CHCPOL003 Research and Apply Evidence to Practice

1.1 Background of the Research

In this particular section of the assignment, an overview of the entire research operations will be analysed that will be considered throughout each and every stages of the assignment. Moreover, the background of the research topic along with its aim and objectives will be critically analysed. The research questions will be formed and at the later section of this section, the problem statement will be stated.

1.2 Research Rationale

The primary motive of this assignment is to demonstrate the sustainable organisational practises and green-business strategies that have been adopted by the HONG KONG’s construction industries. It can be observed that in the modern scenario the construction industry is one of the most diverse industries of the nation that includes several activities such as raging, foresting and quarrying processes. Apart from that, the construction industry is also critically inter-related with the supply of products, maintenance and disposal. In addition to that, the construction output of the entire Hong Kong is nearly £110 billion that contributes approximately. The sustainability in the construction industry can be referred as a broad term that describes the desires of the professionals of the sector to carry out a specific business operation that signifies the use of natural resources with a respectful manner so that all the harmful impacts can be minimised. Besides that, the sustainable use of natural resources also refers to make the resources available for use for future generations (Misopoulos et al. 2019).

In addition to that, it can be understood that, within the Hong Kong, the construction sector of the nation tends to develop such industrial operation which can create a structural and resource-efficient business practises through which the organisational behaviours can become environment-friendly and proper maintenance can be developed. In addition to that, the industry of the Hong Kong has started its operational behaviours by acknowledging the energy-efficient practises (Trotta, 2018). On the other hand, the assignment will also include the proper use of the wastages that can emerge from the construction wastes. On the other hand, the sustainability can also be defined as a collective process through which a collective process can be established so that all the built environment can become able to achieve a significant ecological balance so that retrofit construction operation can be developed. On the other hand, it can be understood that for achieving long-term viability and humanized architecture the green-organisational operations can be established. Apart from that, for promoting the sustainable industrial operations within the UL’s construction sector the companies have taken several initiatives to minimize the carbon-emissions and also incorporates the use of renewable energy sources. Additionally, on-site water treatment plants have been manufactured in the construction sites of the nation. Moreover, to minimise the wastages recycling operations have also been incorporated. Furthermore, it can be seen that in the modern scenario the concept of sustainability is one of the most significant aspects that are to be considered for reducing the negative impact of the construction operations on the environments (Craveiroa et al. 2019). 

1.3 Aim of the research

The primary aim of this research is to demonstrate the contribution of the construction sector of the Hong Kong to promote and establish environment friendly industrial operations. In addition to that, it can be understood that the assignment also tends to represent the effect of eco-friendly organisational behaviours on the environment and initiate a sustainable operation structure. Apart from that, the assignment also aims towards stating the types of sustainable movements on the environment and its effect on the nature. In addition to that, one of the significant aim of the assignment is to demonstrate and analyse the waste management operations undertaken by HONG KONG’s construction industry to properly recycle the on-site wastages of the construction ground. Besides that, the assignment also aims to determine the critical elements that are essential to be undertaken for maintaining the sustainable measures. On the other hand, the sustainable goals of the green-environmental practises is also to be discussed in the assignment in respect of the HONG KONG’s construction industry. The significance of the green-ecological practises will also be aimed to discuss in the research so that a specific balance will be maintained in various social and ecological dimensions. However, the major aim from the sustainable development is to balance an economic and environmental prosperity that can allow the future generations to have a significant support while using the natural resources.

The major advantages that can be gained by the construction industry of the Hong Kong will also be stated in the research. It can be observed that, sustainable development is the type of improvisation of organisational behaviours that can allow the organisation to meet with all the specific needs without compromising the capability of the future generations to fulfil their own specific needs and requirements.       

1.4 Research objective

In general terms, the research objective mainly describes the expectations of the researcher that is to be achieved within a specific timeframe. On the other hand, the research objective of the research objective for this assignment is also aligned with the hypothesis of the project. On the other hand, the major objective of this particular research is to analyse the significance of ensuring sustainable and green practises within the construction department of the Hong Kong. The objectives of the research are as below:

1. To understand the concept and evaluation of green marketing.

2. To analyse the effectiveness of the Go-Green concept in organisational practices.

3. To understand the effectiveness of Green and sustainable initiatives within a business organisation.

4. To demonstrate the operational efficiency and working structure of the HONG KONG’s construction industry.

5. To analyse the sustainable measures in the construction industry of the Hong Kong.

6. To determine the carbon-footprints developed by the construction industries of the Hong Kong.

7. To analyse the initiatives that have been acquired by the government of the Hong Kong to reduce carbon emissions and enhance sustainability.

8. To assess the essentiality of sustainability within the Hong Kong.  

It can be stated that the above stated objectives are essential as it explains the exact reason and achievable of the research. In addition, the above research objectives are apt and justified as through achieving these objectives the actual overview of the context can be understood.   

1.5 Research question

The research questions that are to be achieved are stated as below:

1. What is the concept and evaluation process of green marketing?

2. What are the effectiveness of the Go-Green concept in organisational practices?

3. What is the effectiveness of Green and sustainable initiatives within a business organisation?

4. What are the operational efficiency and working structure of the HONG KONG’s construction industry?

5. What are the significant sustainable measures in the construction industry of the Hong Kong?

6. What are the carbon-footprints that are developed by the construction industries of the Hong Kong?

7. What are the initiatives that have been acquired by the government of the Hong Kong to reduce carbon emissions and enhance sustainability?

8. What is the essentiality of sustainability within the Hong Kong?

1.6 Problem statement   

It can be stated that the implications of sustainable development within the construction industry of the Hong Kong mainly signifies the betterment of the people and the society as well. Therefore, based on this it can be understood that the well-being and equality in using natural resources are not often compromised by the modern-day industries. It can be stated that the organisations want to use most of the resources and hardly wants to minimise their uses by sacrificing their own enhancement. Apart from this, it can also be understood that if the natural-society faces several imbalances due to the excessive use of natural resources can threaten the economic and social stability of nature.

On the other hand, while discussing the sustainable movements and green industrial operations in the HONG KONG’s construction sector, it can be understood that some of the sectors are still using non-sustainable ways while operating their business activities. Therefore, due to their non-compromising behaviours in using natural resources can also serve drastic effects on nature.

On the other hand, on the basis of this current study, one of the major problems that have arrived is the lack of time for commencing proper research. As the entire research project is required to be submitted within a specific time, some of the areas have remained unassessed. Besides that, due to lack of unauthentic secondary data resources, some of the aspects of the research has also remained unexplained.

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Environment is changing itself from the last few decades. There are reasons behind this change. Human lifestyle is one of the primary reasons for establishing some changes. Earth is being polluted by different types of hazards which are being created by humans. As the pollution increases, the environment of earth is also reacting to that, which is causing natural calamity and several diseases. Now, it is offensive to mention that every person is careless about the environment but some are there who really want to resolve this fatality. People on earth must be aware of the consequences of this increasing level of pollution. As it has been mentioned that human lifestyle is one of the foremost causes of the environmental issues, so that indicates several industries performing on the earth and putting its wastage either in air or soil or water. Another reason for the environmental imbalance is reducing trees for the sake of industries. Today, this awareness must be increased by which the people on the earth can understand that the issues of the environment are happening because of the lifestyle of the human. It is imperative to mention that so many people are working collectively to save the environment vis-a-vis the world. The behaviour of the consumer is being changed now-a-days, the lifestyle of the people on earth is inclining towards a lifestyle that is “green”. Many agencies are working together who are trying to recycle the used objects as well as trying to save the resources. Pertaining to this new form of livelihood, industries are being modified also. This way the marketing factors are also taking place which have indulgence towards green. The motto of “going green” is now everywhere. To increase this Green lifestyle, many adaptations must be ensured by the industries. On the other hand, the marketers are also trying to utilise this need of the customers so that innovative ideas are being carried out, products are being modified, sustainability is being maintained and many more efforts are being performed simultaneously. To protect the environment, customers are putting stress towards those materials which are not hazardous. Responsibility of the customers are evolving towards the aspect of protecting the environment. Now, “Green” is the signature of purity as well as quality and “Green marketing” is that event which is being important in the world, today. On the other hand, green marketing also facilitates sustainable development in the industry. The following study will be based on the green marketing and the sustainable practice of “going green” in the market. In this literature review, there will be the evolution of green marketing. After that, a brief discussion will be presented which will put stress on the businesses and how this tendency of “going green” emphasizes that. The practice of “going green” in business will consist of competitive advantages, competition, green consumerism, regulations, factors of social responsibilities and automation. Therefore, the initiatives of “going green” in business will be taking place in the study also.

