BUSN4100 | Business Research Methods | University of Western Australia
Increase in employee turnover
The research will try to address the high turnover rate of employees in the selected organization i.e Woolworths. This organization is facing various problems due to its high employee turnover rate. Employee turnover can be of two types: voluntary turnover, involuntary turnover. There are various issues which are faced by Woolworths due to their employees leaving their jobs due to great opportunities in some other companies. The organization spends a lot of time and effort to provide better training to their employees but when the existing employees leave the job and new employees join the company faces a huge problem (Biyela, 2018). When the existing customer reaches the company with some issues, the new employees feel uncomfortable and due to that the company losses its most valuable clients. Sometimes the employees get demotivated because the company does not provide better opportunities for the employees to grow. As a result, the employees do not provide their best to the organization. Similarly, in the time of festivals, the company loses its many customers as the employees in Woolworths take leave and the company does not get any employees around to help them. Whereas the company losses its profit margins. According to Woolworths, this company also faces problems in the absenteeism of the employees due to high work pressure. It has been observed that in the year 2011 Woolworths revealed that the retaining program would be $10 million (Scott, and Walker, 2017).
In the case of Woolworths, this company mainly faces problems in the turnover rate and due to this, the company is losing its profit margins and the productivity of the company. Several objectives may be obtained after this research is done appropriately. The objectives are:
- To understand the reason behind the high turnover.
- To evaluate the general thoughts of the employees.
- To critically evaluate the company’s policies to reduce the turnover rate of the employees.
- To find alternative ways to mitigate the turnover rate.
The objectives which can mitigate the problem of labor turnover are specified above. The objectives of knowing the general thoughts of the employees are important as the problem need to be noted positively. The result needs to be possessed whether the problem is arising fur to the company or due to the labor force. Motivation plays a very significant role as it is the only process that supports the employees to stay up with the company. The objective of the company’s policies is also an important part, the identification of the existing policies focuses on the labor force. The improvement in the policies of the organization may support to reduce the labor turnover rate. The most vital objective which is identified is to find some alternatives to reduce the rate of labor turnover. The compensation structure reduces the rate of turnover (Jiang, Liu, and Zhang, 2014). The identification of a specific problem which is resulting in a high rate of the turnover needs to be solved by applying strategic ideas and theories. The objective of employees’ thoughts is important because employees are the heart of the organization. If the demanded benefits are not fulfilled to the employees then the performance of the organization will get deteriorated.
In the research, the main part which has been focused on is to mitigate the problem regarding the impact of motivation on employees by utilizing several theories and strategic ideas. The implementation of several motivational theories supports to reduce the labor turnover rate. The utilization of research methodology also reduces the problem of the turnover rate of employees. The theories which are much relatable to mitigate the problem of employee turnover are Maslow’s hierarchical theory, Alderfer motivation theory (Agah, Kaniuka, and Chitiga, 2020.). The policies play a vital role in labor turnover as it could easily satisfy the needs of the employees or can also reduce the job satisfaction of the employees. The working procedure in the workplace is to be maintained properly so that the employees provide their best to achieve success. Motivation is one of the most important parts of the performance of the organization. The high motivational power of the employees can support to achieve competitive advantages. The encouragement of generosity and gratitude motivate the employees to perform their assigned tasks efficiently. The improvement in the techniques such as the compensation structure, health facilities, other allowances also mitigates the problem of high labor turnover. Every employee demands to receive some basic needs which they require in their daily lives such as food, water, shelter. The employees stick up with a particular company if he/she gets the facilities which are demanded. The implementation of strategic ideas in the management structure reduces the turnover rate. The research methodology of problem-oriented also can gear up the morale of the employees. The motivational power of the top management employees needs to be much polished so that they can increase the motivation of the lower department employees. The research methodology also supports processing the objectives. Several techniques in the management area can also be used to achieve success.
