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    ADVANCED STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF GPON

    1. (a) How does this result in a total 1:64 split ratio if paper has two splitters?

                This study includes GPON fifth access network architecture that is having scalability, functionality, construction and network upgradability. It is also seen that there exist several architectures that will have a ratio of 1:64 split ratio. It has also two splitters of 2:4 and 1:16 that is going to be divided in this architecture. According to Jogunola et al. (2017), there are OLT that supports 16 slots of 8 port GPON cards. The 2:4 splitters are classified into level 1 splitter and 1:16 are categorized as level 2 splitters. It means that each GPON port serves 64 users in total and results in a ratio of 1:64. There are bottom-top approaches that can be used for defining FTTH network locations that are geographically determined. As it can be seen from simple calculation, each GPON port can serve 4 FAT that contains 1:16 splitters.

    (b) What is the use of the 2:4 splitters?

                2:4 are level one splitters that helps in GPON having 64 users. There are in total use of 1000 people in over location 238 sectors. The 48 GPON ports are required to serve 185 FATs.

    (c) What split ratio is used for UFB networks in NZ?

                Split ratios can be used in several cases in UFB in NZ. In such cases, 1:16 and 2:4 ratios can be used. Split ratios are helping in port designing of level and level 2 splitters. In case of 1:16 splitters, it helps in bottom to top level of FTTH designs that can have an impact on UFB.

    (d) Why is UFB has chosen this ratio?

                In case of an UFB, it is seen that NZ has splitters in ratios of 2:4 and 1:16. It is seen that centralized approach maximizes highest efficiency levels. As each port is fiber connected directly back to the central lab, it can be seen that centralized 1*32 splitter along with distribution ports that have OTDR upstream. Li et al. (2018) has described that, there are connector ports available at distribution hub, which runs quality tests. It is seen that maximized efforts of loss is encountered in single hub connectivity along with cascading approach is required offers lower first in costs of fiber costs. It is important to allow distribution of combined loss effective signal. This effectiveness enables usages of ratio chosen for UFB. It is also seen that UFB enables fastest optical networks.

    2. What is protection system protecting?

                This is particular system protecting each case type-b protection that is being organized. The total number of OLT GPON is designed with12, with six cards that are in each direction. Six FDT are used for holding level1 spillers. Here type-b protection is given to access GPON FTTH access network, which enables OLT to receive traffic. It received network traffic through standby GPON ports that are overcoming GPON port failure. As commented by Pradeep et al. (2017), the main intention is to overcome port failure issues that they are trying to protect through networking functionality. In order to make a protective design in different factors including size, cost and scalability need to be considered.

    As a result it needs to be FDT connected with level 1 splitters along with distributed network topology. There are no standard FTTH can be followed inside model outcomes. In order to access the entire set up for loss of connectivity GPON allows port of the OLT and ONT as well (Tornatore, Chang & Ellinas, 2017). It is always seen that designing of ports take time longer than any other work. Protecting newly developed model that is being launched is required to be done properly. Designing of OSP along with total calculation is required to be done in order to implement cost management.

    3. How split ratio affects the potential fiber run distance that can be used for a GPON?

    A GPON is an integrated waveguide in between optical beam splitter that is associated in input and output signaling of GPON splitters. GPON optical distribution works in low cost compilation along with planner lightweight circuit typically known as PLC. This is not sensitive enough to wavelengths and provides high spectral energy that is efficient in identifying optical degrees. It is one particular set of data, which affects fiber run distance. Fiber run distance is a general terminology used in assurance with multiple attachments. There are colorblind policies seen that might affect the growth of distances in GPON. There are multiple crossing effects for estimating order ratios in between potential fibre and split ratio differences. As described by Ramirez, Finardi & Panepucci (2017), a better split ratio always makes room for a better design of GPON as it is seen in research. However, anticipation of the continued evolution in optical modules that are available might include the TC layer of split ratios up to 1:128.

    4.  Definitions

    (a)  Logical Reach

                It is maximum distance calculated in between ONU/ONT along with OLT. It excludes the OLT as in the physical layer. Maximum logical reach is defined as 60km theoretically. It is seen that there are several bit rates that can be followed in order to make sure that combinations are made along with rate of 1.2 Gbits/up, 2.4 Gbits/down. Logical reach can be achieved for a particular transmission system. It enables study of maximum logical reach irrespective of the budget.

    (b)  Physical Reach

                It can be defined as the maximum amount of physical distance that is achievable for a particular transfer system. It is seen that there are services that included with physical layers of GPON. As stated by Gosselin et al. (2017), physical reach is the maximum physical distance between the ONU/ONT and it includes OLT. In case of GPON, two options are defined for the physical reach. First one is 10 km and the second one is 20 km. It can be said that 10 km is the maximum distance covered which FP-LD can be used in the ONU. This can be used for high bit rates such as 1.25 Gbit/s or rates can be above of this particular ratio.

