HLTENN001 | Australia health care system | Practice nursing within the Australian health care system

  1. Choose one of the theories listed below and explain how it would apply to nursing care and nursing practice (maximum 100 words)

Developmental theory is one of the application theories used for nursing care and practices. In order to help the nurses in assessing and treating the person's response to the illness, the developmental theory is being used as an application of nursing care and practice. Understanding the specific task or understanding each stage is part of the developmental theory which helps to guide the nurses in proper planning for each and individual patient (Buss et al., 2018). The four stages that are being used for the development of the nursing discipline are syntax developing, development of the concept, theorizing, and philosophical debate.


  1. The Australian health care system has evolved over time. (maximum 100 words)


  1. Describe the historical origins of the Australian healthcare system and explain how it has evolved into the current healthcare system we have in Australia today.

    In Australia, the most highly controversial medicare system was introduced in the year 1st of February 1984. Therefore, it has been a great establishment for all Australians. On 5th March 1984, the Australian prime minister Robert Hawke had taken a historical initiative to make the health insurance systems fairer and simpler for all Australians (Thompson et al., 2018). The health care system in Australia is one of the best in the world.

  1. Identify and discuss at least two strengths and two weaknesses relating to the overall structure of the current Australian Healthcare system.

The initiative of the government by emerging new treatments and technologies has helped to make Australia at the top of the world in the health care system (Braithwaite et al., 2019). Quality and affordability are the strengths and technology costs and issues in medical research are the weakness of the Australian healthcare system.

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  1. Many countries suffer health inequalities, including Australia. In Western societies, social issues continue to emerge as the gap between those with and those without economic resources grows. (maximum 120 words)


  1. In what ways, do you think an individual’s financial status affects their ability to access health resources?

The economic status of individuals has an impact on the outcomes of the individual's health and how they will receive health care (Karamitri, Talias & Bellali, 2017). Due to the low economic status, they would have less access to the health care system due to the increase in cost and coverage of the total health care system.

  1. Outline the social determinants that you consider disadvantage people and create health inequalities.

The social determinants that create health care inequalities have been researched like social inclusion, discrimination and mainly income security.

  1. Explain the healthcare issues and it’s the impacts for healthcare deliver for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

The health care issues affecting the Aboriginal and Torres Strait islanders are mental health, diabetes, respiratory disease, chronic kidney disease, etc but this could be cured as it has a great impact on them because from the total population only 75 % live in the cities where health services are located.

  1. Identify one health issue facing people from a non-western country  and discuss the factors that may impact on this health issue (consider culture, environment, resources etc.).

In the non-western country, one of the major health issues which is growing is Cardiovascular disease. It is alarming because of the huge amount of virus spreading like immunodeficiency virus among the human and also for the disability occurring among the people in terms of low and middle income.


  1. Part of your education includes experiences in different types of healthcare settings. (maximum 150 words)


  1. How would the role of the Enrolled nurse in the primary care setting be different from their role in the acute care setting? Within your answer discuss the members of the health care team who the Enrolled nurse would most likely be working alongside

    The difference between the enrolled nurse who are enrolled by the health care professionals like surgeon, doctors, in the primary care setting and the acute care settings are that those who are acute care nurse practice the mentioned program that to work for the patients who are suffering from the critical health conditions and acute illness (Buss et al., 2018). On the other hand, the primary care nurses need to work with the patients who need to have routine medical care or the patients who are suffering from the chronic conditions that don't need immediate medical attention.

  1. Discuss the principles and philosophical framework of primary health care. Within your answer explain how the principles of wellness can be incorporated into the nurses care

The principles of wellness need to be incorporated into people's life to effectively make the health condition to be improved, whereas it is also being needed to have the education among the people to understand the health promotion and prevent the disease. These principles and the philosophical framework need to be incorporated on nursing health professionals to help the patient in all the condition and the situation


  1. Discuss the following features and roles of the Australian health care system: within your answers cover political and economical impacts on health care delivery (maximum 200 words)


  1. State vs Federal health care funding  

The state care funding means the funding done by the state or territory governments for the administration of the healthcare within their jurisdiction. This  includes operations hospitals and the ambulance on the other way that is the federal care of funding means the funding done by the federal minister to administer the national health policy of Australia.

  1. Provide a brief explaination of how you would explain Medicare vs Private Health Insurance to a family member

Indifference between the Medicare and the private health insurance, the Medicare is the program implemented by the federal government that provides the insurance of the health care for the people of age above 65+, under 65 and also for the people who are receiving the social security disability insurance. Additionally, the private health insurance is the program that is not implemented by the state or federal government but by the private entity like the private insurance company (Lane et al., 2017).

  1. Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme

The Australian government has implemented the program, called the pharmaceutical benefits scheme that is not only helpful for the residents of Australia but also for certain foreign visitors who are under the reciprocal health care agreement which would provide them with subsidized prescription drugs. The pharmaceutical benefits scheme in collaboration with Medicare is a key component for health care in Australia.


  1. Explain the roles of the following nursing bodies using your own words: (maximum 100 words)


      1. Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia


The different nursing bodies have different functions in Australia. One of the nursing bodies that are Nursing and midwifery board of Australia has a role to undertake the different functions made by the health practitioner regulation national law as implemented on each state and territory (Azzopardi et al., 2018). This nursing body also helps to protect the public from spreading illness.

      1. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation


The role of the nursing body that is Australian nursing and midwifery federation is the union that is running for the nurses, midwives, and nursing assistants to help the political, industrial and the professional interest of their respective members. It is the nursing body which has branches in every state and territory of Australia.



