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An Investigation into Toad Skin Transportation

Abstract

This report has manly focused on the laboratory report of the test related to the transportation of sodium and potassium. The learner has added the basic facts related to the importance of these two microscopic elements in human and other animals’ bodies. Other than that, the laboratory test has been conducted on the toad skin and proper rules have been obeyed. A brief discussion has also been composed on the do’s and don’ts during the examination. Several pictures have been added to display the processes in this assignment.

Table of Contents

Introduction. 4

Method. 5

Results. 7

Discussion. 9

Conclusion. 10

Introduction

Physiology is the study of normal mechanism and the interactions between them that works within the living system. It is better o say that physiology can be considered as a subdivision of biology. However, this vast subject includes several factors related to the body of any living species, Therefore, the ion transportation in a body or the sodium transport channel, etc. should be included in this subject. In this report, the learner would focus on a laboratory report where the measurement of transdermal voltage production with the help of ion transport in toad skin has been discussed. Therefore, the aim of this report can be constructed as to ensure that if the skin is pumping chloride or sodium. Other than that, it should also be focused that whether the transport was active or passive and if the location of sodium channel has been involved in the transportation or not. Sodium transportation is highly required in the body as it maintains the fluid balance and electrolyte balance in the body [1]. Therefore, discussion on sodium ........

ducted on the toad skin and proper rules have been obeyed. A brief discussion has also been composed on the do’s and don’ts during the examination. Several pictures have been added to display the processes in this assignment.

Table of Contents

Introduction. 4

Method. 5

Results. 7

Discussion. 9

Conclusion. 10

Introduction

Physiology is the study of normal mechanism and the interactions between them that works within the living system. It is better o say that physiology can be considered as a subdivision of biology. However, this vast subject includes several factors related to the body of any living species, Therefore, the ion transportation in a body or the sodium transport channel, etc. should be included in this subject. In this report, the learner would focus on a laboratory report where the measurement of transdermal voltage production with the help of ion transport in toad skin has been discussed. Therefore, the aim of this report can be constructed as to ensure that if the skin is pumping chloride or sodium. Other than that, it should also be focused that whether the transport was active or passive and if the location of sodium channel has been involved in the transportation or not. Sodium transportation is highly required in the body as it maintains the fluid balance and electrolyte balance in the body [1]. Therefore, discussion on sodium transportation would be the most relevant discussion to understand the core fact of physiology.

 

Method

The method is about the technique by which the examiner can be assured about the transportation of sodium in the body. Nerve impulses have been travelled throughout the body. No impulses can be possible without the help of sodium potassium pump (NaK pump). Several scholars have opined that the sodium potassium pump can be considered as one certain type of protein transport found in the cell membranes [2]. These cell membranes are being considered as the semi-permeable external barrier for several cells. The man responsibility of NaK pump is to move the potassium ions in the cell. This process should be completed while the sodium ions were continually moving out of the cell.

Setting Up the Nerve Chamber

Figure 1: Reflex of nerves

(Source: 3)

The above depicted picture is showing the reflex of human being. While the stretch receptor would be stimulated after hammering on it, the action potential would be travelled up to the sensory fibres in spinal cords as well as synapses on its motor fibres. Then the action potential would be travelled back down to the nerve. It may result the muscle contradiction. In the picture it is clearly showing that two electrodes would be placed on the calf and each of them are close to others. In a bony surface the third electrode would be placed.

Gradients can be formed while the area of higher concentration as well as lower concentration would be placed side by side. These gradients would be capable of transmitting the electrical signals at that time. The pump is enabled to maintain the balance of sodium and potassium into the body [4]. For instance, if the pump would be used in kidney, therefore, the balance of sodium (Na) and potassium (k) would become well balanced. It maintains the blood pressure as well. Even, the cardiac  contraction would be controlled through it. If the heartbeat would b steady, therefore it can be assumed easily that the sodium potassium pumping has been worked properly. However, while discussing the reason for which NaK pump has become important, therefore, the functionaries of it should be mentioned. The overall process has been illustrated below in the next section. The discussion is as follows:

The below-mentioned illustration is showing the steps following which NaK pump works. Te pump is deeply embedded in the cell membrane. The pump opens up inside the cell [5]. It is a miraculous system that has happened inside every living animal. While the pump is being opened inside the cell, it makes a bond with three sodium (Na). The shape of the pump allows it to do so. After the occurrence of this bonding, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been made. It initiates the pumping action. ATP is being considered as the energy currency that has been used by the cells.

Sometimes it can also happen that the ATP would be broken down into the subcomponents. These subcomponents are being named as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) as well as phosphate (P) [6]. P is connected to the NaK pump. For getting an easy understanding f this process, it can be said that this technique is quite similar to the process of opening a door by key. When the key has been inserted inside the key, the lock would be opened up. P plays the role of a key here. In case of NaK pump, after the occurrence of the bonding of P, the shape of the pump would be changed. The outside of the cell would be opened up. It permits the Na ions for being released to the outside cell.

It is quite obvious that these cells cannot be seen without using any powerful microscope. Even, these cells cannot be felt anyhow. Until the 40% of the energy of a human body is being used to supply the sodium potassium microscopic pump [7]. The pump continues its work in each of the cells of human or animal. This report has been conducted based on the laboratory report where a toad skin has been chosen for the examination. The skin of belly part of the toad has been placed between the two halves of the Ussing chamber. Electrodes have been connected to the volt meter (v). Thus, both the side of that skin should be connected there.

Each of the section should have both the outer as well as the inner section. They are being connected by the salt bridge. This bridge needs to be made of wood. Wood has a high capability to pass the current flow, but no chance is there for mixing up the solutions. The current electrodes injections would be included in the outer chamber. It should be connected to the battery and ammeter A [8]. Zero voltage is needed there as well as no indirect driving face should be allowed. It indicates to the concentration gradient as well as the electric field. Therefore, the ions could be moved across the cell layer properly.

Results

Figure 1: NaK process

This picture is showing the process through which NaK pump performs its role. This picture is showing that after the occurrence of the bonding with three Na ions the pump has started working properly. Other than that, this picture is also showing the situation when the pump is open. Other than that, the second picture ATP is being broken down from which the subcomponents have been created. P and ADP are being considered as the subcomponents of it.