2.2 Evolution in Green marketing

As green marketing is gathering importance from the people on earth in the new market trend, an innovative business line is being introduced in the market too. The products as well as the services which are being offered in this new market are quite eco-friendly. The demands of humans are emerging with this green marketing as the reduction of the harmful effects on the environment is the foremost priority. It is a fact that the demand of humans is not decreasing but rising at every moment, on the other hand, natural resources are reducing by competing those demands. Now, it is imperative to protect those resources to save the earth as well as the environment. The business practices which take place in the market are getting influenced by the environmental issues. So many companies are there which are putting importance to the businesses and making changes in the business strategies. To have advantages in the competition at the market, many organizations are producing those products which are environment friendly. In some cases, there are those businesses which are facing those customers who are inclined to eco-friendly services as well as products. For them, those businesses have initiated “green marketing” to establish that these businesses are not causing any harm to the environment or human life. The customers are influenced by their personal habits, social state, cultural traits, psychology and economy before buying any service or product. This nature of “going green” is inspiring the customers to acquire those products which are environment friendly, which on the other hand, facilitates the performance of the services and the products to act towards the welfare of the environment. In different markets, the consumers who prefer the attitude of “going green” are increasing every day. The consumers are participating in this course of saving the environment.

 

Figure 1: Evolution of Green Marketing

(Source: Arseculeratne and Yazdanifard, 2014)

The inception of green marketing has been taking place on earth for the last few decades. The first attempt at Green marketing was taken by the AMA which is American Marketing Association in 1974-75. In the discourse of “ecological marketing” this particular type of marketing was introduced. After that, in the early phase of the 1980s, Europe participated in this initiative and started reducing the objects which caused detrimental effects in the environment. Ken Pattie wrote the book named “Green Marketing” which was very popular and catchy to society of the Hong Kong (Peattie, 2016). Besides this, another book with that identical name was also published in the United States of America, written by Jacquelyn Ottman (Ottman, 2017). This entire literary discourse had started awarding the society and making the people on earth conscious about the environmental matters. The green marketing was sorted in three different phases. These three phases were incepted with the first one which told about the marketing that is eco-friendly or “ecological marketing”. In this special kind of marketing, the industries have to put an eye on those factors of industries which caused environmental hazards and reduce those factors eventually. Then the industries or the organizations must offer some products and services which can earn the satisfaction of the consumers and catch the market with those services and products which do not cause any harm to the environment. The success of this phase was not as sure as all the business organizations were offering the same. In some cases the business organizations were mentioning these “green” products and services but not offering the same as promised. In this way the customers were facing issues of treachery from the business community. Some organizations were encashing this “green marketing” as only a business trick but not meant to be green at all. In these cases, consumers are getting that the business organizations are claiming to be eco-friendly and producing materials which do not at all prevent the health of humans. The next phase was about the renovation of technologies which are meant to re-design all the products. In this way, pollution on earth could be restricted as well as the management of the waste material. In this phase, the stress was put on the side of preventing the environment according to the welfare of human life and existence. The last of these three phases was initiated from the last phase of the 1990s. The last phase incepted to develop those products and services which are of standard quality, proper pricing, sustaining performance and definitely friendly to the environment. This marketing which was initiated in this phase was not only “green marketing” but sustainable marketing on the other hand (Ottoman and Humphrey, 1993).

2.3 Going Green in business

2.3.1 Competitive Advantage

According to Angelico and Vocal Elli (2017), now, it is also true that the security of the environment solely depends upon the behaviour of the consumers, the products and services offered by the organizations and the waste material of the industries performing behind these organizations. A commitment from the side of these businesses is coming in recent days, where the production, waste disposal, marketing as well as the consumption is inside the parameter of “going green” which is causing less harm to the environment, so that the global warming can be reduced, same goes for the solid waste materials which are non-bio degradable. Now many organizations are there which do not offer those products or services that are not eco-friendly or support the environment to sustain. Business opportunities are getting opened in this sense where some organizations are offering those products which protects the environment and think of the health of the consumers. Martinez (2015) states that, now competitive advantages can be gained by those companies who are performing for the welfare of the society and environment as well. For example, many companies offer paper wrapped products but do not offer those wrappers which are made up of polythene. Besides this, some organizations are there who offer services and claim that each time when the consumers buy the products, the organizations will plant a tree. In these ways some of the business organizations can gain competitive advantages after the third phase of green initiative (Grimmer and Woolley, 2014).

 

Figure 2: Green Initiative of Construction Industry

(Source: Brindley and Oxborrow, 2014)

2.3.2 Regulations

The governments of many countries are participating in this initiative to prevent the environment. Many regulations are taking place to save the world from pollution. Governments are regulating so many rules on the agencies which offer products and services to the consumers. In many cases, governments are compelling the industries to not produce those materials which cause harmful effects to human life or to the earth. Besides this, legislative authorities are initiating rules to ensure the welfare of the health of human life, such as, pollution control boards in many countries are being effective in recent days, waste management procedures are being firmly regulated, and pollution caused by the transport system is also being monitored. As per the statement of Wu and Chen (2014), many industries release their waste material to water or air; pollution control boards are always there to check the toxic materials in the atmosphere, water and soil. In many cases, governments of the countries have renovated their rules and compelled the citizens of the countries to follow them. These rules are made to assure the welfare of the environment. In some countries, the citizens have to face penalties if the rules are not maintained by the citizens.

 

Figure 3: Green Green Initiative

(Source: Costa Pinto et al. 2014)

2.3.3 Competition

According to Yang et al. (2015), it is important to build the awareness among the consumers so that they can choose what to buy and what not. On the other hand, this awareness programme must also be spreader inside the industries so that they can understand about the health of the earth and its sustainability. It is true that human existence solely depends upon the sustainability of the world and it is also true that if the natural resources come to an end, the human or any kind of living existence cannot survive anymore. So, it is imperative to put effort on producing those products which are susceptible to sustain the life of the earth, or at least not harming in direct ways, at the preliminary stages. In this case the habits of the consumers are also important so that the industries need to provide those materials which can convince the consumers to maintain their lives with eco-friendly products. It is true in many ways that humans are habituated to those products which are not friendly to the environment. But this situation has come because of the lavish or used to lifestyle which has been offered by the industries or the businesses. Now it is the duty of those industries or businesses to accustom the consumers towards the new kind of lifestyle. To gain competitive advantages, industries and the organizations have started ensuring those products as well as services which are eco-friendly. But it is not enough to produce an object that is friendly to the environment but it is also important to market through the ways which are less polluting as well as the distribution process and the usage of the products also. Therefore, comes the system of waste management, to maintain which the industries need to procure values that will prevent the environment from being harmed. These endeavours help the industries and the organizations to have competitive advantages in this “go green” initiative to save the earth.