    (c)  Differential distance

                It is classified as the difference between nearest of furthest ONU/ONT and OLT. It calculates distance differences in the mentioned terms. It is seen that an OLT is connected with many ONU/ONT. In case of GPON, maximum number of fiber distance is 20km. This might affect ranging from window. According to Fazlina et al. (2017), it enables compliance with ITU-T by affecting sizing changes. It can be than larger split ratio enables attractive GPON. This is one of the greatest features of GPON that is seen.

    5. If maximum signal transfer delay is 1.5ms then how does this relate to the Logical Reach? Need to mention other factors may affect transfer delay?

                In case of maximum time, delay is 1.5ms then logical reach will be affected. It is quite clear from the definition of logical reach that it calculates distance between ONU/ONT. Here comes the concept of mean signal transfer delay. As opined by Talli et al. (2017), it calculates average of downstream and upstream interfaces in between two points of references (Dalla Santa et al. 2017). It is determined through measuring a particular round trip and then dividing it by two. ONU provides user side interface that is connected to ODN. It can be seen that logical reach calculates potential outcomes with respect to network architecture. If there is a delay happens in any section of this architecture it impacts basis logical reach along with understanding of exclusion criteria that are not required.

                It is seen that in most cases maximum signal transfer delay can be introduced adaption of function like circuit emulation are not included in a value that is cooperating with maximum signal services in GPON. In such systems, reference points are not restricted by the system configuration. It can spread a negative range as well. As described by Wang et al. (2017), several other factors that are available inside GPON which affect transfer delay are there. It is supposed in many cases that factors like size, cost and availability of outcomes have become quite an issue within it. Feasibility issues that are faced in networking domains might also contribute to structures of design validation. According to calculations, it can be seen that for FAT Code 6407 there exists 1645 distance for one particular location and these needs to be reduced.

    There is influencing factors like that will increase in serving more than 1000 users. Number of locations along with geographical sections are having proper infrastructure. One particular matter releases components accordingly. Budget calculation is also an important factor that contributes to GPON.

    6. Which UFB services use a NID and which use an ONT?

                There can be several choices made for NID and uses of ONT. It entirely depends whichever category is being chosen upon for UFB services. It is required to know about this NID and ONT at first place. NID or network interface device is calculating what services are being in and whichever is being out. It can be seen that migrating deeper fiber and making a connection in between FTTH is seen to be making it available on a large screen at a minimal costs. It is seen that a point-to-point service has been used in NID whereas in other cases there are evaluation criteria that need to be supported. Da Silva et al. (2017) have commented that, it is usually provided by the LFC. It is normally located at the premises of end user. NID usually terminates physical optical layer and sets it on over end users. It can be used for passive network or active services as well.

                Next comes, discussion of ONT that is also doing similar kind of job. ONT or the optical network terminals are supposed to close upon functionalities that do not work around with UFB. It is also attached in need users system, providing them a multicast analysis. It deactivates physical terminals and activates work inside UFB terminus (Bosternak & Róka, 2017). UFB or ultra fast broadband provides services that are included in covering 33host towns at times. UFB generally ensures over the counter speed and requires two of the main bandwidth. This is using speed of 5 GHz.

    7. What is “VLAN transparent service” and how it is related to tagging of frames at the E-NNI?

                VLAN transparent services are available in many platforms and contribute to an extent that is having E_NNI. It allows transferring Ethernet traffic connection within geographically remote location in case of a business customer. According to Tarsono et al. (2017), it is seen that both 700 and 2440 series do not support TLS services that come along with ethernet interfaces in GPON. There are certain characteristics that VLAN needs to follow in order to be transparent. It is enabled inside tagging of transparent services. However, there is TLS services area configured on remote methods that supports N: 1 and TLS covering that will engage ordering of S-VID tag stripped within optical fiber generation. Ethernet traffic that is interconnecting different location is part of STP protocols and unicast is seen. There are differences inside transparency domains.

                It is classified as two columns of S-VID and C-VID that are attached within VLAN. It embraces domain of the service provider along with customer provider domain. In most of the cases of VLAN a coverage area is defined in single E_NNI. According to Anis, Qureshi & Zafar (2017), all geographical areas are covered with all types of end users. There are chances of minimum coverage area that breakdowns CFH website, included inside UFB mediums. However, handling areas that covers complexity expansion is a matter of concern in E_NNI.

