issues well. In case, these issues will also have good reflection to the Action Plan that would be devised after the literature.

Main Section

1. Diagnosis and Reflection

In this assessment, I have used three diagnostic tools instead of 5 diagnostic tools because I found using 3 diagnostic tools will help to incorporate my area of communication better. The first tool that I have chosen is the Tolerance of disagreement (TFD) scale, which is designed to determine how an individual could tolerate other people for disagreeing on what individual mostly believes to be true. This is where conceptualization is quite similar to argumentativeness. According to Parham (2017), people having higher argumentativeness are probably capable to deal with disagreement than who is less in argumentativeness. While it is certainly believed that conflict arises in interpersonal communication in a major part, and for this, the function of Tolerance of disagreement scale interacts (Arias, Punyanunt-Carter & Wrench, 2016). In case, the alpha reliability estimates for TFD scale is expected to be 85 in a neighbourhood. In TFD scale, I scored 47, which indicates a high TFD and scoring below 32 estimates low while in between score of 32 and 46 indicates moderate.

However, for the Non-verbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S), there are also list of few questions from which a comparative score can be obtained. As commented by Webb-Williams (2017), Non-verbal immediacy is defined as the cues and behaviours that would signal good feelings towards each other. It is found the relevance where the desirable up-to-date measure for the non-verbal immediacy is defined as the self-report. This is where alpha reliability estimates to be 0.90, and is expected highly. In case, the measure is proved to be of large face validity than the other instruments as it has abundant differing items. Besides, its predictive validity is also considered good (Locklear, 2015). Unlike, when the instrument is considered significant, it is viable to identify the variation among males and females, which are significant statistically. However, in NIS-S, I have scored 84, which defines a low score for females, and slightly higher for males.

The last tool that I have chosen is Willingness to Listen Measure. This is where listening is defined as one of the major skills for which potential employees sometime indicate critical in case of effective communication. According to Green, Johnson & Bretherton (2014), various college classes and training programs have provided instruction in training. In case, for other people, it is considered not just lack of any skill but could make him a poor listener. Further, it is frequency claimed that due to poor communication skills, the instrument is only designed for measuring the type of orientation (Schaufeli, Bakker, van der Heijden, & Prins, 2009). In this tool, I have scored 67, which means I have a moderate willingness to pay attention. On the other hand, scores that are above 89 means high willingness to pay attention.

According to Chen, McComas, Reichle & Bergmann (2015), Communication skills is considered to be a vital element for most student s in the competitive world. The author says that communication skills are sought only after quality defined for the educated person. Within any communication skill, it is sought out that writing, reading and listening well are major aspects for any student in their academic career (Adamson, 2014). While the 3 tests that I have done includes the Tolerance of disagreement (TFD) scale whose score is 47, for Non-verbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S) score is 84 and the last one is Willingness to Listen Measure whose score is 67.

If I try to analyse my first test, which is TFD scale where I just scored 47, and that have high level of intercultural communication apprehension (CA). From the results that were defined, I can find a positive level of anxiety or fear to the real-time projected communication with others. In the next test i.e. Non-verbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S), I scored 84 while the average score for men was 104, which meant I have been unenthusiastic during the time of communication. This also meant that I was not associated strategically with the variety of the optimistic outcomes. For the third test, Willingness to Listen, I scored 67, which indicates clearly that I did not provide any effective attention level when I was listening to some other person during communication. In overall, I could assume that I have very much low perceived level to define my communication competence.

After undergoing all the three tests, I can easily find a number of flaws that were with my skills in communication. For instance, my score was just 67 in Willingness to Listen. In order, I felt low level on my listening skills, which were not considered that enough when taking a part in case of communication. Besides, the score of 47 in TFD scale states that I have good capability to control my orientations in argumentativeness. This might become a problem later in my personal life but I have to be ready to tackle these sorts of things. While from the three diagnostic tools that I have intended above, I have selected two flaws in case of communication skills. The first flaw is defined for a real life situation where the major difficulties created a bad impact to me.

On providing a real life instance for the low listening skill that I faced, I can just give you areas where I had to face all the critical phases. However, one of my managers was trying to explain what has to be done so that one can complete the assignment on time. At first, I was taking early notes and the major instructions that my manager has advised me to do. During the end of instructions, the manager stated me about the certain names of software from which the assignment has to be completed. As the schedule was quite busy, I tried to develop a good architecture where sufficient attention was not paid. In case, I was rather busy on developing my structure of the software assignment that I had to complete within sophisticated time. Since I was busy a lot for trying to develop the structure, I also did not pay any attention and completed it by using a simple software tool. Hence, after 3 days, my tutor had told me that your assignment has gone completely wrong, and this could hamper my image in front on my senior mates. For this, I had to completely rewrite the entire assignment on given good time by the tutor.

