Tourism Theories and Practices | Travel Management
Essay (tourism theories and practices)
In this era of globalization, the world has become a global village and with the advancement of science and technology, the world has been unified. The major sector which has greatly influenced and benefitted by the globalisation is – Tourism. In this essay, there would be discussion on one such tourism destination region – France, and there would also be discussion and comparison with the theories and there would also be an attempt to find out in what way it is similar or different to a model tourist destination region, the factors responsible for it and the exceptions. The main reason for the choice of France as a tourist destination region for the essay is because France is one of the most visited tourist region and has a beautiful amalgamation of medieval and modern architects. It is home to 43 world heritage sites, has scenic and mesmerising geographical features, a rich culture, excellent connectivity, stable political condition to back it for being a dream destination.
Since 1990s, the country of France is considered to be world's hottest or we can say the one of the most favourite tourist destination internationally considering tourist arrivals. According to World Trade Organisation (WTO) reports in 2012, there was tourist arrival estimated to 83 million in France, which was more than United States (67 million). The estimate was 57.7 million in Spain and China. France is one of the most attractive destinations, if not the most, with large quantity of tourist attraction area such as monuments, museums, coastal areas and festivals. Apart from the leading position, there is less generation of tourism expenditure in France than many other countries. It also ranks third in tourism expenditure globally (Corne, 2015). This is the so-called “French tourism paradox”. Moreover, tourism has contribution o ........
Since 1990s, the country of France is considered to be world's hottest or we can say the one of the most favourite tourist destination internationally considering tourist arrivals. According to World Trade Organisation (WTO) reports in 2012, there was tourist arrival estimated to 83 million in France, which was more than United States (67 million). The estimate was 57.7 million in Spain and China. France is one of the most attractive destinations, if not the most, with large quantity of tourist attraction area such as monuments, museums, coastal areas and festivals. Apart from the leading position, there is less generation of tourism expenditure in France than many other countries. It also ranks third in tourism expenditure globally (Corne, 2015). This is the so-called “French tourism paradox”. Moreover, tourism has contribution of $54 billion in French economy. This is lesser to United States (126 billion) and also Spain (56 billion). It can also be added that tourism is a strategic global market, that had generated $1040 bn in the year 2012 globally, that according to WTO represents 9% of GDP globally.
Tourist travel to France for a number of reasons which will be discussed later, but one of the major reason which contributes to its tourism is the Fashion industry. Often described as the fashion capital (or Fashion Mecca) of the world, Paris is home to some of the most famous brands of the fashion world. Thus the fashion industry has been very instrumental in making France a tourist destination region as a considerable amount of tourist visit France and especially Paris for shopping. Hence, shopping is one prime motivational factor for tourist to consider and visit France. Also, as per Crompton’s model of Motivation, Shopping acts as a pull factor on the tourists, as they have to travel to France for things they won’t get at any other place of the world.
We will briefly discuss the main factors which has been responsible for helping France become one of the most visited places in the World. The first factor is the natural attraction. Places like Eiffel Tower, Bordeaux, Historic site of Lyon, Bourses Cathedral and many more are known to attract tourists who are looking for aesthetic experience and want to escape from the mundane life cycle (UNESCO, 2017). In all there are 43 world heritage sites that France has to offer to the world and is a major pull factor (Corne, 2015). The second reason consist of accessibility. France is well connected with all the major cities of the world by air and is connected with the European countries through Euro rail and it is accessible round the year which is one of the main reason for high tourist turnout. The third reason consists the local culture and people. French citizens are known for their rich culture, hospitality and warmth and are very welcoming to the tourists, this is another significant factor that has led to the region being a most sought after destination. Moreover the French cuisine also has an impact on the tourism as the preference for local specialties ranks third in the factors for taking any trip (19%). It comes after attraction of the landscapes (55%), and cultural heritage (26%). The three given factors form the criteria for various tourist campaigns and advertisements, as they are closely related in the minds of the travelers. Furthermore, two major stances as observed in regard to tourists' interest are the local food and the culture in the trip (Bessiere and Tibere 2013). Also the people are tolerant and the society is a cosmopolitan society. The one factor which has been a matter of concern these days is related to security. The security situation in the country has been has been deteriorated and because of a series of unfortunate terror attacks the tourism sector has witnessed a major dip, as discussed in the later parts of this essay.