    8. Why LFC is allowed to inspect the contents of the frames they carry? Which UFB Services have MLD or IGMP frames?

                There several reasons that inspects issues of content of the frames that they are carrying. They observe multicasting as there are automated service provide facility available and this needs to be monitored. As stated by Arevalo, Hincapie & Gaudino (2017), automated facility that are associated in fault notification can be monitored using LFCs. Assisting service provider along with several tools are allowed to be done in inspecting contents of the frames of they are carrying. In order to make sure that there exists multicast servicing, some of the LFC are made allowed. There are sections that exclude UFB handover services to be monitored by LFC. It is also not allowed in provisions of any cabling devices that are having active devices connected.

                UFB services can be classified into several sections that are available into IGMP and MLD support. UFB supports are there in IGMP snooping of V2 (RFC2236) and MLD snooping V2 (RFC3376). There are EMA services that include recommendations in consideration of management in internet. As commented by Jirachariyakool, Sra-ium & Lerkvaranyu (2017), IGMP and MLD include source filtering that helps in IP address determination of multicast ports. Flooding of multicast frames within Ethernet services are seen for making use of control panel successfully. Snooping function that will adjust replication filters will have UNI chosen for those particular functions.

    IGMP is an IPV4 specific protocol that is based on multicast functionality. Understanding upstream and downstream versatility will be required in order to transport EMA within LAN connection (Al-Quzwini, 2014). In both cases it is seen that it does not disables IPv6 multicast functionality within.

    9. Why PCP definition is used for classifying frames into traffic classes?

                Several notations are establishing end user connectivity using PCP definitions within service provider. As an intermediary step there are EMA multicast connection along with EMA multicast Domain product instance. In between UNI and E-NNI there exists upstream and downstream connection. In case of upstream PCP cases, there exists access EVPL binding which is needed to be set to on as a part of PCP definitions. In case of custom classes, the values might be different and it can be set to off. In case UNI is tagged under frames within 802.1Q-2011 PCP tag of five along with IGMP, join messages for high traffic classes (Ieeexplore.ieee.org, 2019). UNI is set to be settled as high traffic class with other frames that are discarded as to make sure that they are tagged and untagged.

                In case of downstream, it can be seen that PCP notations are likely to be around 802.1a and S_VID with markings that are used for determining traffic classes. Frames that are classified under high traffic class are tagged under S-VID PCP tag of five. There are several frames that can be used with S-VID tag of PCP 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 (Tcf.org.nz, 2019). It might be discarded at E-NNI progress. All untagged submissions will be discarded within traffic management.

    10. What PCP values are used for high and low traffic classes? How to classify PCP?

                There can be several PCP values inserted in terms of high and low traffic classes. Classification can be done using upstream and downstream case of multicasting network. It enables study and analysis of PCP notations. There can be many implementations as in specific direction of traffic flow within GPON. There can be type-b protection given in notations of PCP that calculates higher order and lower order traffic classes. However, there exist notations to be applied as per requirement of connectivity in GPON.

    11. Key differences between color aware and color blind traffic metering.

                Several issues are included in class of services. Low traffic classes are categorized as greater than zero and high traffic classes of services is greater than zero. CIR group is drop ineligible and group is green. EIR is drop eligible that is coming under the group of yellow. Besides that frame that are in excess of EIR and CIR are coming under the group of red.

    There can be differences identified in colorblind and color aware traffic metering. In case of colorblind, it is seen that it comes with CIR and EIR with no coupling included in colorblind nature. It is necessary to describe models that draw relationships between bandwidth, burst sizes, color marking. It engages tokens that are incoming within CBS and checking for sufficient flags. In case it matches availability, it matches CF flag to be zero and discarded. In case it matches with negative, it compiles EBS option that is found out well. Tokens are then checked for insufficiency (Ghassemlooy, Popoola & Rajbhandari, 2019). In case a token is found to be insufficient, it is discarded and eligible ones are kept. It is seen that in most of the cases frame length exceeds and it becomes classified as red. In case there are sufficient tokens are available it will be then classified as yellow. In all other cases, it is classified as green.

    In order to make comparison with color aware same set of flow chart needs to be maintained. It can be seen that submitted frame is classified then frame length will be identified within green light. If there is sufficient, availability of token is seen then it will be kept under green section (Thefoa.org, 2019). The insufficiency of tokens inside CBS is classified as red group under classification. In case submitted token is created as yellow, it will then be classified under yellow group with EBS token counted as current one.

    12. Calculations to show differences in between layers of UFB? Clear statement of assumptions made?

                There can be several calculations that are included in between overhead margin compensation. There are differences between layer 2 bandwidth and application bandwidth. In this case calculations are needed to be made in order to check protocol used is between the above two mentioned layers. This study contains specific bandwidth overhead knowledge in order to make sure that it is succeed. Assumption can be made as clear traffic condition that contributes to each sections of colored and non-colored traffic. Traffic modification is required in order to get accurate results. It can be presumed that there is specific work condition, which allows low or high scaling of traffic to be maintained in particular format. Proper usage of PCP is also required to be assumed for this calculation.