2.3.4 Social Responsibility

To enter the mind of the consumers, the industries and the organizations must promote the products according to the need of the consumers. As the consumers get benefited from the productions of the industries; on the other hand, the business entities also get benefited from the purchasing tendencies of the customers, but this must be ensured that this profitability may not harm the environment, which is the first priority. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the industries to not to offer any kind of service or product that detriments the health of the consumers. Ahmad (2015) states that, there are those consumers who solely prefer to buy those materials which are pure and do not cause any harm to the environment. These consumers are named as “green consumers”. These “green consumers” have initiated the practice of being responsible to the society and influence the industries to produce those materials which are “green”, in a sense of purity. To put stress on this need of these customers, the industries have procured different kinds of strategies that are of marketing mix. The industries which run business must be aware of the betterment of the society. As there are aspects of cost as well as profit in the business, these aspects must be addressed from the perception of environmental challenges. To resolve the polluting effects of waste materials, many industries are trying to recycle their wastages. In this way, the harmful effects of these waste materials are being reduced; besides this, to recycle the waste material, the industries also have to work with those raw materials which can be used afterwards of the production (Papadis et al. 2017).

Figure 4: Marketing concept of the Going Green Buildings

(Source: Nair and Paulose, 2014)

2.3.5 Green Consumerism

According to Lalon (2015), as per the statement of Lo (2014), it has said earlier in this literature review that “green consumers” are those who prefer those materials which help to sustain the environment. The products or the services which are preferred by the green consumers are less pollutant to the earth. To reach the satisfaction of these customers, many industries are trying to renovate their products to ensure the health of nature. Now, green consumerism is something that is meant to be the relationship between the consumers and the industries which is based on the products or services that are susceptible for the sake of the environment. This sense of awareness is building on a regular basis, so that the industries are bound to increase their production based on the satisfactory needs of the customers. Consumers are preferring greenness in their lifestyle in these recent days. Besides that, global warming and other natural disasters are compelling the consumers to bring purity in their life. The concept of a healthy lifestyle has been changing since the initiative of “going green” is procured to the people on earth. A healthy life not only depends upon a person’s lifestyle but that person has to ensure that how she/he is leading her/his life does not harm the environment as a whole (Leonidou et al. 2017).

Figure 5: Customer reaching stages in Green sustainable business

(Source: Lo and Shiah, 2016)

 As the entrepreneurs have understood this mentality of the consumers, they have started to bring awareness to the lifestyle of all the people who consume their products or services. This new possibility of business has enabled so many other organizations to build awareness among the people. As many green products will acquire society, the green business will spread compared to that awareness also. A study on people in the Hong Kong has shown that more than 9.5 percent of them solely prefer green products in their daily life. The consumers who prefer green products want to lead their lifestyle without harming the environment. That is why they want to use those products which are not causing detriment to the earth. Green consumers are also building awareness to society as all the people can understand the cause of using the products which are green. It is not that the industrialists are bringing this awareness to people for losing their profit but this green consciousness is creating other business possibilities on earth to earn more. So this “going green” nature of the industries not only helps the environment to sustain for a few more years but it has profitability causes for the industrialists too (Newman et al. 2014).

2.3.6 Automation

Dangelico (2016) states that, now the business organizations are using their technological advancements to produce green products for their clients. In this way more green services as well as products will be there to convince those people who are not still aware of the environment. To build this awareness among the people, technologies are being used to convince. While entering many websites, there are small writings present to spread this awareness. Other than this, many industries are working without papers, so that they can save trees and nature as well. Besides this, a competitive market is growing where those industries will sustain who offers green products to their consumers. A huge market is taking place in the world where people want to save the environment and the industries are following them. Many organizations are providing their services to spread awareness among the people. Social networking sites are active to reach a large number of people. Many industries are taking help from these organizations so that they can reach as many people as they can (Puopolo et al. 2015).

2.4 Green Initiatives in Business

According to Isaksson (2014), to expand this Green way of life, numerous adjustments must be guaranteed by the businesses. Then again, the marketers are additionally attempting to use this need of the clients with the goal that inventive thoughts are being completed, items are being changed, maintainability is being kept up and a lot more endeavours are being performed at the same time. To ensure the earth, clients are putting worry towards those materials which are not dangerous. Obligations of the clients are advancing towards the part of ensuring nature. On the other hand, the strategic policies which happen in the market are getting affected by the ecological issues. Such huge numbers of organizations are there which are placing significance to the organizations and making changes in the business techniques. To have favourable circumstances in the opposition at the market, numerous associations are delivering those items which are condition cordial. At times, there are those organizations which are confronting those clients who are slanted to eco-accommodating administrations just as items. For them, those organizations have started "green promoting" to build up that these organizations are not causing any damage to nature or human life. Gazzola et al. (2019) states that, this nature of "practicing environmental safety" is rousing the clients to get those items which are condition well disposed, which then again, encourages the exhibition of the administrations and the items to act towards the government assistance of the earth. In various markets, the buyers who incline toward the mentality of "practicing environmental safety" are expanding regularly. The customers are partaking in this course of sparing the earth. Business openings are getting opened in this sense where a few associations are offering those items which secures the earth and think about the wellbeing of the shoppers. Presently upper hands can be picked up by those organizations who are performing for the government assistance of the general public and condition also. Presently, green industrialism is something that is intended to be the connection between the customers and the ventures which depends on the items or administrations that are vulnerable for the earth. This feeling of mindfulness is expanding all the time, so the ventures will undoubtedly build their creation dependent on the agreeable needs of the clients. According to Mishra and Sharma (2014), Buyers are leaning toward greenness in their way of life in these ongoing days. Other than that, a dangerous atmospheric deviation and other cataclysmic events are convincing the shoppers to get virtue in their life. Many green projects are throughout the world in recent days. Some of the important green projects are mentioned in this segment of the study such as, Eden Project, Chatham Green Project, and People Tree and beyond skin. Other than these green projects, many organizations are promoting this green initiative to a personal level so that the awareness among the industries and among the people is building on a daily basis. Now, there is the relation of buying and selling between the organizations and the consumers but as the shoppers get profited by the creations of the enterprises; then again, the business elements likewise get profited by the buying propensities of the clients, yet this must be guaranteed that this benefit may not hurt nature, which is the primary goal. Along these lines, it is the obligation of the enterprises to not to offer any sort of administration or item that impedes the wellbeing of the buyers. As the consumers get benefited by the creations of the industries; then again, the business substances additionally get profited by the buying propensities of the clients, however this must be guaranteed that this benefit may not hurt the earth, which is the main goal. In this manner, it is the obligation of the enterprises to not to offer any sort of administration or item that impair the strength of the customers as well as the environment (Leverett, 2014).

2.5 Overview of the HONG KONG's construction industry

The construction industry of the Hong Kong plays a significant role in increasing the overall revenue of the nation. However, the industry includes manning, quarrying and forestry-related operations to create buildings across various metro cities of the nation. Moreover, Naoum (2003) has stated that manufacturing and maintain the supply chain through ensuring proper maintenance of the construction operation is a major task of this industry. The construction output of the Hong Kong is estimated at nearly £110 billion per year. Moreover, such large-scale output also contributes to nearly 7% of the total contribution of the overall GDP of the nation. However, nearly a quarter of the output of the construction industry is from the public sector and three-quarter of the output comes from the private sector. Mohammad et al. (2018) have stated that there are three major sectors among which the construction industry is mainly divided, such as commercial and social sector, residential construction and the infrastructure sector. On the other hand, it can be understood that approximately more than 60% of the construction output forms new buildings and 40% comes from the refurbishment and various maintenance operations. The entire industry of the Hong Kong is also capable to incorporate more than 3 million job opportunities. It can be acknowledged that the construction industry mainly comes within the industry of remittance of the department of the business. It can be understood that innovation and skills are one of the most significant elements that assure the construction committee of the nation to provide job opportunities and scope of career enhancements for various individuals across the nation.   

