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Exposure To The Pesticides | Environmental Science

The risk assessment for pesticide use are broken down into 2 parts: 1. Exposure assessment (it is the defined Quantitative and qualitative description of exposure concentrations ) and secondly the effects assessments (which determines the intrinsic hazards mainly associated with the gents) The first assessment is generally called as initial portion of environmental health, which starts from sources and ends in the environmental concentrations, exposure and at last, its doses.

In occupational hygiene terms, the focus is moved to develop the quality of pests in the agriculture management and reduce the health risks.

The developing countries only take consider the 20% of the whole worlds production of agrochemicals, yet besides the usage of such a less amount they suffer  99% of deaths from the pesticides poisoning . Now , because of the increasing death rates, pesticide problem has become an significant curse. The main reason behind is the usage of pesticides in an unsafe manner .The Another is not  handling the pesticides properly .If a person handles the pesticides who doesn’t have any particular idea about it, can harm the environment by using in a huge amount to the plants.

Many farmers , who are presently in the developing countries are continued to the poisonous  effect of the pests by either storing them near their residences, where they live or where the crops are preserved or from the inadequate  or unsafe handling practices. ,;The main populations which are exposed to the pesticides threat are the farmers, which when exposed suffer from severe primary neurological abnormalities ,respiratory alignments ,reproductive endocrinological and dermal problems. The safety is further neglected by the lack of knowledge and economical crisis  that is flourished in most of the communities of the developing countries  farmers. Pesticides are termed or verified as extremely or extra veno ........

ed as initial portion of environmental health, which starts from sources and ends in the environmental concentrations, exposure and at last, its doses.

In occupational hygiene terms, the focus is moved to develop the quality of pests in the agriculture management and reduce the health risks.

The developing countries only take consider the 20% of the whole worlds production of agrochemicals, yet besides the usage of such a less amount they suffer  99% of deaths from the pesticides poisoning . Now , because of the increasing death rates, pesticide problem has become an significant curse. The main reason behind is the usage of pesticides in an unsafe manner .The Another is not  handling the pesticides properly .If a person handles the pesticides who doesn’t have any particular idea about it, can harm the environment by using in a huge amount to the plants.

Many farmers , who are presently in the developing countries are continued to the poisonous  effect of the pests by either storing them near their residences, where they live or where the crops are preserved or from the inadequate  or unsafe handling practices. ,;The main populations which are exposed to the pesticides threat are the farmers, which when exposed suffer from severe primary neurological abnormalities ,respiratory alignments ,reproductive endocrinological and dermal problems. The safety is further neglected by the lack of knowledge and economical crisis  that is flourished in most of the communities of the developing countries  farmers. Pesticides are termed or verified as extremely or extra venous by FAO and WHO. But beside this  ,the pests which are banned in other countries are utilized  in the developing countries (McCauley LA, 2006)

The agriculture sector is under the pressure of increasing productivity for the maintenance of food security to support an ever increasing population. FAO reported that about 868 million individuals still suffer from malnourishment and poor health which are the results of deficiencies in micronutrients. The health of public also has a huge concern on consumption of pesticides as provided within the epidemiology studies. They have revealed that pesticides are associated with various types of neurologic pathologies, cancers, hormonal anomalies, reproductive difficulties and respiratory symptoms problems. In spite of these risks, usage of pesticides is not reducing as they are a key ingredient in agriculture for intensive production. Hence, it becomes crucial to make an assessment about risks associated with pesticides and its efficient management by reducing their exposure and thereby protecting health.

CASE STUDIES:

 #1)A report describing the condition of the urban family who were expsed to the organophosphate and carbomate pesticides.All the members ,in the family developed kind of symptoms .These symptoms were compatible with cholinesterase inhibition,headache,lighthheadness,wheezing,fatigues.Serial measurement of the RBC’s soon after the exposure to the pesticides,diagnosed in the pesticide poisionings.This case study demonstrate that the exposure to pesticides in the urban areas can cause major losses in the human bodies.

#2)CHILDREN: Higher exposure  and serious impact on Health:

Most pesticides in Canada are used commonly in agriculture and departments of forestry. They are frequently also used within households, including outdoors as well as indoors. Popular uses of pesticides aim the gardens weeds, fleas on pets, insect infestations, etc. Pesticides are also used in wood preservations .because of their usage ,people come in contact with these chemicals which are hazardous to their heath.