     

    References

    Books

    Ghassemlooy, Z., Popoola, W., & Rajbhandari, S. (2019). Optical wireless communications: system and channel modelling with Matlab®. CRC press.

    Tornatore, M., Chang, G. K., & Ellinas, G. (2017). Fiber-Wireless Convergence in Next-Generation Communication Networks. Springer, Berlin.

    Journals

    Al-Quzwini, M. M. (2014). Design and Implementation of a Fiber to the Home FTTH Access Network based on GPON. International Journal of Computer Applications, 92(6).

    Bosternak, Z., & Róka, R. (2017). Approach of the T-CONT allocation to increase the bandwidth in passive optical networks. Radioengineering26(4), 954-960.

    Dalla Santa, M., Antony, C., Power, M., Jain, A., Ossieur, P., Talli, G., & Townsend, P. D. (2017, March). 25Gb/s PAM4 burst-mode system for upstream transmission in passive optical networks. In 2017 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (pp. 1-3). IEEE.

    Fazlina, C. A. S., Rashidi, C. B. M., Rahman, A. K., & Aljunid, S. A. (2017). Performance Evaluation of a Novel Optimization Sequential Algorithm (SeQ) Code for FTTH Network. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 140, p. 01002). EDP Sciences.

    Gosselin, S., Courant, J. L., Tembo, S. R., & Vaton, S. (2017, May). Application of probabilistic modeling and machine learning to the diagnosis of FTTH GPON networks. In 2017 International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM) (pp. 1-3). IEEE.

    Jogunola, O., Ikpehai, A., Anoh, K., Adebisi, B., Hammoudeh, M., Son, S. Y., & Harris, G. (2017). State-of-the-art and prospects for peer-to-peer transaction-based energy system. Energies10(12), 2106.

    Li, C. Y., Lu, H. H., Tsai, W. S., Huang, X. H., Wang, Y. C., Chen, Y. N., & Wu, Y. R. (2018). A flexible two-way PM-based fiber-FSO convergence system. IEEE Photonics Journal10(2), 1-9.

    Pradeep, M., Pavithra, B., Pooja, R., Parameswari, S., & Pandi, M. (2017). A Survey of FTTH Elements Based on Broadband Access Network. Asian Journal of Applied Science and Technology (AJAST)1(7), 54-59.

    Ramirez, J. C., Finardi, C. A., & Panepucci, R. R. (2017). SU-8 GPON diplexer based on H-line lithography by direct laser writer. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters30(2), 205-208.

    Talli, G., Porto, S., Carey, D., Brandonisio, N., Ossieur, P., Townsend, P., ... & Blümm, C. (2017, May). Technologies and architectures to enable SDN in converged 5G/optical access networks. In 2017 International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

    Wang, L., Ai, J., Zhu, L., Wang, A., Fu, S., Du, C., ... & Wang, J. (2017). MDM transmission of CAP-16 signals over 1.1-km anti-bending trench-assisted elliptical-core few-mode fiber in passive optical networks. Optics express25(19), 22991-23002.

    Online Articles

    Da Silva, R. N., Cunha, M. S. B., da Costa, I. F., & Cerqueira, S. A. (2017, August). GPON-based front-end architecture for 5G networks. In 2017 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC) (pp. 1-5). IEEE. [Online] Retrieved from < https> 01/09/2019

    Tarsono, D., Ahmad, A., Sharif, K. A., Othman, M. H., Khairi, K., Ngah, N. A., & Manaf, Z. A. (2017). Optical and network performance analysis of XGS-PON system over active co-existence PON systems. Optics and Photonics Journal7(08), 40. [Online], Retrieved from < http PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=78280> 01/09/2019

    Arevalo, G. V., Hincapie, R. C., & Gaudino, R. (2017). Optimization of multiple PON deployment costs and comparison between GPON, XGPON, NGPON2 and UDWDM PON. Optical Switching and Networking25, 80-90.[Online], Retrieved from 01/09/2019

    Anis, M. I., Qureshi, M. S., & Zafar, S. (2017). Demonstration of TWDM-PON backward compatibility with conventional GPON. Wireless Personal Communications95(2), 581-592. .[Online], Retrieved from 01/09/2019

    Jirachariyakool, R., Sra-ium, N., & Lerkvaranyu, S. (2017, July). Design and implement of GPON-FTTH network for residential condominium. In 2017 14th International Joint Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE) (pp. 1-5). IEEE. [Online], Retrieved from < https> 01/09/2019

    Website

    Ieeexplore.ieee.org, 2019. Business class services over a GPON network , Retrieved from 01/09/2019

    Tcf.org.nz, 2019. UFB Ethernet Access Service Standards, Retrieved from 01/09/2019

    Thefoa.org, 2019. Guide to Fiber optics, Retrieved from 01/09/2019

     

     

     

    1. (a) How does this result in a total 1:64 split ratio if paper has two splitters?