Next communication issue that I have identified was the Tolerance of Disagreement habit, which also created some trouble, as not too much that I expected. For this issue, I have considered an employee of my organisation where I was working, and he was relative to one of the senior staff members. This is where I deliberately thought of that employee who was having huge favours from the senior staffs due to maintaining a bad relation. I guess it quite comparatively but did not have that evidence to solve the matter well. In case, I tried to consult this matter with the team members of mine, and spoke in front of them about the situation. It was quite unfortunate that as I was sure that my organisation’s employee was having favours from their relative who is known as the senior staff member. I also stated that I had no such evidence where I was not able to present any result of it.

Because of the result, I got huge scolding from the manager and received a warning in case of spreading incorrect information in the workplaces. However, to the demise, the score of the other tests were not that satisfying, and for this I had never faced any kind of issues to it deliberately.  In case of low listening skill and the Tolerance of Disagreement habit, I had already experienced issues and that’s the reason for selecting these problems at will. In order, I also felt urge for taking some vital steps that could easily help me to solve the problem since I had understood well on the issues, which could hamper my career in future. However, the next part will follow with the literature where the two factors would be displayed on how it could be effective for the individual, and lastly, an action plan will be developed to improve the listening skills and talking habits.

2. Literature Review

According to Engeln, Sladek & Waldron (2013), excessive talking in any aspect does not matter for the individual at a workplace or hanging with friends outside. This is always considered a negative aspect for the individual on defining a quality attribute of that person. Gemma Cribb, one of the Social Psychologist have intended that most people are excessive talkers, and they are talkers since they suffer from Asperger’s-type disorder and are anxious on trying to please somebody. Rayburn & Guittar (2013) have mentioned that some people talk very much just only to display that they know matters more than anyone knows in a certain group. Besides, some people in a communication group certainly think what they should say could be much more decisive than the others say. Likewise, these people tend to disrupt others and display their opinions before anyone (Araghi et al. 2013). Thus, whatever the reasons could be, excessive talking can surely hamper individual’s impression within a group or any team.  

As opined by Nichols & Gordon-Hickey (2012), talking very much could prompt audacity. The author also opines that most people tend to talk very much, as they tries to grab attention from other people. For doing this, it can be asserted that it highlights the strengths, weaknesses and achievements of the people. On revealing these kind of information in a major workplace will surely draw negative attention and unnecessary competition. In order, people at times say things, which are not actually proven or true to highlight himself as the individual of huge knowledge (Knell & Chi, 2012). In order, the instance presented displays the thing where I have told something on which I do not have any kind of proof. In order, another disadvantage for excessive talking is when it brings loss of respect. Any people with quality of excessive talking can lose his balance/respect when he tries to talk more than he knows certainly. Hence, this kind of individual states that people have high tendency to gather, and this eventually might lead disrespect to that individual.

As commented by Aldera & Mohsen (2013), a person who is talkative can never adjust his place value on him, and this can result people not to value the person who goes on talking but there are no deliberate subject on the talking matter. However, as argued by Ferguson, Hall, Riley & Moore (2011), there are varied ways for which one could mitigate the issue of extreme talking. The author argues that on keeping record of transgressions could be an efficient method for which excessive talking can be properly handled. While the method was proposed by Benjamin Franklin who kept a series of records at times when he told something was unnecessary. Franklin also took care of the notes each time when he was offered with deliberate opinions of people that were hurtful (Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011). As he took the notes, he revealed that something confidential is because of excessive talking. Franklin by the time also noted when he was rambled on a conversation that provided unsolicited details. Hence, it is liable that practising a sentence rule is ineffectual, and the same for dealing with the issue of excessive talking.

Thus, an individual with such type of problem for excessive talking practice also responds to a question in single thoughtful sentence. As commented by Graham (2011), a person must compile his action watchfully before he speaks since it will help him to put sideways the words, which he must not utilize. In order, for those people who try to develop their self image by taking more should commit to the area of self improvement at first. Hence, when any individuals tries to invest huge amount of time on making things better, he would require less words to wrap his adequacies in talking extreme.