Impact of motivation with theories
According to the research, the Maslow hierarchy needs is much relatable. This motivational theory supports both the employees and the company. Employees are also known as the heart of the organization. They are the elements that support the organization to achieve success. The working performance of an organization can be executed smoothly if the employees of the organization maintain a good relationship with both the top management and the coworkers. The motivational theory provides a big impact on employees. The theories increase the motivation of the employees so that they perform their assigned tasks efficiently. The Maslow hierarchy of needs defines physiological needs, safety, and security needs, belonging and love, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs (Ekhsan, Aeni, Parashakti, and Fahlevi, 2019). These are the needs that every employee demands while performing their tasks in the organization. The physiological needs are revealed as the basic needs which every employee demands. The employees demand to have food, water, and shelter as their basic needs. It has been observed that if these needs are not fulfilled the human body cannot function optimally. The human body demands these needs most importantly. Similarly, the safety needs also a needs which an employee demands before joining a company so Woolworths need to provide job security and provide better compensation so that the employee can provide its best to the company in the unit of production. This will help the company to achieve success. The third level of human needs is love and belonging needs which support increasing the motivation power of the employees. The employees demand to have a better working environment where they could interact with the other employees in a better way to process the tasks efficiently. The next level needs which every employee demands are self-esteem needs. This need is of two types: esteem for oneself and desire for reputation and respect from others. In this case, the Woolworths need to encourage the employees and need to provide some opportunities where the employees can grow their career. The company also needs to provide some opportunity to gain status and prestige by performing the tasks in the organization effectively. Maslow revealed that respect is the most important thing which every employee demands so that they could stay in the society with pride. In Maslow’s theory, the highest level need is self-actualization needs where the employees think of structuring them in such a manner so that they can achieve personal growth and peak experiences. In the case of Woolworths, this organization needs to develop its management system to reduce the labor turnover rate so that existing labor stays in the organization without searching for any other jobs. The organization also needs to develop its training procedure so that every employee can increase their skills and knowledge to perform the assigned tasks efficiently. The organization also needs to assign the employees in different units equally so that the interest of working gets increased.
This section provides information about the different methods of research and also justifies the chosen one.
For objective: Understanding the general thoughts of the employees
The research can be processed by utilizing the method of survey, interviews, and focus groups to achieve the objectives which are enumerated above. The method of survey is done to the employees who work in the organization. The survey supports to know the desires of the employees and to know the general thoughts which they think while performing their task. The survey helps to recover the problems which the employees face but don’t get confidence to reveal (Wolf, Joye, Smith, and Fu, 2016). The survey method is used to gain information and to collect data from a predefined group of defendants. This type of methodology can be conducted in many ways according to the study of goals. The parts can be recovered by using survey methodology and this can also provide job satisfaction to the employees. This survey is enabled with a standardized procedure to assure that every employee gets the opportunity to disclose their problems.
For objective: Understanding the reason behind the high turnover rate
Similarly, the other objectives can be gained by using the method of the interview which the management needs to be organized with HR. HR is to be interviewed to know the places where the company is lacking due to which the rate of labor turnover is rising high. The management can understand the reason why the rate is rising high by interviewing HR. the HR must answer the questions flexibly and responsibly so that the policies can be changed according to the requirement.
For objective: Evaluation of the company’s policies to reduce the turnover rate
Whereas, the focus group methodology used as a qualitative approach to absorb an in-depth understanding of social issues. This method is used to gather and collect data from a particular group rather than obtaining data statistically (Dai, Free, and Gendron, 2019). This support to implement the plan accordingly so that the main objectives can be obtained easily. This process can be obtained by utilizing two stages of focused coding and initial coding. This strategy mainly utilizes some alternative techniques which can reduce the problem of labor turnover. The data analyzed by using this method support the management to reduce the problem and to achieve competitive advantages.
Design appropriate methodology in terms of research objectives
According to the research three methodologies have been utilized in the survey, interview, and focus groups. This methodology provides both the positive and negative sides of the organization. The objectives which are discussed above can be obtained by utilizing these three methodologies. The survey can be processed by organizing a report where the management can collect data through which the company can improve its remuneration structure. The management needs to ask grave questions to the employees where they are facing problems that they are leaving the jobs and joining some other companies. The management needs to implement some strategic ideas to reduce the problems. The survey can also gain the internal thoughts of the employees. This methodology also provides some positive aspects to the organization that utilizes it. This method is cost-effective as the main cost incurs in the survey mode. It can obtain a broad range of data such as beliefs, opinions, values, etc. the main desire of the employees is to get a wide range of salaries and better facilities. It also supports collecting data from a large number of respondents. This method can also be organized through emails, telephones, and by gathering some persons who scattered around the working place to survey. Similarly, the negative impact which this type of methodology has is that the respondents are not that much encouraged to reveal the correct answers. The respondents also think of a favorable manner so they don't disclose the correct answers. The surveyors also ask close-ended questions to the employees which may result in a lower validity rate. The methods of interviews are mainly organized by the head of the departments and the interviews are organized to collect data from the HR who is responsible for the management. The policies which are deteriorating the employees need to be improved by gathering information from HR. The objective of finding an alternative policy can be obtained by consulting the HR. Interviews support the management to take proper decisions regarding the working structure of an organization. The objective of a lower rate of turnover can be achieved by designing the remuneration structure properly. The negative aspect of this method of research is it is a costly and time-consuming process. There will be a huge loss if the management utilizes this method. The last part of the research method is the focus group. This method supports achieving the objective of redirecting the existing policies.