                This study includes GPON fifth access network architecture that is having scalability, functionality, construction and network upgradability. It is also seen that there exist several architectures that will have a ratio of 1:64 split ratio. It has also two splitters of 2:4 and 1:16 that is going to be divided in this architecture. According to Jogunola et al. (2017), there are OLT that supports 16 slots of 8 port GPON cards. The 2:4 splitters are classified into level 1 splitter and 1:16 are categorized as level 2 splitters. It means that each GPON port serves 64 users in total and results in a ratio of 1:64. There are bottom-top approaches that can be used for defining FTTH network locations that are geographically determined. As it can be seen from simple calculation, each GPON port can serve 4 FAT that contains 1:16 splitters.

    (b) What is the use of the 2:4 splitters?

                2:4 are level one splitters that helps in GPON having 64 users. There are in total use of 1000 people in over location 238 sectors. The 48 GPON ports are required to serve 185 FATs.

    (c) What split ratio is used for UFB networks in NZ?

                Split ratios can be used in several cases in UFB in NZ. In such cases, 1:16 and 2:4 ratios can be used. Split ratios are helping in port designing of level and level 2 splitters. In case of 1:16 splitters, it helps in bottom to top level of FTTH designs that can have an impact on UFB.

    (d) Why is UFB has chosen this ratio?

                In case of an UFB, it is seen that NZ has splitters in ratios of 2:4 and 1:16. It is seen that centralized approach maximizes highest efficiency levels. As each port is fiber connected directly back to the central lab, it can be seen that centralized 1*32 splitter along with distribution ports that have OTDR upstream. Li et al. (2018) has described that, there are connector ports available at distribution hub, which runs quality tests. It is seen that maximized efforts of loss is encountered in single hub connectivity along with cascading approach is required offers lower first in costs of fiber costs. It is important to allow distribution of combined loss effective signal. This effectiveness enables usages of ratio chosen for UFB. It is also seen that UFB enables fastest optical networks.

    2. What is protection system protecting?

                This is particular system protecting each case type-b protection that is being organized. The total number of OLT GPON is designed with12, with six cards that are in each direction. Six FDT are used for holding level1 spillers. Here type-b protection is given to access GPON FTTH access network, which enables OLT to receive traffic. It received network traffic through standby GPON ports that are overcoming GPON port failure. As commented by Pradeep et al. (2017), the main intention is to overcome port failure issues that they are trying to protect through networking functionality. In order to make a protective design in different factors including size, cost and scalability need to be considered.

    As a result it needs to be FDT connected with level 1 splitters along with distributed network topology. There are no standard FTTH can be followed inside model outcomes. In order to access the entire set up for loss of connectivity GPON allows port of the OLT and ONT as well (Tornatore, Chang & Ellinas, 2017). It is always seen that designing of ports take time longer than any other work. Protecting newly developed model that is being launched is required to be done properly. Designing of OSP along with total calculation is required to be done in order to implement cost management.

    3. How split ratio affects the potential fiber run distance that can be used for a GPON?

    A GPON is an integrated waveguide in between optical beam splitter that is associated in input and output signaling of GPON splitters. GPON optical distribution works in low cost compilation along with planner lightweight circuit typically known as PLC. This is not sensitive enough to wavelengths and provides high spectral energy that is efficient in identifying optical degrees. It is one particular set of data, which affects fiber run distance. Fiber run distance is a general terminology used in assurance with multiple attachments. There are colorblind policies seen that might affect the growth of distances in GPON. There are multiple crossing effects for estimating order ratios in between potential fibre and split ratio differences. As described by Ramirez, Finardi & Panepucci (2017), a better split ratio always makes room for a better design of GPON as it is seen in research. However, anticipation of the continued evolution in optical modules that are available might include the TC layer of split ratios up to 1:128.

    4.  Definitions

    (a)  Logical Reach

                It is maximum distance calculated in between ONU/ONT along with OLT. It excludes the OLT as in the physical layer. Maximum logical reach is defined as 60km theoretically. It is seen that there are several bit rates that can be followed in order to make sure that combinations are made along with rate of 1.2 Gbits/up, 2.4 Gbits/down. Logical reach can be achieved for a particular transmission system. It enables study of maximum logical reach irrespective of the budget.

    (b)  Physical Reach

                It can be defined as the maximum amount of physical distance that is achievable for a particular transfer system. It is seen that there are services that included with physical layers of GPON. As stated by Gosselin et al. (2017), physical reach is the maximum physical distance between the ONU/ONT and it includes OLT. In case of GPON, two options are defined for the physical reach. First one is 10 km and the second one is 20 km. It can be said that 10 km is the maximum distance covered which FP-LD can be used in the ONU. This can be used for high bit rates such as 1.25 Gbit/s or rates can be above of this particular ratio.