The report of the United States National Research Council, 1993, “Pesticides within the diets of children & infants”. It was a revolutionary attempt which drew the attention to the higher susceptibility & exposure of these chemicals to the infants and children. Research since the NRC reports highlighted the fact that, there are basically two main reasons for the exposure of infants to pesticides.

  1. Pesticides within the environment coming in through air, food, water dust & soil
  2. Children small size and unique behavior tend to take the pesticides in a greater amounts than adults.

Besides these common sources, children may ingest pesticides through inhaling or absorbing via their skins, children may get exposed in uterus through the placenta and postnatally through mothers milk.

The range of known potential effects on health inculcate anomalies in the

  • Suppression of Immune system
  • Child’s Physical development
  • Reproductive effects
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Alternations within endocrine functions.

The report by the NCR also showed gaps in literature over the effects caused due to the exposure of the pesticides

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

The calculation off hospitalization and mortality rate from level of poisoning as the denominator and the numerator was entirely reliable on the 6 month population within the age wise population report which is prepared by interior ministries. The adjusting of data was as a result of the direct methods based on world standard population of WHO in 2000. Afterwards the calculation was of 1o-year trend is the unintentional poisoning hospitalization and mortality rates were categorized according to their age, gender & type of pesticides(WHO, 2000).

6 age clusters were taken under consideration:

  • Toddlers between 0-4
  • Children between 5-14
  • Young adults 15-24
  • Mature adults 25-44
  • Middle aged within 45-64.
  • And elderly more than 65 years

As stated within NHI data for hospitalization, the medical facilities were mandated to file their claims on NHI claim each month and the same can be presented at along (3 months) period of time. A note of this was taken into consideration by  acceptance of admissions into hospitals with given IDs and providing the hospitalizing data once. All data was analysed by using the SPSS software. Tools used included linear regression for the detection of the mortality rates where the dependent variable was rate of mortality while independent variable was year.

RESULTS:

THE TRENDS and MORTALITY RATES:
Between 1999 and 2008, unintended pesticides poisoning was around 549 deaths within Taiwan ,which represents a rate of mortality at 0.24 per million person-years. The dominant group constituted of males accounting for 77%  deaths from pesticide poisoning. Males faced mortality rates 3.4 times greater as compared to women. Falling trends of unintended pesticide poisoning deaths post 1999 was observed for both the sexes.

 

*No of mortality and hospitalization rates was caused from unintended pesticides poisoning within Taiwan during 1999 through 2008.

*Unintended pesticide poisoning gender based mortality rate (Taiwan through 1999 to 2008).

 

 

*Unintended pesticide poisoning mortality rate  by age groups (Taiwan-1999-2008)

DISCUSSIONS:

 The results analyzed, indicates that the cause of both mortality and hospitalization rates  are due to unintentional exposure of pesticides was getting lowered after 1999 in both the sexes. The consequences also indicate to the fact that the men are more likely to get exposed to the pesticides. The hospitalisation and mortality rates was highest for the elderly above the age of 65 years. The major types of pesticides poisoning included-

  • Unspecified agriculture and horticulture
  • Organophosphate insecticides
  • Herbicides
  • Unspecified  insecticides

#The study was focused on data from the National Health Insurance (NHS), research Database that had been provided by Bureau of National Health Insurance, the Department of Health and managed by National Health Insurance (Department of Health) being managed by the National Health Research Institutes. The conclusions and the interpretation  brought forth in the paper are not representing those held by the Bureau of National Health Insurance, Department of Health or National Health Research Institutes. (Bassil KL, 2007)

EFFECTS:

HARMFUL EFFECTS:

The absence of precautions relating to different activities in preparation of pesticide solution has significant issues. The presence of splasges on the head & fell are associated with a high risk of being exposed to harmful chemicals at times when the hand gets accidently immersed within pesticide solution.

Acute organophosphate & carbamate exposure are causes and have symptoms and signs that are caused by excess of acetylcholine. These signs are increases in salivation & perspiration, noticeable narrowing of pupils, diarrhea, nausea, reduction of blood pressure, weakness in muscles and excessive fatigue. Such symptoms usually reduce with the time from which the acytelcholine exposure is stopped and return to their normal levels (Lawrence mDune).

A few organopjhosphates also cause a delayed reaction in neural systems and these are characterized by weak muscles in arms and legs. In times of prohibition, people used to consume homemade alcohols that was prepared from Jamaica ginger which was often contaminated with organophosphate triorthocresyl phosphate (TOPC). This had affected over 20,000 people with a condition that came to be known as the “Ginger lake paralysis.”