Justification of selected methodology in terms of research objectives
In terms of research objectives, the best methodology which is suitable to resolve the problems and to achieve a less employee turnover rate is a mixed method. This method is also known as the collaboration of the three types of methods i.e. survey, interview, focus groups. The survey support to gather the information from the employees what they desire to get from the organization, the interview support to know what policies can resolve the problems of the employees from the HR manager. This method is also very useful in understanding the inconsistency between the qualitative and the quantitative findings. The mixed-method also focuses on the employees and the employees feel safe and motivated to perform their tasks perfectly. The mixed-method also identifies the reason behind the high turnover rate by involving some experts in the survey process and the interview process. This method also elucidates some more information regarding quantitative findings. It makes the management more flexible. The mixed-method also focuses on some particular groups to achieve some data regarding the problems. They focus on the groups so that they can renovate the structure in a better way to obtain the objective of success. It also develops the survey instruments. The method gathers information from both the top and the lower management. So, the thoughts of the employees and the managers are fulfilled perfectly and the employees get job satisfaction. This will result in low labor turnover.
Techniques to use quantitative and qualitative data
In Woolworth, the survey can be organized by both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative methods reveal that the company engaged some experts in the survey and the survey mainly done to the people who fall in the age group of 25-50 years and is working with the organization for more than 5years. It has also noted that the employees who fall in that age group are gathered in a place and various types of close-ended questions were asked to them so that the management can easily improve the structure where they are lacking. The experts also demand the employees reveal the problem properly why the maximum number of employees is leaving the organization. Similarly, the qualitative methods enumerate the qualities of a person or it may be also known as the interviews. The top management organizes an interview for HR. It has been observed that Woolworth used the technique that the interview will be taken to the HR who are working with the company for 5 years or more. They must have the capability to identify some plans through which the organization can gain success. HR who has the qualities to maintain the structure is being interviewed. In this way, the company can gain qualitative and quantitative data to develop the structure of the organization to reduce the turnover rate of labor.
Create a research question, literature review, and methodology
The research question which arose after successfully organizing the research is why there is a high turnover rate of employees in Woolworths. It has been observed that due to the low remuneration structure in the organization affects the employees and the employees find alternative jobs in some other companies. The employees in this organization also demand a 3% rise in salaries which other companies are providing as compared to this (Khampepe, 2018). The other reason why the rate of turnover is rising is assigning the same type of job to the employees regularly and engaging them in the job for more than 12hrs. Whereas, HR is also responsible for the high labor turnover rate as they are not that much concerned about how to mitigate the problems and support the organization achieves competitive advantages. The literature which was discussed above reveals how techniques and strategic ideas implement to mitigate the problem regarding the turnover rate. It has also been observed that the motivation level of the employees gets deteriorated due to a lower remuneration rate and for not having a comfortable working environment. In the literature review, two motivational methods are also involved through which the management can increase the motivational power of the employees. The normal demand of every employee is their basic needs. They mainly demand food, shelter, water to lead their life properly. In Woolworth, the employees don’t receive extra facilities like health, other allowances that other companies provide to their employees (Lewis, and Phillipov, 2016). So, the employees are finding new jobs in some other companies. In terms of methodology, this organization utilizes three types of methods i.e. survey, interview, and focus groups. The management implements these methods properly to maintain the workers effectively. The management also engages the employees with various hard work and due to that, they lose their motivation. This also affects the performance of the work in the working environment. The methodology of the survey mainly utilizes to know the internal thoughts of the employees what they desire to get from the company. Whereas, the interview is organized to engage the managers in the room and to gather knowledge from them on how to reduce these problems by using several methodologies.