    (c)  Differential distance

                It is classified as the difference between nearest of furthest ONU/ONT and OLT. It calculates distance differences in the mentioned terms. It is seen that an OLT is connected with many ONU/ONT. In case of GPON, maximum number of fiber distance is 20km. This might affect ranging from window. According to Fazlina et al. (2017), it enables compliance with ITU-T by affecting sizing changes. It can be than larger split ratio enables attractive GPON. This is one of the greatest features of GPON that is seen.

    5. If maximum signal transfer delay is 1.5ms then how does this relate to the Logical Reach? Need to mention other factors may affect transfer delay?

                In case of maximum time, delay is 1.5ms then logical reach will be affected. It is quite clear from the definition of logical reach that it calculates distance between ONU/ONT. Here comes the concept of mean signal transfer delay. As opined by Talli et al. (2017), it calculates average of downstream and upstream interfaces in between two points of references (Dalla Santa et al. 2017). It is determined through measuring a particular round trip and then dividing it by two. ONU provides user side interface that is connected to ODN. It can be seen that logical reach calculates potential outcomes with respect to network architecture. If there is a delay happens in any section of this architecture it impacts basis logical reach along with understanding of exclusion criteria that are not required.

                It is seen that in most cases maximum signal transfer delay can be introduced adaption of function like circuit emulation are not included in a value that is cooperating with maximum signal services in GPON. In such systems, reference points are not restricted by the system configuration. It can spread a negative range as well. As described by Wang et al. (2017), several other factors that are available inside GPON which affect transfer delay are there. It is supposed in many cases that factors like size, cost and availability of outcomes have become quite an issue within it. Feasibility issues that are faced in networking domains might also contribute to structures of design validation. According to calculations, it can be seen that for FAT Code 6407 there exists 1645 distance for one particular location and these needs to be reduced.

    There is influencing factors like that will increase in serving more than 1000 users. Number of locations along with geographical sections are having proper infrastructure. One particular matter releases components accordingly. Budget calculation is also an important factor that contributes to GPON.

    6. Which UFB services use a NID and which use an ONT?

                There can be several choices made for NID and uses of ONT. It entirely depends whichever category is being chosen upon for UFB services. It is required to know about this NID and ONT at first place. NID or network interface device is calculating what services are being in and whichever is being out. It can be seen that migrating deeper fiber and making a connection in between FTTH is seen to be making it available on a large screen at a minimal costs. It is seen that a point-to-point service has been used in NID whereas in other cases there are evaluation criteria that need to be supported. Da Silva et al. (2017) have commented that, it is usually provided by the LFC. It is normally located at the premises of end user. NID usually terminates physical optical layer and sets it on over end users. It can be used for passive network or active services as well.

                Next comes, discussion of ONT that is also doing similar kind of job. ONT or the optical network terminals are supposed to close upon functionalities that do not work around with UFB. It is also attached in need users system, providing them a multicast analysis. It deactivates physical terminals and activates work inside UFB terminus (Bosternak & Róka, 2017). UFB or ultra fast broadband provides services that are included in covering 33host towns at times. UFB generally ensures over the counter speed and requires two of the main bandwidth. This is using speed of 5 GHz.

    7. What is “VLAN transparent service” and how it is related to tagging of frames at the E-NNI?

                VLAN transparent services are available in many platforms and contribute to an extent that is having E_NNI. It allows transferring Ethernet traffic connection within geographically remote location in case of a business customer. According to Tarsono et al. (2017), it is seen that both 700 and 2440 series do not support TLS services that come along with ethernet interfaces in GPON. There are certain characteristics that VLAN needs to follow in order to be transparent. It is enabled inside tagging of transparent services. However, there is TLS services area configured on remote methods that supports N: 1 and TLS covering that will engage ordering of S-VID tag stripped within optical fiber generation. Ethernet traffic that is interconnecting different location is part of STP protocols and unicast is seen. There are differences inside transparency domains.

                It is classified as two columns of S-VID and C-VID that are attached within VLAN. It embraces domain of the service provider along with customer provider domain. In most of the cases of VLAN a coverage area is defined in single E_NNI. According to Anis, Qureshi & Zafar (2017), all geographical areas are covered with all types of end users. There are chances of minimum coverage area that breakdowns CFH website, included inside UFB mediums. However, handling areas that covers complexity expansion is a matter of concern in E_NNI.

    8. Why LFC is allowed to inspect the contents of the frames they carry? Which UFB Services have MLD or IGMP frames?

                There several reasons that inspects issues of content of the frames that they are carrying. They observe multicasting as there are automated service provide facility available and this needs to be monitored. As stated by Arevalo, Hincapie & Gaudino (2017), automated facility that are associated in fault notification can be monitored using LFCs. Assisting service provider along with several tools are allowed to be done in inspecting contents of the frames of they are carrying. In order to make sure that there exists multicast servicing, some of the LFC are made allowed. There are sections that exclude UFB handover services to be monitored by LFC. It is also not allowed in provisions of any cabling devices that are having active devices connected.