On the other hand, listening is also defined as the capability for receiving and constructing messages precisely in communication process. From the discussions of Florit, Roch & Levorato (2011), if any person is trying to think for improving his skills in communication, he should also develop his listening skills at first. The author from his discussion acknowledges that listening skills are so important that most organisations are presenting training for improvement in listening skills. This could also assist effective training to the effective employees. On the other hand, it is quite decisive to have deliberate listening skills for any individual. From the argument of Hasan, Hossain & Niyato (2013), this is because the even listening skills could cause huge damage to that individual. In case, for any student, the use of poor listening skill can also hamper learning process and disrupt career growth for individuals.

According to Bowe, Martin & Manns (2014), in any kind of organisation, every kind of employees are anticipated to perform their roles as per instructions that are presented to them. Besides, the use of printed documents are been used for organisations to offer instructions for employees. These instances could be regarded as verbal instructions when these are provided by managers to help employees develop their skills (Conrad, 2014). Certainly, if an employee does not have any kind of moderate skill, he has not the will to understand the part of the instructions given to him (Knell & Chi, 2012). Hence, this is where the purpose needs to be adjusted well. In both situations, employee would not be capable for completing their task properly that would not only hinder organisational objectives/goals but will hamper career improvement for that particular employee. Thus, it is very important to mitigate the issues raised from poor listening skills.

For an employee, one must not disrupt while the client is speaking to some other person. The employee involved should not mishap anything on communicating to the clients. Besides, the same thing goes for a senior person who is providing major instructions. Thus, it must be kept in mind that start doing things are of equal importance than to ask questions. As commented by Florit, Roch & Levorato (2011), most individuals have become self-oriented listener, and they can easily spend quality time for listening to a solution where there is a problem. Further, everybody has the tendency to oppose some new information, which has a conflict situation that rises instantaneously.

Hence, one must remember that he has the ability to rebut later on hearing the thing, and having necessary time to think about it. On the contrary, it is also effective to look into the matters or words on discovering an oblique meaning from there. However, a model of three level listening is devised that is shown below. Fist includes Internal listening where the individual only hears on what instructor or client says. He worries only about the questions he would be ask next, and he never tend to focus on the word’s meaning instructed by the client (Aldera & Mohsen, 2013). The next is the Focused Listening where the individual focuses on the instructor or the client and hears every particular word. This is where the person relies on client expression when they talks. Some of the major skills used include paraphrasing, shortening, restating and questioning. The last step is known as the Global Listening, as in this step, the listener would understand emotions behind words of clients (Bowe, Martin & Manns, 2014). This will certainly work as a measure of motivation. Moreover, this stage gives learner a sharp image of admittance and consciousness when defined with perception.

 

Related image

Figure 1: Levels of Listening

(Source: Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011)

Besides, CA (Communication Apprehension) is also regarded as the anxiety or fear in case of some unexpected situations in communication. Due to negative link of associations in case of communication, it is ascertain that most individuals are quite eminent to the CA levels, and they might abstain from engaging towards voluntary and oral communication. As opined by Hasan, Hossain & Niyato (2013), CA levels are analysed with the context that are defined with the trait, situation and the audience. In case, the trait that is related to anxiety may be also referred to an instance where avoiding public speaking for an individual may lead to a result that cannot be decisive. While the experience defined in terms of practice could help to perform in public speaking areas. Besides, as argued by Conrad (2014), the audience anxiety has to do a fair amount for targeting people that sometimes causes nervous feeling among speakers. In order, from the three diagnostic tools chosen, situation anxiety could also be a major factor with the combination of social, cultural and psychological factors (Ferguson, Hall, Riley & Moore, 2011). Hence, it could be believed that capability for an individual must overcome anxiety and should try to tackle instances where there are hint negative situations.

3. Action Plan

From identifying communication issues, I have developed an action plan that is to be conducted in a period of 101 days in order to develop communication skills and developing listening skills as well. In this period of 101 days, I will define the major strengths and weaknesses that I have faced in my overall plan. During the plan, I also have taken advice of my supervisor in college who have assisted me on the difficulties and problem raised mainly. Certainly, I have also availed few strategies that could develop my performance on areas from the proposed action plan.

Task

Major Activities

Starting Date

End Date

Plan

Proposed Plan

3.8.2017

12.12.2017

1.

Develop good communication skills

3.8.2017

12.12.2017

1.1.