A professional gap of sustainability in the construction industry

According to Oyewole and Dada (2019), it can be understood that there is a significant professional gap can be understood in this case. Additionally, there are various significant shreds of evidence can also be assessed the construction workers does not perform within the anticipated designed stage. Apart from that, the differences between the actual and anticipated performance within this industry of the Hong Kong is mainly known as the performance gap. On the other hand, it can be understood that while acknowledging the PROBE studies it can be understood that there are various demonstrations of actual energy consumption within the building construction mostly become doubled at the end of the session in comparison to the predicted expenses. Baranova and Conway (2017) have also stated that as per the recent analysis it can be assessed that there are more recent construction-related rules and regulations have been formed that is comprised of Carbon trust law and Low carbon building accelerator. However, on the basis of that low carbon building program have also been developed in this case that is able to reduce the carbon emission for the construction operations. However, the study on energy consumption practises within this practises have shown that in comparison to any other industries across the nation, this particular sector consumes more than 5times higher energies from its business operations.      

2.6 Sustainability in the Construction Industry of the HONG KONG

It can be stated that the quest for sustainability within the construction industry of the Hong Kong has developed an immense pressure on the government of the nation. In addition to that Alwan, Jones and Holgate (2017) have stated that the government and general public bodies of the HONG KONG have managed to improvise its unsustainable pattern of delivering options of various construction projects. Moreover, while conducting a significant review of the construction industry of the Hong Kong, it can be understood that the construction engagement is widely inter-related along with the concept of sustainability in this case. In addition to that, Olawumi and Chan (2018) have stated that, within this industry, the responses of the contractors are widely considered so those probable solutions can be undertaken against various issues. Apart from that, it can be observed that, while considering the premises based on which the large-scale construction firms drive their business operations and manage the supply chain activities the business researches become dependent on the industry researches. According to Khatib (2016), it can be understood that the concept of sustainability in the building development industry of the Hong Kong is a vast and complex element that also a significant impact of the environmental policies. On the other hand, based on this particular context it can be understood that the built environment of the Hong Kong includes various aspects that include carbon emission. It can be assessed that nearly about 45% of the carbon emission of the entire nation is accounted for from the construction industry of the nation. Apart from that, nearly 70% of the domestic emissions are arises from space heating and due to the provisions of the hot water resources. However, approximately 13% of the wastages from the construction industry have been delivered to the waste management authority of the nation and are used for the landfilling operations.

2.7 HONG KONG construction carbon footprints

Dixit et al. (2017) have stated that the construction organisations of the Hong Kong have developed several strategies that mazy allow them to follow the carbon footprints and target a sustainable construction operation. However, the joint industry strategy and the HONG KONG government's planning have set an ambitious target for the construction organisations to reduce the carbon emission from the process of construction operations. Besides that, as per the studies for the year 2008, it can be identified that the emission of carbon elements from the construction operations and transportation activities have contributed approximately 15% of the total emission of the entire nation. Karunasena, Rathnayake and Senarathne (2016) have stated that the strategic forum of Construction and carbon trust instrumental facilitation among various facilities across the industry have been recognised which includes the statements and perceptions of the stakeholders. In addition to that, the industry associates and other officials of the construction industry have stated shared their values and concepts along with each other that may help them to find a significant way of implementing the sustainable policies regarding carbon footprints. Misopoulos et al, (2019) have stated the channels of the action plan of the industry have implemented several carbon reduction efforts for gaining a coordinated response.

Apart from that, Ajayi and Oyedele (2017) have stated that based on the precedent studies carbon footprints within this industry have also implemented several carbon accounting methodologies so that the construction emission can be effectively accounted. Besides that, the government of the nation have also provided clear and significant guidance for all the business organisation of the nation that may help them to reduce the carbon emission for the construction practices. De Wolf, Pomponi and Moncaster (2017) have stated that fuel cost and cost-efficient construction practises can be developed if the carbon foot-print and sustainable organisational practises having been developed. To minimize the level of carbon-emissions form this industry straight-forward changes have been directed to use. The replacement of portable building has been done so that big and significant differences can be acknowledged regarding reducing the carbon-emission. 

Chowdhury et al. (2016) have stated that this particular industry mainly operates at a low level of a profit margin so that the financial benefits can be easily gained within a specific timeframe. Apart from that, the utilisation of the capital costs is also required to be specifically utilised so that probable risks can be mitigated. The basic strategy is to encourage the adoption of various tactics that can give a clear direction to all the construction firms so that environmental sustainability can be maintained as well.     

2.8 Sustainable development in the HONG KONG construction industry

It can be observed that the national carbon emission targets of the Hong Kong have set out various sustainable measures due to the recent climate-changing operations. In addition to that, Xia et al. (2018) have stated that as per the climate change act of the HONG KONG government have estimated to make critical and diverse changes in the construction industry of the nation to make significant innovation and implementation of sustainable strategies to reduce the carbon emissions up to 50% by the end of the year 2050. As per the climate change law, not just the carbon emission, but water consumption rate and landfill rate of the wastages will also be minimised. In addition to that, the construction industry of the Hong Kong has also been identified as one of the key enablers along with the potential contributors to the sustainable development of the nation. Besides that, Xia et al. (2018) have also explained that due to a major impact within the building construction activity of the nation various social and economic impact can be seen that have been tended to be reduced by the HONG KONG government during the past few decades. The government of the nation published multiple reports and also have established several initiatives for encouraging an environmental and sustainable reformation of the construction industry.        

According to Rostami and Thomson (2017), it can be understood that the department of business innovation and skills of the Hong Kong have adopted the term sustainability that has made the construction industry quite significant and environment friendly as well. Apart from that, it can be understood that due to the immensely increasing interest upon the CI (construction industry) aspects to move toward the sustainable movements environmental and social aspects have been accounted by the HONG KONG authorities. Moreover, the industry bodies have also taken a specific commitment towards the nation and environment sustainability factors that have expressed to build a better and enhanced quality of life through ensuring green and sustainable approaches in the construction operations. Craveiroa et al. (2019) have stated that to develop a sustainable development within this sector environmental and social aspects have also taken into account. It can be seen that the CI also have a major impact on the water resources, land use and also have a huge emission of greenhouse gases that is harmful to the environment. Due to the greenhouse gas emission, the committee of the general health of the HONG KONG has deployed several implications through which the carbon-emissions can be reduced.

2.9 HONG KONG government strategy to reduce the carbon emission

In order to portray the responsibilities of the construction industry of HONG KONG, it can be understood that the government of the nation have considered the ambitious targets are mainly set out for the minimization of carbon and greenhouse gas emission up to 50 per cent. Apart from that, in recent times the strategy of the HONG KONG's government is to reduce the negative impact of carbon and greenhouse gas emissions on the environment due to non-sustainable activities of the construction industry. However, the facts and figures disclosed by the government of the Hong Kong have provided several opportunities for the industry to explore multiple ways to reduce the carbon emission. Apart from that, there are enormous pressures have been faced by the construction organisations of the nation as multiple limitations have been developed by the government of the HONG KONG due to environmental protection. In addition to that, CI has also offered three dimensions of sustainability in order to provide a significant respond against the carbon-emission. Moreover, the facts that have been stated in this segment mainly describes various opportunities for the industry for exploring. In addition to that, Webb, Hawkey and Tingey (2016) have stated that due to the enormous pressure in this particular case, as extra-ordinary demands have been incorporated due to immense criteria of the government of the nation to strictly follow the rules and regulation based on sustainable business operations and follow the carbon-footprints.

On the other hand, Trotta (2018) has stated that there is significant responsibility are required to be maintained by the construction industries of the nation so that ambitious targets can be fulfilled so that sustainable business operation can be fulfilled. Apart from that, due to the immense demand of the government and construction clients of the nation, respond to the sustainable business approach have been stated to be developed so that the business can become aligned with the targeted market needs.

2.10 Importance of sustainability in the HONG KONG

According to Lozano and von Haartman (2018), the construction industry is one of the massive and significant sectors of the Hong Kong that contributes nearly about 6% of the global Gross Domestic Product. While considering the urban areas of the global scenario it can be understood that there are nearly 200,000 people are connected with the housing development and construction industry. However, in the modern scenario sustainability can be recognised as one of the most challenging aspects for the construction industry of the Hong Kong. In addition to that, it can be stated that while considering the essentiality of sustainable industrial approaches of the industry, it can be observed that, sustainability can make the operations of the company more flexible and transparent. However, as in the modern scenario, global warming and carbon emission have become one of the most specific and significant issues, therefore, the emission control and environmental sustainability are also required to be established.