  1. Select one current health issue in Australia from the National Health Priority Areas as outlined in the following weblink


(maximum 100 words)

  • Discuss initiatives that are already in place to address this issue.
  • In your answer identify an appropriate support service in Australia which is available to support people with this health issue.

Cardiovascular is the health issue that is not in Australia but rising highly all over the world according to the report published in the national health priority areas. The government is taking the initiative to prevent this disease among human beings. The prevention that could be made to reduce the disease like having physical activity regularly, reducing the weight and the blood pressure, sugar level and cholesterol also.

The governments of Australia are taking initiative to reduce the risk of these disease by making the policy makes and also to educate people through making the health care strategy (Deek et al., 2016). They are trying to educate people to limit the consumption of alcohol and tobacco and bans junk food advertising.



  1. Identify one non-western approach to healthcare

Explain how this could be incorporated into the care provided for people within the Australian healthcare system. (maximum 80 words)

Ayurveda is the most important and popular approach to health care in most of the nonwestern countries. In order to maintain good health and to treat disease, the approach of Ayurveda is being used in the modern world too ("Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia - Frameworks", 2020). Thus, it can be implemented in the healthcare system of Australia to reduce the diseases and also to maintain the weight and healthy lifestyle.



  1. Locate the  “DMF A4 nursing summary guide - 2010 – rebranded” document from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Frameworks.aspx

            to assist you to identify the issues outlined in the following case study:

This evening when you report for your shift on to your general medical ward, the charge nurse tells you that you need to assist on the orthopaedic ward. You have not had any recent experience with orthopaedic patients.  When you arrive on the orthopaedic ward, the charge nurse allocates you patients who require special techniques for getting out of bed and who need to do exercises using specialised equipment during the shift. You are not familiar with the techniques or the equipment. The charge nurse tells you that the patients can explain it to you. (maximum 150 words)

  1. Should you accept this assignment and rely on the patients to explain the techniques and equipment to you? provide 2 rationales for your answer 

No, this assignment is could not be accepted as a nurse or a health professional because the nurse ethically could not provide any help to the patients if she is not trained under that specific treatments and techniques. It is not the correct way to shift the nurse in other wards where she is not trained.it is not the duty of the patients rather the duty of the nurse to provide the techniques to the patients properly.

  1. What aspects of the Standard for Practice: Enrolled Nurses (2016) need to be considered in this situation? Please access this document to assist with your answer http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards/enrolled-nurse-standards-for-practice.aspx

The enrolled nurses should give proper accountability and rfesp[onsibilty to the nurses each and everyone who are properly trained under the specific wards and other standards that need to be followed that proper information and documentation need to be recorded of each patient and inform the medical team timely.

  1. What action(s) would you take? – provide at least 2 actions

The actions that need to be taken in this situation is that the properly trained nurses to be implemented in the specific ward and if there is a shortage then the more nurses to be hired and give proper effective training (Nuttman et al., 2020).


  1. Identify one current health promotion strategy in Australia. (Possible examples include: smoking cessation, reduction of binge drinking, skin cancer awareness.)

(maximum 100 words)

  1. Evaluate the effectiveness of this health promotion strategy (i.e. what is good/bad about it/does it work)

For reducing smoking among the people of Australia, the smoking cessation is one of the health care strategies that could be promoted in this country. As people in Australia are having diseases like cardiovascular, cancer, etc. the promotion should be implemented all over the country through advertising in a different place in different ways (Thompson et al., 2018)

  1. Identify any risk factors associated with the health issue targeted by the health promotion strategy and explain which health professional may be able to assist with that health issue and why.

The portion would always be good and helpful as people would get to know the disadvantages of smoking and could educate themselves in stopping that.  The health promotional strategy would be very much effective as the disease could be restricted by stopping these things.



Azzopardi, P. S., Sawyer, S. M., Carlin, J. B., Degenhardt, L., Brown, N., Brown, A. D., & Patton, G. C. (2018). Health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia: a systematic synthesis of population data. The Lancet391(10122), 766-782.

Braithwaite, J., Vincent, C., Nicklin, W., & Amalberti, R. (2019). Coping with more people with more illness. Part 2: new generation of standards for enabling healthcare system transformation and sustainability. International Journal for Quality in Health Care31(2), 159-163.

Buss, V. H., Shield, A., Kosari, S., & Naunton, M. (2018). The impact of clinical services provided by community pharmacies on the Australian healthcare system: a review of the literature. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice11(1), 22.

Deek, H., Hamilton, S., Brown, N., Inglis, S. C., Digiacomo, M., Newton, P. J., ... & FAMILY Project Investigators. (2016). Family?centred approaches to healthcare interventions in chronic diseases in adults: a quantitative systematic review. Journal of advanced nursing72(5), 968-979.

Karamitri, I., Talias, M. A., & Bellali, T. (2017). Knowledge management practices in healthcare settings: a systematic review. The International journal of health planning and management32(1), 4-18.

Lane, R., Halcomb, E., McKenna, L., Zwar, N., Naccarella, L., Davies, G. P., & Russell, G. (2017). Advancing general practice nursing in Australia: roles and responsibilities of primary healthcare organisations. Australian Health Review41(2), 127-132.

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia - Frameworks. (2020). Retrieved 3 March 2020, from https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/codes-guidelines-statements/frameworks.aspx   

Nuttman, S., Patrick, R., Townsend, M., & Lawson, J. (2020). Health promotion and food insecurity: Exploring environmental sustainability principles to guide practice within Australia. Health Promotion Journal of Australia: Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals31(1), 68.

Thompson, K., Taylor, C., Forde, K., & Hammond, N. (2018). The evolution of Australian intensive care and its related costs: A narrative review. Australian Critical Care31(5), 325-330.



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