In the following proposal the information related to how researchers will implement and collect data to reduce the problem regarding the turnover rate of employees. The knowledge regarding the motivational theories will also be gained by observing the below-discussed research proposal. The researchers will mainly research about Woolworth that how they can engage their employees in the organization.
The high rate of employee turnover affects as it reduces the productivity of an organization. It also reduces the motivational power of the employees as the employees fail to provide their best to the organization and due to this, the performance gets deteriorated. The researchers researched that employees are the heart of the organization and the management need to maintain them effectively to achieve success. The motivational theories are engaged in the company procedure to support the employees to perform their assigned tasks effectively. The term turnover derives the leaving of employees through dismissal, attrition, or resignation. Turnover rates need to be maintained by the organization by analyzing and gathering data from every department.
This portion will provide information regarding which research methods will be discussed by the researchers to reduce the labor turnover rate. The researcher may use the method of the survey to know the general thoughts of the employees to reduce the problem of the organization facing due to the high rate of labor turnover (?ochowska, Karo?, Sobota, and Janecki, 2017). The research will support the organization to maintain productivity. According to the researchers, they may also use the method of interview through which they can choke out some plans to maintain the organization efficiently. This may also reduce the turnover rate of the employees. The methodology is the most significant way through which the company can gain objectives such as implementing new policies. The researchers may also engage some professionals in these fields to find some substitute to resolve the problems of the employees.
Data collection and interpretation
The collection of data and interpreting them is the most difficult process. So, the researchers will choose 30-40 experts to make the survey possible. The researchers will mainly process the survey by engaging employees who work ion the organization and the age limit will be below 50years. The researchers will also appoint time from HR to make an interview environment to know about the problems regarding the high turnover rate from the employees. The researchers will utilize the method of quantitative and qualitative findings to find our the percentile of the employees who are not satisfied with the job. The researchers maybe focus on some groups who work in the organization and can implement some mixed methods to reduce the problems.
In the above-discussed research the information gained is about the labor turnover rate. The researchers utilize some methods and how they implement it to get results are also discussed above. The researchers also engaged some experts in the management area to choke out the problems where they are lacking.
Agah, N.N., Kaniuka, T. and Chitiga, M., 2020. Examining motivation theory in higher education among tenured and non-tenured faculty: Scholarly activity and academic rank. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 12(2), pp.77-100.
Biyela, S.M., 2018. Marketing mix strategy adaptation in response to global economic crisis at Woolworths in KwaZulu-Natal (Doctoral dissertation).
Dai, N.T., Free, C. and Gendron, Y., 2019. Interview-based research in accounting 2000–2014: Informal norms, translation and vibrancy. Management Accounting Research, 42, pp.26-38.
Ekhsan, M., Aeni, N., Parashakti, R. and Fahlevi, M., 2019, November. The Impact Of Motivation, Work Satisfaction And Compensation On Employee's ProductivityIn Coal Companies. In 2019 1st International Conference on Engineering and Management in Industrial System (ICOEMIS 2019). Atlantis Press.
Jiang, Y., Liu, S. and Zhang, S., 2014. Disposition Effect Based on Turnover Rate. SSRN Electronic Journal,.
Khampepe, J., 2018. South African Commercial Catering and Allied Workers Union and Others v Woolworths (Pty) Limited.
Lewis, T. and Phillipov, M., 2016. A pinch of ethics and a soupçon of home cooking: Soft-selling supermarkets on food television. In Food, Media and Contemporary Culture (pp. 105-124). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Scott, P. and Walker, J.T., 2017. The only way is up: retail format saturation and the demise of the American five and dime store, 1914-1941. Business History Review, 91(1), pp.71-103.
Wolf, C., Joye, D., Smith, T.W. and Fu, Y.C. eds., 2016. The SAGE handbook of survey methodology. Sage.
?ochowska, R., Karo?, G., Sobota, A. and Janecki, R., 2017. Selected aspects of the methodology of a household interview survey on an urban agglomeration scale with regard to ITS services. Zeszyty Naukowe. Transport/Politechnika ?l?ska.