Cooper, Stamford and Azapagic (2018) have stated that sustainability also creates a huge impact on ensuring proper utilisation of energy resources and natural fuels. In addition to that, land grading is a specific operation for the construction industries that can affect the ability of the ground to absorb and also capturing the water. Therefore, extensive digging and grading can also harm the ability of the ground and reduce the quality of the soil. Moreover, sustainability also assists in constructing buildings for more than one purposes. It can be understood that as the buildings have been built to reuse rather than demolish the number of wastages for landfilling can be minimised. Apart from that, it can also reduce the wastages and allow the contractor to reuse the raw materials several times. Therefore, due to this it can save the extensive use of resources and can also provide several solutions regarding lack of raw material. Demirel and Kesidou (2019) have also stated that sustainability is essential for the construction industry as it eliminates the designs and pattern of construction in which there are significant possibilities to reduce the extensive use of materials and hard to follow the environmental sustainability.

It can be observed that through making a significant circular using the materials and reducing the excretion of raw materials can make the construction operations more environmentally friendly. Apart from that, regenerating a natural system of business operation can be recognised as one of the most significant ways to maintain the sustainability as it also ensures that the construction operations have to keep up along with the demands through ignoring all the specific and profound environmental demands. The construction industry of the Hong Kong mainly produces neural about 20 million tons of wastages that are sent to the landfills. This amount of wastages are three times higher than the wastages created by the households of the entire nation. However, it can be observed that the wastages created by the construction industry are not that much of re-usable. Besides that, one of the huge issue with this thing is the extraction treatment of the raw materials is taxing for the environment of the nation that has delivered a damage fir both global and local section.

2.11 Marketing policies of the construction industry of Hong Kong

Introduction: - Marketing is the most important part of any business. Today’s marketing activities related to the target, goods, goals, services and innovation. “Goods and services do not move automatically from the producer to user. A definite mechanism brings about exchange of goods and services against consideration of monetary value”.

"Marketing is the bridge that fills the gap between two important wheels of economy, producer and customer. In this age of rapid change, marketing is known as a back bone of all business operations. Marketing is said to be the eye and years of business because, it keeps the business in close contact with its environment."

Some economist say marketing is the base of any country economy. Poor marketing fall country economy and growth. This era divided into three parts of economic growth first is capitalism of country as united states of America, France, Germany, Canada and other Europe state, there per capita income highly and high living level. Second is developing country as Hong Kong, China, Nepal, Bangladesh and another, three un-developing country as Nigeria, Uganda etc. There per capita income very low and social activity is very poor thus the country marketing is an important activity. This capitalism country focuses that marketing strategy to economic growth and attention a lot of production or "high production" and its selling. But non capitalism country takes first step in the marketing strategy of the society, and investors marketing is a vital activity. The economy success and failure depends of upon good marketing planning. In narrow sense, marketing start after the products is produced and ends with their sale. But is broader sense, marketing starts before the production activity and continues even after making sales of product. Thus marketing is the identification and profitable satisfaction of customer's needs.

Marketing is the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user. So company all new products starts life as "Just an ideas". The internal environment of a business enterprise plays a very important part here. It is a permissive atmosphere where employees, irrespective of cadre, are encouraged to give out their ideas? Or does it permit only senior level people to have that freedom? Organizing to allow for free communication and ready receptivity to new ideas or concepts is vital to the success of any such project.

The quality of services of an organization is recognized and sought for by customers. It will be difficult to sell a product either a new one or an existing one. In an environment of intense competition, this aspect will assume a greater importance. A green buildings organization will have to keep the above issues also before embarking upon designing and introducing a new product in the market. Green buildings products can be classified in two products:-

Another area where there will be wide scope for introduction of new products will be the pension market. Construction industry of Hong Kong has introduced certain products with a guarantee of a high rate of return of indefinite term with one hundred percent security. Green Building Plan (an immediate annuity) the rate of return is almost 12.7% guaranteed for one's life time and capital invested is also secure.

Green buildings, it is said, is sold but not bought. Hence, a major factor involved is the invitation of the selling force and it is essential to keep their morale high in order for the green buildings products to be successful. In order to keep in time with the market, several new green buildings products are launched from time to time like pension products and group buildings products.

This implies matching of products with what is demanded in the market. This requires determining the requirements of potential customers and then developing and supplying those products which meet their requirements. If a business produce the products to satisfy the requirements of customers it is more likely to be successful in achieving its objectives. It means the buyer gets want satisfying goods and services and the seller gets value (money) in exchange of goods and services. Thus, both the parties are benefitted. However, there is no compulsion for participating in the exchange process. The parties can either accept or reject the offer of each other.

Marketing is a system consisting of several interdependent and sub-systems. It is true that a system might vary according to the changes in the concept. Therefore in a sense marketing system say be referred to as a socio-economic process and the broader views, the marketing as a system that correlates the firm and the society.

Marketing is the most essential for any firm - It is directly concerned with customer. Marketing important functions are to identify customer’s needs and satisfy them by offering value of product or services. Marketing affects each person's life. It is the heart of any business organization. Marketing aims at satisfying the needs of customers to provide quality products and services and ultimate raise their standard of living.

Marketing deals with all those methods and technique that are required to put the products in the hands of the ultimate consumer. It ensures provision of products tailor-made to suit consumer's requirement through effective and suitable distribution channels. Philip Kotler - "Marketing is the delivery of customer satisfaction of profit." Marketing is better to recall the four Ps- Product, Pricing place and promotions.

Products - Green buildings are completely different from other products. Insurance is an invisible product; an agreement that promises to indemnify the losses upon happening of an event at a future date against up-front payments, thus insurance is based on confidence, since customers take out policies with the expectation of receiving compensation in the event of accidents. The green buildings are nothing but the "Promises" made by the insurer to protect the insured from the perceived risks.

Price - Insurance product pricing is more difficult than general product pricing. Difficulty arises because of two major reasons:

?         Intangible nature of green buildings

?         Payment of "unqualified - future – obligations”.

Insurance product pricing has some unique features which arise from the fact that the actual claims cost (the main component of the cost) becomes known only later unlike in any general product pricing where the main cost components are usually known in advance, those are

(i)        Claims cost

(ii)       Management Expenses

(iii)      Margin for fluctuations in claims experience

(iv)      Reasonable profit

(v)       Business acquisition cost

Marketing channels facilitate the function of breaking large quantities in small quantities. That is why, Prof. Peter F. Drucker said - "Channels are primary and products are secondary. And" deserve much more attaint ion and study than they usually receive."14

Main characteristics of marketing channels:

1.         Physical movement forms the point of production to the point of consumption.

2.         Facilitate communication between producers and the buyers: about availability, characteristics and price of goods. It communicates the necessary information to the producer so that they may produce according to the needs of the consumer.

3.         Financing the producer: sometimes manufactures and producers appoints stockiest and distributers and collect deposits from them as security.

Marketing channel of life insurance

A marketing channel is the means by which product and services of a company are offered to customers and comprise the total marketing network of the company, over the years, the insurance industry has witnessed the emergence of a wide variety of distribution channels. It is discussed about the three key distribution channels that are practiced in global insurance markets.

It includes features like electronic mail. Unset, Talent, Client server, file transfer protocol (TTP) or hypertext transfer protocol (http). Gopher and world wide web (www). These features have paved the way of online marketing also called internet marketing and web marketing. In Hong Kong the system of online business is gathering momentum especially in banking transactions, seat booking with railways and airlines.

Benefits of online marketing to buyers

(i) Saving of time: online marketing saves the valuable time of the buyers. They don't have to waste time in commuting to the market for shopping.

(ii).Convenience: Online marketing offers convenience 24×7 shopping. One can access the website of the marketer anywhere anytime.