The Asian regions like China, India, Sri Lanka as well as South American regions like Brazil, Argentina and even the Australian market is hot favorite for generating tourism for France and a considerable amount of people from the above mentioned regions travel to France for holidays and vacations (Bessiere and Tibere 2013). Thanks to the improved economic condition of Asian countries and increase in the per capita income of people, which has been an advantage to French tourism industry. In the figure given below (figure 1), there has been given, the estimated earnings of France from tourism that shows growing trend.
Figure 1: earnings from tourism in France (2015-2020)
The hospitality industry is often referred to as the backbone of the tourism industry and it is so in the case of France. The tourism and travel industry in France contains revenues from the passenger airlines, restaurants, leisure attractions, hotels, gaming; and casinos (UNESCO, 2017). The leisure places include revenue generation from attractions for recreation like historical sites, museums, and historical institutions; arcades and amusement parks. Thus we can say that the French tourism is an example of open system (whole system) as it interacts with its environment.
In this essay we also tried to analyze the travel and tourism market by considering and evaluating following factors- providers in tourism and travel services, encompassing restaurants, hotels, airlines, and railway operators, gaming establishments as well as leisure attractions. The main buyers comprise of tourism and travel services related consumers, including corporate and public customers, as well as individual end users, and a wide variety of suppliers to the various segments of the travel and tourism industry, for example fuel providers to airlines, and food providers to hotels and restaurants as the key suppliers Bessiere and Tibere 2013)..
It has been found that there exists a strong rivalry between competitors in the tourism and travel in France as there is great competition across all sectors and segments in this industry. The competition arises from the fact there is great amount of buyers in this industry and that the air travels; restaurants; hotels; are often considered to be non essential and expensive, relatively. This makes the service to be overreaching for common public. The services in the restaurant and hotel sector are very differentiated and there is also great importance of branding for the competitors. The major suppliers in the supply chain include aircraft manufacturers; fuel companies; suppliers of food, drinks in hotels and restaurants. The supply chain also includes employees that are low paid in the hotel and restaurant industry. There is high market entry barrier in the railway and airline segment where the regulations and high capital investment create market barriers. On the other hand, the hotel and restaurant industry is within the reach of small businesses and self catering service in transport system such as cycle or car are cheaper and affordable for the small businesses though there is greater threat of substitutes. In the airline industry, where there is difficulty in maintaining profitability, there exists high level of rivalry.
Tourism and environment goes hand in hand, and in this era of global warming, where the natural resources are squeezed out and irresponsibly exploited, the practice sustainable tourism is the need of the hour. France has taken serious steps towards it by making better involvement of the stakeholders such as the tour agents, tourists; economic operators and the decision makers in the central and local administration. The stakeholders also include research and education institutions and associations such as NGOs and others. This is necessary for promotion of solidarity and cooperation values so that there can be positive impact on the public that would include the international tourists as well as regional; inhabitants. This would also have positive impact on the employees, providing them effective working conditions, professional training and facilities of accommodation for the temporary or permanent employees. The effort is also to provide support to the tourist offices such as the Office de tourism de Doué la Fontaine and other unions such as Coimnunauté de Coimnunes de la Région de Doué la Fontaine or Communauté de Coimnunes de la Région de Chemillé in France. Thèse union bodies or communes have signifiant role in the regional development as they look after development of tourism Pascariu and Tiganasu, 2014).
There has been a significant decline in the number of tourist visiting France in the recent years. There are a number of reasons responsible for it. The first one is related to the security. The recent brutal terrorist attacks have badly hit the tourism sector as tourists are concerned about their safety and security. France has been the center of various violent attacks and the worst affected area has been the tourism industry in France that is considered that stands as the second best valuable industry in global tourism and employs about 2 million people. There have been about 14 assaults in the last 2 years, most centered on Belgium and that has worsened the conditions for tourism. Another factor which has contributed to the decline of tourism is the Eurozone turmoil. Moreover, the government’s decision to increase the VAT (including a 2014 VAT increase from 7% to 10%) for restaurant food and similar services has added woes for the tourism in the region and thus has squeezed the French restaurants industry. Then there are other factors like, slowing growth of Asian economies like China and India (the two most populous countries in the world) has caused serious concerns for the French tourism industry, as they contribute greatly to its tourism and are its important market (Not all shows must go on; terror and tourism in France, 2016).
It is believed that the government will take strict actions for addressing issues in the tourism industry. Measures are also needed also for improving the security condition in the tourism sector so that the country can regain its lost pride and trust.
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