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    Operation Operational Performance

    Introduction

    Among the different modes of transportation aviation industry is playing a vital role in the mode of transportation. Although it can be considered as costly but aviation medium provided the better and safe mode of transportation within the less span of time. Here in this assignment the learner is going to discuss about the structure and its operational behaviour. In this report the learner is going to discuss in brief about all the aspects related to the operation and performance of different kinds of the aircraft.

    As per the working condition of the aviation company they have two different airplanes which they are going to use to carry doctors and nurses to the remote locations, the learner is going to cover all the factors and scenarios which they can face in the whole travelling time. The performance and evaluation of the aircrafts which is depended on these factors are also discussed briefly in this report.

    Design of aircraft operational behaviour

    Aircrafts and spacecrafts need to be designed in an economic and efficient way, so that they make direct effect on the economy. For making all these deigned aircrafts more effective it is required to implement some advanced aerodynamic engineering concepts which will allow the engineers and the designers to create an effective and economical aircraft.

    Features of the aircrafts must be designed in such a way that it can handle all the loads and circumstances for which it is designed for. From the operational point of view, with implementation of the latest simulation and automatic system these aircrafts should be designed so that it can be operated in the easy way. Especially for the critical environmental situations and to travel in the remote area location this should be designed accordingly.

    Fuel

    Efficiency of the vehicle will depend upon the form of energy which they will get from their sources, these energy sources either can be in the form of mechanical energy or electrical energy.  For the operation of an aircraft fuels are the main source for the generation of the energy (Dieler, 2016). As engineers have already tested other source of energy but the estimated and effective sources are fossil fuels which can generate the required power for operating an aircraft. During the initial phase of the take-off pilots are instructed to check the fuel logs and the necessity of the required fuel for its journey (Barudi, 2016).

     

    · Total usable fuel: 182 litres

    · Start, taxi, run-up: 3 litres

    · Take-off and set heading overhead: 3 minutes / 4 litres

    · Climb: 45 litres/hr

    · Cruise: 35 litres/hr

    · Descend: 35 litres/hr

    · Approach and landing (from overhead of an aerodrome): 10 minutes / 6 litres

    m1=m2?eR?g?bfv?L/D

    Where,

    M1 = take-off mass

    M2= landing mass

    R= 2000.00m

    L/D= 18

    B^f= 0.00015kg/Ns

    Physical Specification

    Highlighting on the physical specification of the aircrafts, in the basic outlining process of the aircrafts it can be divided with their different functional parts (Raymer, 2018). In the physical specification section they may include engine, tails, wings, fuselage and landing gears. Other devices like black box and communication systems are included.

    Figure 1: Outer Sketch of the Aircraft

    (Source: Collected by the User)

     

    Figure 2: View Diagram of the Machine

    (Source: Created by the User)

    Figure 3: Upper View of the Machine

    (Source: Created by the User)

    Figure 4: Landing Gear Diagram

    (Source: Created by User)

    Figure 5: Cockpit View

    (Source: Created by User)

    Performance

    Discussing about the performance of the aircraft as it is designed with the features of effective fuel capacity and its structural design is also suitable to the environment. There are a number of factors which can affect the performance of the aircraft, these factors may be functional or non-functional, here the user will discuss about the functional part (Stevens, 2015)

    Air pressure, attitude, temperatures and humidity are the most common factors which affects the performance of the aircraft. Measurement of the air pressure and the altitude should be accurate for operational and full functionality of the aircraft.

    It will also dependent upon the different factors like the weather, weight and the efficiency of the aircraft. According to survey and the provided data by the aviation company in the winter season the Base aerodrome’s QNH is 1006hPa and in the summer season it is 1010hPa.  And discussing about the temperature gap it has 10 degree gap between these two seasons (in winter it was recorded at 18 degree Celsius and in summer it is recorded as 28 degree Celsius).

    Factors affecting the performance

    For this case scenario there are various factors which are affecting the performance of the aeroplane. As discussed in the earlier section about the environmental factors which rea affecting the performance of the aircrafts, here the learner is going to discuss about some technical factors which may affect the performance. Factors like weights and loads of the aircraft will also affect the performance of the aircraft, which it will create an extra pressure to the turbine engine of the aircraft and from this issue the fuel load will also increase.

    As the main goal of this aircraft company is to carry doctors and nurses to the remote area location, this aircraft must have the ability to fly in the low pressure area. IN low pressure areas where they have to fly at very low altitude the design of the wing and he whole structure of the plane should be pressure resistant so that it can easily take off the loads.