(iii)Easy availability of comparative information: the buyers can find immense comparative information about various marketers and their products on the internet. He can judge price, quality, performance and availability before placing an order with a particular company.

In the strict economic sense, market is not any particular place of business where goods and services are exchanged. In other words market means ‘the demand for a commodity’ Thus market implies a set of conditions and forces, which determine prices. Market can be grouped and the sum-total of that demand represents the aggregate demand for the product. This forms the basis for modern marketing technique known as ‘Market Segmentation’.

From the management point of view, market does not mean either a ‘place’ or a commodity’. It refers to a social institution' per forming the work of middleman, transport agency, warehousing etc. Market is the totality of those who can benefit from the producers product or service and who can afford to buy

The construction industry suggested two meaning for the terms market.

The place or area where buyers and sellers function

The centre in which certain business activities are undertaken to direct the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer or user.

Marketing the old and new concepts

  • In the past, the term marketing was used to denote a common medium through which members of the society “effectively satisfy their demand”. It is needless to say that this interpretation is on extension of the definition of market given above.
  • Marketing is that phase or aspect of an economy that has to do with and results in the changes in the as today of responsibility for, and authority over goods to the end that goods produced by many agencies are made available for the convenience and satisfaction of different caser.

2.12 Current initiatives of the Construction industry of HONG KONG

Tingley, Cooper and Cullen (2017) in the current scenario the government of the Hong Kong have initiated various changes and innovative measures so that sustainability can be maintained as well. However, currently, the construction industry of the Hong Kong has made a profound impact on the environmental aspects, therefore, it becomes significantly essential for the companies to work towards maximizing the positive benefits of suitability and ensuring the carbon foot-prints. Besides that, it can be understood that there are plenty of steps have been taken by the construction firms and as well as the government of the HONG KONG that have ensured a sustainable use of the materials that are used in the construction process and also the supplying process of the raw materials. On the other hand, it can be understood that as the companies of the manufacturing industry of HONG KONG have managed to develop sustainable approaches the bottom line approaches of the organisations have become more enhanced and significant as well.

According to Loosemore (2016), it can be observed that there are several current trends that have been adopted by the construction organisation through which a better workflow can be developed. The "ELCA Interface" has been adopted by the construction companies of the Hong Kong in the current scenario. In addition to that, to ensure a possible and integrated eco-balancing digital workflow within the construction planning operation EnEV certification has been granted by the company. Additionally, based on that optimal features in the modern-day construction technology have been assured so that all the construction works have been properly utilised and green-environmental approaches can be evaluated as well. Based on this the ERP and CRM system have been utilised so that better use of the data sources can be assured. Loosemore and Lim (2017) have explained that through using the smart tools at the construction sites of the Hong Kong wireless intelligence sensors provides proper and accurate results regarding every single aspect as at which point the carbon emission or soil digging needs to be controlled. On the other hand, there is the artificial intelligence has been utilised within the construction site that ensures the harmful excretion of materials from the worksite can be controlled or overconsumption of the raw materials can be minimised as well.    

2.13 Literature gap

While discussing the literature gap of this particular context it can be understood that there are certain pieces of the literature which have not been utilised due to several issues. However, some of the areas have been still under-explored and there are some of the areas which are yet to be explored. It can be observed that there are several areas of the study have been seen which requires in-depth analyses and also required a specific type of secondary research to get the proper and accurate data. On the other hand, due to lack of resources and legitimacy of the secondary resources proper and in-depth analysis have not been possible. Additionally, because of uncertain conditions and research scenarios, the analysis of some of the aspects have not been properly conducted. In addition to that, as the research has been directed to be finished within a specific time-frame, therefore, some of the areas have been remained unexplored. The copyright issues have also become one of the most significant barriers in this case that does not allow the research to be finished by considering all the specific aspects. Besides that, it has been found that there are several implementations of the government of the HONG KONG have been done based on the sustainability of the construction operations of the nation. Some of the tactics of measures of the HONG KONG government have been stated in the study but some of them have not been discussed, due to lack of data and information. It seems due to confidentiality some of the rules and regulations of the nation in relation to this construction have not been disclosed.

2.14 Conceptual framework

Figure 6: Conceptual framework

(As created by the author)

2.15 Summary

Based on the above literature review it can be analysed that over the past few decades the infrastructure of the HONG KONG's construction industry is continuously changing as in the existence of Artificial Intelligence and digital technologies can be accounted. In addition to the above literature have also signified the availability of government laws that have been incorporated for maintaining environmental sustainability. Besides that, to minimize the carbon-emissions percentage from the construction industry of the nation the government have other regulatory bodies have utilised several laws and legislation policies through which emission of harmful materials and extensive use of natural resources have been minimised. Apart from that, it can be also be summarized that in the modern scenario various tools and technological implications have been utilised through which the emission of harmful components have been controlled. On the other hand, to solve the issues of productivity by using sustainable approaches various initiatives have been taken. Government of the nation have stated the required course of actions against the proper utilisation of landfill wastages and emissions. Recyclable materials have been used in the modern scenario so that excessive use of natural resources can be minimised. However, while discussing the current trends of the nation regarding construction industry it can be understood that, the government of the nation have implemented various certification and registration policies based on which the companies are required to prove their sustainable behaviours and approaches before gaining the permission from the government to initiate the construction operation.

Apart from the above summarized discussion it can also be acknowledged that sustainability is significantly essential in the current scenario as due to pollution the global warming is continuously rising and the availability of natural resources is also decreasing continuously. Therefore, based on this the construction organisations must pre-determine as to how much resource is required to be utilised for completing the construction work.

3.0 Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This section involves the detailed description of the research methodology processed that will be conducted to strengthen the data and facts of the study. Research methodology is the section that deals with numerous data and facts that will help in better understanding of the research work.  This section includes different segments that will help in analyzing all the facts and figures reacted to the study. The subject of going green related to sustainable practice will be analysed with the help of proper use of research philosophies, strategies; methods research methods, collection of both primary and secondary data (Saunders, Lewis and Thorhill, 2019). Apart from that, it is also the aim of research methodology fetch out suitable answers during the process of implementation of several processes to make the research work successful. An entire timeline is also provided for completing the entire research study.

3.2 Research onion

Established in 2009, Research Onion can be defined as the various phases that need to be discussed to deliver a successful research work in a methodological manner. Each of the layers of the research onion is very significant as each one of theme provides more detailing to the understanding of the subject matter. Research onion is basically the structure based on which a research work must be conducted in a systematic way. The utility of the research work mainly depends on adaptability and the process based on which it can be implemented. It is the step-by-step process based on which the entire research work must be formulated (Sekaran and Bougie, 2016). The first layer of the research onion includes research philosophy that involves explanation of the study. Research philosophy in return paves the way towards the approach in which the entire study can be carried out. The second stage is thus called the research method. The third stage of the research involves the specific strategy based on which the research will be analysed and completed. . The fourth layer encompasses the time frame followed by the various processes of data collected encapsulated in the 6th layer of the work.  Therefore the major advantage that research onion provides is the systematic way in which each of the segments is constructed to enhance the in-depth understanding of the study.

3.3 Research philosophy

Research philosophy mainly deals with the nature, source and modification of knowledge. Research philosophy is nothing but the belief about the different ways in which information about an occurrence should be analyzed, collected and used. Despite the notion of knowledge creation might appear realistic and profound, one is engaged in the process of creation of knowledge during the completion of dissertation (Hudák, Kiani?ková and Madle?ák, 2017). It is with the help of research philosophy both primary and secondary data will be collected leading to data analysis process that will; help in answering the research questions for  new knowledge creation.