                UFB services can be classified into several sections that are available into IGMP and MLD support. UFB supports are there in IGMP snooping of V2 (RFC2236) and MLD snooping V2 (RFC3376). There are EMA services that include recommendations in consideration of management in internet. As commented by Jirachariyakool, Sra-ium & Lerkvaranyu (2017), IGMP and MLD include source filtering that helps in IP address determination of multicast ports. Flooding of multicast frames within Ethernet services are seen for making use of control panel successfully. Snooping function that will adjust replication filters will have UNI chosen for those particular functions.

    IGMP is an IPV4 specific protocol that is based on multicast functionality. Understanding upstream and downstream versatility will be required in order to transport EMA within LAN connection (Al-Quzwini, 2014). In both cases it is seen that it does not disables IPv6 multicast functionality within.

    9. Why PCP definition is used for classifying frames into traffic classes?

                Several notations are establishing end user connectivity using PCP definitions within service provider. As an intermediary step there are EMA multicast connection along with EMA multicast Domain product instance. In between UNI and E-NNI there exists upstream and downstream connection. In case of upstream PCP cases, there exists access EVPL binding which is needed to be set to on as a part of PCP definitions. In case of custom classes, the values might be different and it can be set to off. In case UNI is tagged under frames within 802.1Q-2011 PCP tag of five along with IGMP, join messages for high traffic classes (Ieeexplore.ieee.org, 2019). UNI is set to be settled as high traffic class with other frames that are discarded as to make sure that they are tagged and untagged.

                In case of downstream, it can be seen that PCP notations are likely to be around 802.1a and S_VID with markings that are used for determining traffic classes. Frames that are classified under high traffic class are tagged under S-VID PCP tag of five. There are several frames that can be used with S-VID tag of PCP 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 (Tcf.org.nz, 2019). It might be discarded at E-NNI progress. All untagged submissions will be discarded within traffic management.

    10. What PCP values are used for high and low traffic classes? How to classify PCP?

                There can be several PCP values inserted in terms of high and low traffic classes. Classification can be done using upstream and downstream case of multicasting network. It enables study and analysis of PCP notations. There can be many implementations as in specific direction of traffic flow within GPON. There can be type-b protection given in notations of PCP that calculates higher order and lower order traffic classes. However, there exist notations to be applied as per requirement of connectivity in GPON.

    11. Key differences between color aware and color blind traffic metering.

                Several issues are included in class of services. Low traffic classes are categorized as greater than zero and high traffic classes of services is greater than zero. CIR group is drop ineligible and group is green. EIR is drop eligible that is coming under the group of yellow. Besides that frame that are in excess of EIR and CIR are coming under the group of red.

    There can be differences identified in colorblind and color aware traffic metering. In case of colorblind, it is seen that it comes with CIR and EIR with no coupling included in colorblind nature. It is necessary to describe models that draw relationships between bandwidth, burst sizes, color marking. It engages tokens that are incoming within CBS and checking for sufficient flags. In case it matches availability, it matches CF flag to be zero and discarded. In case it matches with negative, it compiles EBS option that is found out well. Tokens are then checked for insufficiency (Ghassemlooy, Popoola & Rajbhandari, 2019). In case a token is found to be insufficient, it is discarded and eligible ones are kept. It is seen that in most of the cases frame length exceeds and it becomes classified as red. In case there are sufficient tokens are available it will be then classified as yellow. In all other cases, it is classified as green.

    In order to make comparison with color aware same set of flow chart needs to be maintained. It can be seen that submitted frame is classified then frame length will be identified within green light. If there is sufficient, availability of token is seen then it will be kept under green section (Thefoa.org, 2019). The insufficiency of tokens inside CBS is classified as red group under classification. In case submitted token is created as yellow, it will then be classified under yellow group with EBS token counted as current one.

    12. Calculations to show differences in between layers of UFB? Clear statement of assumptions made?

                There can be several calculations that are included in between overhead margin compensation. There are differences between layer 2 bandwidth and application bandwidth. In this case calculations are needed to be made in order to check protocol used is between the above two mentioned layers. This study contains specific bandwidth overhead knowledge in order to make sure that it is succeed. Assumption can be made as clear traffic condition that contributes to each sections of colored and non-colored traffic. Traffic modification is required in order to get accurate results. It can be presumed that there is specific work condition, which allows low or high scaling of traffic to be maintained in particular format. Proper usage of PCP is also required to be assumed for this calculation.