Use effective technology

7.9.2017

16.9.2017

1.1a

Read and listen to the audio books

7.9.2017

12.9.2017

1.1b

Hear all pronunciation of the speakers

8.9.2017

12.9.2017

1.1c.

Enunciate diverse phrase and the words

13.9.2017

16.9.2017

1.2

Support active listening

8.8.2017

17.8.2017

1.2a

Read selection of a certain text loud

8.8.2017

13.8.2017

1.2b

Listen and understand rather to give a reply

9.8.2017

15.8.2017

1.2c

Clarify questions to understand messages of speaker

13.8.2017

16.8.2017

1.3

Ask few open-ended questions

12.11.2017

17.11.2017

1.3a

Inspire a discussion

12.11.2017

15.11.2017

1.3b

Decide multiple ways for perceiving an answer

13.11.2017

16.11.2017

1.3c

Setting a time for short familiar conversation

14.11.2017

17.11.2017

1.4

Use activities and task to foster critical thinking

19.11.2017

23.11.2017

1.4a

Get start with critical games and activities

19.11.2017

22.11.2017

1.5

Offer learning opportunities

1.12.2017

12.12.2017

1.5a

Read text or group presentations

1.2.2017

3.12.2017

1.5b

Evolve communicating weaknesses and strengths

4.12.2017

6.12.2017

1.5c

Get use to accept criticism

8.12.2017

12.12.2017

2.

Develop listening skills

7.10.2017

11.12.2017

2.1.

Inviting your good body language

7.10.2017

19.10.2017

2.1a

Stand with open posture for the body

7.10.2017

13.10.2017

2.1b

Face a person who keeps in for speaking

14.10.2017

19.10.2017

2.2

Keeping good eye contact

9.11.2017

13.11.2017

2.2a

Keep and make eye contact with that person

9.11.2017

13.11.2017

2.3

Listen without any distraction

14.11.2017

19.11.2017

2.3a

Focus on conversation

14.11.2017

16.11.2017

2.3b

Determine body language for the speaker

16.11.2017

19.11.2017

2.4

Listen actively

19.11.2017

26.11.2017

2.4a

Listen with good intent for learning

19.11.2017

23.11.2017

2.4b

Understand and absorb what others are trying to sat

22.12.2017

26.11.2017

2.5

Using active listening skill and attitude

28.11.2017

5.12.2017

2.5a

Reinforce the positive listening practice

28.11.2017

1.12.2017

2.5b

Encourage the listening tendencies respectfully

1.12.2017

3.12.2017

2.5c

Absorb information on interacting with others

3.12.2017

5.12.2017

2.6

Respond viably

6.12.2017

12.12.2017

2.6a

Use the top-down listening strategy for preparing for a good response

6.12.2017

8.12.2017

2.6b

Gather information further and try to prepare a response

8.12.2017

11.12.2017

2.6c

Ask questions during a pause

11.12.2017

12.12.2017

 

Table 1: Action Plan

(Source: Author)

Gantt chart

Activities

3.8.2017

-2.9.2017

3.9.2017-2.10.2017

3.10.2017

-2.11.2017

3.11.2017-30.11.2017

1.12.2017-

12.12.2017

Use effective technology

 

 

 

 

 

Support active listening

 

 

 

 

 

Ask few open-ended questions

 

 

 

 

 

Use activities and task to foster critical thinking

 

 

 

 

 

Offer learning opportunities

 

 

 

 

 

Inviting your good body language

 

 

 

 

 

Keeping good eye contact

 

 

 

 

 

Listen without any distraction

 

 

 

 

 

Listen actively

 

 

 

 

 

Using active listening skill and attitude

 

 

 

 

 

Respond viably

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: Gantt chart

(Source: Author)

Conclusion

The assessment concludes on the self-reflection of the communication skills for the chosen diagnostic tools that are analysed with two communication issues faced by me deliberately. In the diagnosis and reflection section, I have defined three tools, which include as the Tolerance of disagreement (TFD) scale, Non-verbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S), and Willingness to Listen Measure. From these tools, on calculating I have obtained a certain result, which I have defined on low listening skills and the tolerance of disagreement habit. In order, from the literature review, on assessment of the identified communication issues, I have defined how excessive talking and active listening skills can be improved. However, with good contrast of concepts and theories, these are been defined on favouring the communication issue. Thus, an action plan is also defined on the identified communication issues, which has to be conducted in a period of 101 days.