The chief essence of research philosophy lies in the fact of formulating new form belief and notion that will lead to the development of the subject matter of the study. Research philosophy is the outermost layer of research onion that leads to the better understanding of the inner most layers of the study. Every stage of research philosophy is solely dependent on nature of knowledge and assumptions of different sources. There exists mainly four categories of research philosophies, namely, realism, interpretivist, positivism and pragmatism. The philosophy of realism depends on the notion of independence related to the reality of human mind (Gray, 2019). The philosophy deals with assumptions of various scientific approach that will lead to the generation of knowledge. The philosophy of positivism is mainly concerned with the studies that will lead to factual knowledge gain with the help of objective collection and interpretation of data. However, its only limitations are that it is restricted to data interpretation and collection processes. The study of interpretivist is mainly to interpret the various types of elements in the study and gather their meaning into one concrete thought or notion. In this philosophy qualitative analysis is given more priority rather than the quantitative one. Interpretivist mainly deals with the interpretation of various meanings that are involved in the process of research (Gong, 2016). By doing so, with the help of explanations, the meaning gets cleared as the research work progresses. Apart from interpretivist, lies another philosophy known as pragmatic approach of philosophy of pragmatism.

The following research work will follow the theory of realism as realistic solutions will be provided regarding the advantage of using greenery for sustainable practice and business development. With eth help of realism, the data will be collected and analyzed in a factual and realistic manner. By doing so it will be easier to understand the arguments in the study. The process of data collection therefore will be objective rather than subjective. Thus, it will easier to reach a definite conclusion at the end of the research.

3.4 Research Approach

The next most vital step within the research onion is research approach. The process of research approach mainly consists of three different methods, namely; deductive approach, abductive inductive approach and research approach. It is the detailed map and procedure that composes of different phases of assumptions to get detailed process related to data interpretation, collection and analysis. As per the opinion of Ghauri, Grønhaug and Strange, (2020), the choice of the most suitable research approach will, help in cresting greater clarity of the entire process of research the major characteristics of the three research approaches are as follows:

  • Deductive approach: In this case, various kinds of hypothesis and theories are analysed and judged for deducing various facts and figures. The deduction of these facts and data will lead to the concrete conclusion or inference. Deductive method of research is highly effective form of the study that helps in the proper explanation  of all the data and resources that are collected and analysed after data collection process
  • Inductive approach: it is just the opposite of deductive approach of research. Unlike deductive, inductive approach does not deduce any conclusion from interpreting hypothesis or theories about the study. Instead, it so developed from discerning facts and hypothesis so a particular theory or statement is inferred out of it.
  • Abductive approach: On the contrary, abductive method research is completely different from that of the deductive and inductive method.  It is based on the resolving of various kinds of puzzles and intriguing arguments (Bell, Bryman and Harley, 2018).

For this research deductive approach has been chosen in the process. The main reason behind this choice is that it clearly fits with the structure of realism. Moreover, it will help in t3hngreater  and in-depth analysis of the sustainable practices with ten help of greenery, after detailed analysis , it can be understood that , going green is a very important drive in today’s world as it helps in upgrading the corporate social responsibility of a particular organization. Moreover, the deductive form of research will also ensure the formation of proper structured process of the entire analysis. The proper identification of the theories and aligning them with the subject helps in deriving suitable inferences can be deducted after the entire explanation.

3.5 Research Design

It is in the opinion of Abashidze and D?browski, (2016), research design is a structured framework based on which the entire research work can be crafted for the better understanding of the readers. The entire framework is implemented in such a way that all the arguments, facts and data are to be collected and aligned with the main subject matter of the study. Effective research design helps in making a research work successful. All these helps in contributing to gain the insight of achieving the perfect research framework. Every researcher has the duty to answer a group of valid research questions that are being asked using the onset of the research work. Any kinds of issues or challenges related to the topic can be well understood with the help of the research design. Appropriate research design is considered to those that can has minimal amount of errors during the process of execution. It mainly consists of the following things:

  • research methodology categories
  • suitable motive statement related to research design
  • Implementation process for analysing gathered details
  • Processes that needs to be implemented during the collection of the 

Mainly there exist three kinds of research designs, namely, descriptive, explanatory and exploratory. Descriptive design is meant by the process that aims to describe all the research questions and answers them efficiently so that the entire work can be understood. Descriptive design is widely used by the researcher as it helps in easily conducting the entire process of analysis. On the other hand, the exploratory design aims to explore the data and information to produce further clarity to the study. On the contrary, explanatory form of research design is based on explaining and minutely clarifying the data collected through the process of data collection and interpretation (Quinlan et al. 2019).

Exploratory design has been chosen in this case by the research to explore the facts related to the sustainable practice. The factors related to utility of greenery can also be analysed and investigated by the researcher. Moreover, exploratory design also helps in the exploration of the various data collected through primary and secondary means. Thus, with the help of exploratory design, it will be easier for the researcher to structure the enter framework with valid data and information.

3.6 Research Strategy

After research design, research strategy is one of the most important layers of research onion. There exists multiple kinds of strategies related to strategy based on which the research work can be completed.  Each of the research strategies has their own share of advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the researcher must think of the most suitable strategy that will help in the formation of the entire analysis. The different categories of strategies are mentioned below:

  • Survey: Deductive form of research design can be best conducted with the help of a survey. Survey is economic and perhaps one of the finest of the all the research strategies. The entire whereabouts of the research can be understood with the help of survey method.
  • Action research: Action research is step by step procedures that helps in marking and highlighting the various issues during the process and solve them accordingly. Limitations of the research are resolved through appropriate actions. A company or an organization mainly hires a journalist who in turn takes joint action with the help of the organization. Thus action research is mainly done with the help of joint effort.
  • Case Study: Case study is a distinct form of research study that enables a particular researcher to carry his work on paper based on two or more respondents. It is the job of the researcher to analyse the work based on real life scenario (Dijkman et al., 2015).
  • Grounded theory: This type of research strategy is solely based on the method of inductive mode of research. By doing so, the nature of the data and the conclusion of the student can be predicted based on the attitude and utility of the inductive processes. After meticulous observation, the researcher provides his ultimate conclusions.
  • Archival research: Archival fork of research enables the researcher to carry out descriptive analysis in the study with the help of this method, the research questions are answered in a descriptive manner. .
  • Ethnography: With the help of ethnography, researcher have the opportunities go down the core of converges and analyse the entire subject through proper explanations and analogies. Apart from that this research procedure is time consuming.
  • Experiment: This is one of the most common modes of research technique. With the help of experiment, various kinds of variables can be related with the study.

In the present study, the researcher has successfully created an amalgamation of case study and survey. With the help of the process of survey, the researcher has asked questions to the respondents. Based on the answers of all the respondents, it has become easier to understand the opinions and thinking of those people regarding the modes of sustainable practices and the contribution of greenery in its maintenance and growth. 

3.7 Data Collection Method

It can be understood that the data collection method will be based on the preparation of the qualitative study as well as the quantitative study at the same period. The data collection method can be of secondary type as well primary type. In this research study, two types of data have been collected, which includes the secondary data as well as primary data. The secondary data has been collected from different types of journals and newspapers those are based on the green sustainable practices in building and construction industry of Hong Kong. According to the description of the green sustainable practices in Hong Kong, it can be noted that there are different types of techniques that have been used and also has been using by the organization for improving the core prospect of sustainable practices in the country. The secondary data are collected from the online articles and journal papers as well as from articles those are developed by different researchers and authors of Hong Kong.

On the other hand, primary data will also be collected for the research study, where both quantitative as well as qualitative research data will be present. It can be understood that, in the primary data analysis section, open ended questions will be asked to the managers of different organizations those have been working in the construction companies. These construction companies in the country are supporting the Going Green technology and practices. Furthermore, close ended questions will be asked to the lower level employees of that particular organization and the survey questions will be regarding their experiences and concepts about green technology in manufacturing buildings (Jensen and Laurie, 2016).