    Conclusion

    In the field of the aviation industry engineers and other experts have to pay proper attention in the designing and planning processes. In this analytical report of the designed aircraft the learner has described about designing and specification of an aircraft. Here the learner has done a detail analysis of the fuel consumptions and the performance. A circumstance like altitude, pressure and other environmental factors which may affect the performance of the aircraft is well described in this report. For this specific case scenario the factors and parameters are discussed in highly significant way in this report.

     

     

     

    References

    Barudi, S., Merrill, D. and Caron, C., Duraflame Inc, 2016. Automatic fueling of liquid fuel burners. U.S. Patent 9,228,739.

    Dieler, J., Goetzke, F. and Vance, C., 2016, May. The Problems of Log-Linearization: Methods to Estimate Fuel Price Elasticities. In PET 16-Rio.

    Martins, J.R., Kenway, G.K., Burdette, D., Jonsson, E. and Kennedy, G.J., 2017. High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Aircraft Configurations.

    Mieloszyk, J., Goetzendorf-Grabowski, T. and Mieszalski, D., 2016. Rapid geometry definition for multidisciplinary design and analysis of an aircraft. Aviation20(2), pp.60-64.

    Palacios, F., Economon, T.D. and Alonso, J.J., 2015. Large-scale aircraft design using SU2. In 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (p. 1946).

    Raymer, D., 2018. Aircraft design: a conceptual approach. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc..

    Stevens, B.L., Lewis, F.L. and Johnson, E.N., 2015. Aircraft control and simulation: dynamics, controls design, and autonomous systems. John Wiley & Sons.

     

     

     

     

    Appendix

     

    Sector 1

     

    Fuel log

    Time (minutes)

    Litres

    Start, Taxi & run-up

    10

    5

    Take off and set heading 

    7

    5

    Climb fuel

    5

    10

    Cruise

    5

    8

    Descending fuel

    5

    8

    Approach and landing

    7

    7

    Variable fuel (if required) @35litres/hr

    4

    7

    Fixed reserve fuel (if required) @35litres/hr

    4

    7

    Minimum fuel required

    80

    182

    Actual fuel carried 

    320

    320

    Fuel burn off

     

     

    Total fuel after landing

     

     

     

     

     

    Load sheet

     

    Item

    Weight (kg)

    Arm (mm)

    Moment (kg m)

    Basic empty weight

    605

    2160

    605

    Front seats

    84

    2045

    84

    Rear seats

    84

    3000

    84

    Baggage compartment

    0

    3627

    0

    Zero Fuel Weight 

     

     

     

    Usable fuel

    (1litre = 0.72kg)

     

    2413

     

    Take-off Weight

    783

     

     

    Fuel burn-off

    182 litre

    2413

     

    Landing Weight

    3524

     

    2200

     

    NB: Ensure the CGs for ZFW, TOW and LW are within its limit.

     

    3

     

     

               

     

     

    Sector 2

     

    Fuel log

    Time (minutes)

    Litres

    Start, Taxi & run-up

    3

    3

    Take off and set heading 

    4

    3

    Climb fuel

    45

    3

    Cruise

    110

    35

    Descending fuel

    60

    35

    Approach and landing

    60

    35

    Variable fuel (if required) @35litres/hr

    15

    80

    Fixed reserve fuel (if required) @35litres/hr

    50

    80

    Minimum fuel required

    182

    182

    Actual fuel carried 

    320

    320

    Fuel burn off

    50

    70

    Total fuel after landing

     

     

     

    Load sheet

     

    Item

    Weight (kg)

    Arm (mm)

    Moment (kg m)

    Basic empty weight

    605

    2160

    605

    Front seats

    84

    2045

    84

    Rear seats

    84

    3000

    84

    Baggage compartment

    0

    3627

    0

    Zero Fuel Weight 

    300

    3522

    300

    Usable fuel

    (1litre = 0.72kg)

     

    2413

     

    Take-off Weight

    2200

     

     

    Fuel burn-off

    2254

    2413

     

    Landing Weight

    3254

     

     

     

    NB: Ensure the CGs for ZFW, TOW and LW are within its limit.

     

    Sector 3:-

     

    Fuel log

    Time (minutes)

    Litres

    Start, Taxi & run-up

    3

    3

    Take off and set heading 

    4

    3

    Climb fuel

    45

    3

    Cruise

    110

    35

    Descending fuel

    60

    35

    Approach and landing

    60

    35

    Variable fuel (if required) @35litres/hr

    15

    80

    Fixed reserve fuel (if required) @35litres/hr

    50

    80

    Minimum fuel required

    182

    182

    Actual fuel carried 

    320

    320

    Fuel burn off

    50

    70

     

     

     

     

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