     

     

     

    References

    Books

    Ghassemlooy, Z., Popoola, W., & Rajbhandari, S. (2019). Optical wireless communications: system and channel modelling with Matlab®. CRC press.

    Tornatore, M., Chang, G. K., & Ellinas, G. (2017). Fiber-Wireless Convergence in Next-Generation Communication Networks. Springer, Berlin.

    Journals

    Al-Quzwini, M. M. (2014). Design and Implementation of a Fiber to the Home FTTH Access Network based on GPON. International Journal of Computer Applications, 92(6).

    Bosternak, Z., & Róka, R. (2017). Approach of the T-CONT allocation to increase the bandwidth in passive optical networks. Radioengineering26(4), 954-960.

    Dalla Santa, M., Antony, C., Power, M., Jain, A., Ossieur, P., Talli, G., & Townsend, P. D. (2017, March). 25Gb/s PAM4 burst-mode system for upstream transmission in passive optical networks. In 2017 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC) (pp. 1-3). IEEE.

    Fazlina, C. A. S., Rashidi, C. B. M., Rahman, A. K., & Aljunid, S. A. (2017). Performance Evaluation of a Novel Optimization Sequential Algorithm (SeQ) Code for FTTH Network. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 140, p. 01002). EDP Sciences.

    Gosselin, S., Courant, J. L., Tembo, S. R., & Vaton, S. (2017, May). Application of probabilistic modeling and machine learning to the diagnosis of FTTH GPON networks. In 2017 International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM) (pp. 1-3). IEEE.

    Jogunola, O., Ikpehai, A., Anoh, K., Adebisi, B., Hammoudeh, M., Son, S. Y., & Harris, G. (2017). State-of-the-art and prospects for peer-to-peer transaction-based energy system. Energies10(12), 2106.

    Li, C. Y., Lu, H. H., Tsai, W. S., Huang, X. H., Wang, Y. C., Chen, Y. N., & Wu, Y. R. (2018). A flexible two-way PM-based fiber-FSO convergence system. IEEE Photonics Journal10(2), 1-9.

    Pradeep, M., Pavithra, B., Pooja, R., Parameswari, S., & Pandi, M. (2017). A Survey of FTTH Elements Based on Broadband Access Network. Asian Journal of Applied Science and Technology (AJAST)1(7), 54-59.

    Ramirez, J. C., Finardi, C. A., & Panepucci, R. R. (2017). SU-8 GPON diplexer based on H-line lithography by direct laser writer. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters30(2), 205-208.

    Talli, G., Porto, S., Carey, D., Brandonisio, N., Ossieur, P., Townsend, P., ... & Blümm, C. (2017, May). Technologies and architectures to enable SDN in converged 5G/optical access networks. In 2017 International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

    Wang, L., Ai, J., Zhu, L., Wang, A., Fu, S., Du, C., ... & Wang, J. (2017). MDM transmission of CAP-16 signals over 1.1-km anti-bending trench-assisted elliptical-core few-mode fiber in passive optical networks. Optics express25(19), 22991-23002.

    Online Articles

    Da Silva, R. N., Cunha, M. S. B., da Costa, I. F., & Cerqueira, S. A. (2017, August). GPON-based front-end architecture for 5G networks. In 2017 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC) (pp. 1-5). IEEE. [Online] Retrieved from < https> 01/09/2019

    Tarsono, D., Ahmad, A., Sharif, K. A., Othman, M. H., Khairi, K., Ngah, N. A., & Manaf, Z. A. (2017). Optical and network performance analysis of XGS-PON system over active co-existence PON systems. Optics and Photonics Journal7(08), 40. [Online], Retrieved from < http PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=78280> 01/09/2019

    Arevalo, G. V., Hincapie, R. C., & Gaudino, R. (2017). Optimization of multiple PON deployment costs and comparison between GPON, XGPON, NGPON2 and UDWDM PON. Optical Switching and Networking25, 80-90.[Online], Retrieved from 01/09/2019

    Anis, M. I., Qureshi, M. S., & Zafar, S. (2017). Demonstration of TWDM-PON backward compatibility with conventional GPON. Wireless Personal Communications95(2), 581-592. .[Online], Retrieved from 01/09/2019

    Jirachariyakool, R., Sra-ium, N., & Lerkvaranyu, S. (2017, July). Design and implement of GPON-FTTH network for residential condominium. In 2017 14th International Joint Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE) (pp. 1-5). IEEE. [Online], Retrieved from < https> 01/09/2019

    Website

    Ieeexplore.ieee.org, 2019. Business class services over a GPON network , Retrieved from 01/09/2019

    Tcf.org.nz, 2019. UFB Ethernet Access Service Standards, Retrieved from 01/09/2019

    Thefoa.org, 2019. Guide to Fiber optics, Retrieved from 01/09/2019

     

     

     

     

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