3.8 Data Collection Tools

In case of the data collection tools, online survey tools and websites will be used. In the process of online survey a patch of 10 close ended questions and 5 open ended questions will be placed and will be sent to each of the participants those who have been selected for the data collection process. This will be the easier methods and practices of achieving the results and thereby analysing the same results after getting data. At the same time, the respondents will send their query or answers in the same electronic mail chain, from where the survey sheet was dropped or sent to them. The primary survey and interview questions are also being prepared with the help of the online tools and techniques that will automatically negotiate with the respondents name and electronic mailing address (McCusker and Gunaydin, 2015).

3.9 Sample Size

The sample size for the survey questions are 50, whereas for the interview question session to the managers, 5 respondents will be selected from various organizations in Hong Kong.

3.10 Sampling Method

In case of choosing the respondents, random sampling method will be followed by the researchers.

3.11 Ethical Considerations

In case of the ethical considerations, it can be understood that secondary data that has been collected by the researchers will not be licked out to the third party entity. All the researchers need to give the tests regarding correct behaviour and attitude to the main supervisor of the team. There are many incidences in the past that the researchers have distributed some portion of the collected data to another team for some benefits that has decreased the core value of the ongoing project cannot also been granted to the core committee.

4.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

4.1 Conclusion

From the above literature concept on the main theme, it can be concluded that the conservation and protection of the environment and the environmental species is the first and the foremost importance of the human society. Green Marketing should not be considered as just one more approach to the marketing, instead it should be perused with greater importance as it has societal and environmental dimensions. The sustainable development through the help of Green Marketing will help in the success of the environmental protection. Many industries are trying to apply green marketing as a new marketing strategy which will in return help in the development of the environmental issues that are being caused due to the inhuman activities which leads to the increasing pollution levels. As a result, Green Marketing is slowly expanding its branches to the whole of the Earth and is being practiced by many countries all over the globe. People are motivating themselves for a greener as well as a healthier Earth to live in. The only aspect is to lower the levels of pollution by the help of the Green Marketing. Moreover, people nowadays prefer eco-friendly materials rather than using artificial or unnatural products. The demands of the people are increasing day by day for eco-friendly products, so as a result the evolution of the Green Marketing came into existence. The only aspect of some people nowadays is going green. The only option to save the environment from hazards. Nowadays people are trying to change their habits and trying to live in a healthy as well as a green environment. The markets of Greener environment are increasing day by day. The Green Marketing is basically having three different phases in which the industries which are practicing Green Marketing, need to focus on those industries which cause the environmental hazards and help them in reducing them, secondly they need to offer some services like providing eco-friendly products to the markets to earn the satisfaction of the customers and capture the markets easily to enlarge the marketing and thirdly, the products needs to be specific about the standard quality, proper pricing and environment friendly.

Many new business entities are practicing Green Marketing and going green nowadays, where the marketing mainly depends on the productions, waste disposals, consumptions etc. are there inside the parameters of going green as a result for the chances of reducing the Global Warming and help the Environment in sustaining the natural resources for the future. New business opportunities are being opened nowadays as they are providing products that are eco-friendly and don’t harm the environment. Business organizations are gaining advantages with the help of these eco-friendly measures that are taken by them in the conservation of the environment.

The governments of different countries are taking regulatory measures in protecting the environment as well as many agencies are being formed to regulate the environmental hazards. Waste Management is playing a vital role in the conservation the environment as well as the transportations are being monitored in some countries as well. Pollution control boards are set up in almost every country to monitor the pollution levels of the country. In some cases the governments of the country have renovated pollution rules for the citizens of the country and are compelled to follow them.

Awareness programs are necessary for the people as it will help them, in knowing about the sustainability of the country and the environmental health. These initiatives will help in the proper planning for a greener earth and will help in sustaining the natural resources for the future. In addition to these the industries need to promote the eco-friendly products as per the need of the customers. As the customers gets benefitted from the products, the industries will also run efficiently which in turn will increase the productivity as well as the business organizations will also get benefitted from the consumers. Recycling have been a very effective method in the conservation of waste. Many industries are practicing recycling to minimize the wastages. This a way by which the harmful effects of these wastes can be reduced.

Green Consumerism is referred to as the relation between the Green consumers and the industries which will further help in the sale of the products or services which is susceptible to the environment. In the recent times consumers are wanting greenness in their lifestyle to bring purity in their life.

Nowadays technology is improving at fast pace, as a result green products are made using technologically improved techniques which in turn increases the sale of the products in the markets and which in return are helping the people to know about the eco-friendly products who are still not aware about. The Green Marketing is increasing at a very fast pace where consumers as well as the industries are also following them in the long run. Social Networking sites are also playing a vital role in the development of the products in the international as well as domestic markets as well.

Businesses are taking initiatives for the practicing of the Green marketing systems by different methods as green promoting methods for their products. Business openings are focusing mainly on the products which are environment friendly and are therefore beneficial to the environment. The primary goal of these organizations are to provide items which are not harmful to the environment and which impedes the wellbeing of the buyers.

The construction industries of Hong Kong plays a very crucial role in the overall revenue of the nation which creates building in all the metro cities of the nation. The entire industry of Hong Kong provides more than 3 million job opportunities. The sustainability of the construction industry has developed a huge pressure on the government of Hong Kong. Hong Kong have taken immense measures in reducing the carbon emissions from the industries and several carbon reductions and are getting a cordial response. The basic strategy is to provide various techniques that can be used for the clear direction of the consumer firms and the sustainability can be maintained as well.

Some of the recent targets of the Hong Kong Governments is to minimize the emissions of carbon and greenhouse gases up to 50 percent.

The construction industry of the Hong Kong have taken massive measures in controlling pollution and sustainability of the environment, hence it becomes significantly essential for the companies to work with and providing profit maximizations with positive benefits of suitability. Hence going green with the sustainable practices is the only way to keep a healthy and safe environment. In recent times Green Marketing is increasing at a very fast pace and as a result the pollution levels in different countries are reducing effectively.

4.2 Limitation

Some of the measures which can be thereafter added for the green marketing processes in the building industries are as follows:

•           The use of more energy efficient techniques in the green building processes needs to be enhanced.

•           Reducing of waste materials should be lowered and installing waste separation facilities need to be taken care of in green buildings.

•           Water saving techniques should be utilized in the green buildings by installing self-closing taps or censor taps which will reduce the wastage of water.

•           Reduction of the water pressure should be controlled by the plumbing systems in the green buildings.

•           Good indoor air quality safeguards should be taken for the health of the building occupants which contributes to their comfort and wellbeing.

•           The high levels of construction activities in Hong Kong produces a high level of construction waste. Construction wastes needs to be reduced as it has a huge impact on the environment.

•           Providing Community Green Stations Will help in the “Going Green” objective of the Hong Kong Green Building Industries by providing support for waste reduction and recycling as well as environmental education at district levels.

4.3 Recommendation

It can be recommended that with the below details the practice of going green with the building industries of Hong Kong can be described as follows:

The Green Building Industries should focus on Balconies as it is one of the most popular green feature as it provides space for greenery and recreation for the occupants. It enhances the use of natural lighting and ventilation if properly designed, it may also act as noise barrier.   Communal Sky Gardens provide recreational space at various levels of a building, they help in creating open vista and relief the walling effects of back to back and shoulder to shoulder configuration of our urban fabric. They will help in providing proper greenery and also help the industries in proving proper greens to its customers.

The use of Non-Structural prefabricated walls helps in the reduction of the construction wastes which in turn helps in the waste disposing techniques for the building industries and cans save greens for the future. Utility Platforms for laundry washing and clothes drying should be implemented in the green buildings as these activities are noticeably lacking in most of the residential designs, as they reduce the energy required for mechanical drying of clothes.

A green Labelling system must need to be started, as it provides grading and green labels to buildings which are existing and new as well in order to heighten the public awareness and safety. The modernization of rules and regulations should be implemented in case of green buildings industries to meet a modernized based code of practice and guidelines that enables the building professionals to exercise without inhibition to their creativity in green designs. Therefore these are some of the measures that can be taken by the Green Building Industries in Hong Kong for the “Going Green” objectives that are being taken by the industries.         

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