Cancer: A number of studies have studied the impact of pesticide exposure on the human body and its relationship with factors causing cancer. They found links with lymphoma, leukemia, kidney, brain, breawst protrate, liver, pancreas, skin and lung cancers. This has increased  the risks with both occupational as well as residential exposures . An Increase in cancer rates was found among farm workers who are usually in contact with these chemicals;

Neurological: evidence links pesticides exposures to worsened neurological outcomes.The united states  finished a 10-year review of the organophosphates pesticides following the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act,but did little to account for developmental neurotoxic effects,drawing strong criticism from within that agency and from outside researchers

Fertility: A number of pesticides including dibomochlorophane and 2,4-D has been associated with impaired fertility in males.Pesticides exposure resulted in reduced fertility in males,genetic alterations in sperm, a reduced  number of sperm ,damage to germinal epithelium and altered hormone function.

Most of the pesticides are designed  to remove the pests from its  roots .Now the pests are modified  and have the systems similar to those of humans, so it can be harmful to the humans and might cause death to the .Fortunately ,with the help of some measures humans can avoid its adverse effect by preventing the exposures to the pesticides .The humans can get harmed by the pesticides in two primary ways. By way of poisoning or getting injured.  Poisoning through pesticide causes harm to internal organs and other bodily systems. These are cause by the irritants present within pesticides. (Bassil KL, 2007)

Other pesticides that appear similar in their chemical composition can have similar effects on human body. Such effects can be small or even severe and this depends on the kind of pesticides involved combined with the exposure amounts. However, the illness pattern or injury is caused by separate chemical groups is usually not the same. Some chemical families within pesticides have the potential to cause external irritation as well as internal poisoning. 

A few pesticides are very toxic for humans where a few drops can have a huge effect on skin or in the mouth giving rise to harmful effects. Other pesticides are less toxic where increased exposure can have extremely harmful effects.

EXPOSURE

Whenever pesticides come in the touch with the organism, the person is said to be “pesticide exposure” In the case of humans, when the pesticides are inserted or inhaled in the body , or just exposed to the skin , the particular exposure occurs .The toxicity of the pesticide is defined by the pesticides involved and how long it remains in there. (Doust, 2015)

Now if we consider the case of the developing countries, due to lack of knowledge, they don’t take the precautions from the pesticides which are nearby their surroundings. If the precautions are under considered, there are various exposures through which we can get rid of. The pesticide exposure can mainly occur in 4 types.

  • Orally Exposed (On swallowing pesticides)
  • Inhalation exposed (breathing a pesticide),
  • Ocular exposure (via the eyes)
  • Dermally exposed (via the skin)`            

 

Risk Assessment of pesticide use in developing countries:

In the agriculture field, there is the increasing concern about the health of the farmers,a s discussed earlier, since they are very frequently exposed towards pesticides for a very long time period. Governments, especially those from the developed nations have often introduced new variations in policies that speak of adequate utilization of pesticides. Again, the developing countries including nations like Columbia make attempts that come through regulations schemes that are well defined but lack largely on implementation. This is primarily due to the lack of information over the risck characterization and exposure assessment. The conclusions as a result of this procedure will be essential for the stakeholders for risk improvement but also for the risk assessment schemes that help in identifying critical factors influencing levels of exposure factor along with the development programs that aim over the fitting use of pesticides..

HARMFUL EFFECTS:

The absence of precautions in different activities while preparing the pesticide solution is a major cause behind splashes on the head and this also falls on the high risk on being exposed to chemicals whenever hands are accidentally put into the pesticides solution.

Carbamate exposures and acute organophosphate are the causes of symptoms and signs for excess acetylcholine that cause increased salivation, perspiration, heightened narrowing of pupils, diarrhea, a decrease in blood pressure, nausea, weakness in muscles and overall fatigue. The symptoms usually reduce within days effect and once the exposures end and the acetylcholine levels go back to normal.

Some organ phosphates also have a delayed neurological reaction characterized by muscle weakness in the legs and arms. During prohibition, people consumed a homemade alcoholic  drink made out of Jamaica ginger that was contaminated with the organophosphate triorthocresyl phosphate (TOPC), More than 20,000 people were affected by the condition  called “Ginger lake paralysis.”