Course Code -INT101 Research report on Social Inclusion


Social inclusion is an act of including an individual of a society uniting under a common form of relationships. In other words, social inclusion can be better recognized as an act of creating a social group for being accompanied of a unified group as well. This can provide a feeling of unity and being togetherness with everyone. 

This report has been based on the growing issues against the social inclusion of the Transgender in a society facing challenges for being discriminated against in all aspects. It has also been focussed on the key determining factors responsible behind their social exclusion from the society as well as the implementation of ethical rights for establishing the position of the Transgender with social respect.




Analysis of Literature on the Topic

Importance of Social Inclusion and its Key Determinants

According to Khoiriyah et al. (2017), social inclusion has been considered an important predictor of creating a feeling of self-esteem. It determines the fact that if an individual gets involved or is a part of a society, it would evolve a sense of self-esteem and be emotionally attached with the society and its cultural norms.

On the other hand, as per World Bank (2020), commented that the inclusion of an individual within the legislations of a country would develop a sense of belonging and social duty towards others. This can be deduced from the fact that if an individual is socially excluded, it may rob individuals' dignity and social respect.  

Evolution of Social Inclusion for Transgender with Equality in Australia

According to the Australian Human rights Commission, acknowledged that there would be no discrimination of gender and sex since 2013 onwards (, 2020). In complying with this particular law, Gender discriminations have been secured to some extent in the field of sports held in Australia. Based on this new change and evolutionary thought, initiated by the Australian government, transgender would be able to find opportunities for their athletics talents in the sports as well.  

Significant Issues Faced by Transgender under Social Inclusion in Australia

There tend to be several issues faced by Transgender in Australia due to which some major problems are created in society. Below are discussed the issues in detail:

Physical Assault

As per, Ecker et al., (2019) physical assault is considered to be one of the important issues which make a considerable impact on the lives of the people of Australia. In fact, the transgender in the country often become the victim of mental health problems due to these types of assaults including mental depression, post-traumatic stress disorder. As opined by Fraser et al., (2020) excessive physical assaults can lead to emotional difficulties for transgender such as anger, anxiety, grief and many such others that prove to be harmful to their health considerably.



Loss of Family

It is also another important factor for transgender in Australia. These people are generally looked as socially excluded which is proved to be a negative aspect for these people. The loss of family creates a metal void in the minds of the transgender that creates hindrances in performing the necessary activities accordingly. Moreover, social communication gets lost due to which makes them deplorable from inside.


Transgender are disrespected in the workplace of the country. At the time of performing the operational activities, certain respects prove to be harmful to them, which eventually create a depression in the minds. According to Gardner et al., (2019) they lose the social connection through which they can be socially touched with other people in society. Moreover, with time, the rate of social inclusion is on the higher side, which has exercised a prolonged impact on the lifestyle of the transgender in the country.

Discrimination in the Workplace

It is considered to be one of the primary factors based on which the transgender are neglected in the society. An extreme level of discrimination creates alienation among the people that produce oppositions in the functional activities of business organizations. Simultaneously, it becomes difficult for the transgender to act accordingly within the organizations. Consequently, they look to find alternative jobs, which can be able to provide job satisfaction to them.


Most of the time the transgender become the harsh victim of workplace bullying in the country, which creates several issues for them to carry out the necessary activities in an effective manner. As opined by Hafford?Letchfield et al., (2019) it helps to build a wall of separation for these transgender, which influences their working activity. In fact, it assists in demoralizing them so that they cannot be able to work in an organized manner.

Difficulty in Living in a Society

In this regard, the socially excluded members frequently find critical issues for living in a society. Moreover, it prevents them from leading a healthy and happier life within the country. Therefore, it is important for Australians to make transgender feel that they are also a part of their society, which will produce a sense of belonging accordingly.



Strategies and Mitigation of Problems faced by Transgender in Australia

Freedom from discrimination and violence: various strategies for reducing the violence that is practiced against the transgender people must be practiced at various levels. This includes the making of accountable perpetrators, facilitating policy as well as legal reform which would help in removing criminality along with general advocacy for sensitizing various ill-informed regarding the concerns and issues faced by the trans genders (Lynch and Bartels, 2017). The strengthening of the capacity office transgender organizations and collectives for claiming that human rights could also contribute in the form of a counter to the violence practiced against them.

Sensitizing the cops: Sensitization of cops could be carried out for making them partners in this initiative, this could prove to be a crucial activity in the process. In case the political will is not present in the support of these activities initiatives, transgender organizations as well as allies could include the utilization of mechanism of international human rights. This includes Shadow reports that are made referring to the process of UN human rights such as a universal periodic review (Kerry, 2017). The universal periodic review would help in bringing about the focus on various issues of anti-transgender violence along with the violation of human rights against the transgender people.

The right to health: in the case of the transgender people, the right to health that is provided to them could be e insured only if various services are delivered in a particular non-discriminatory, non-stigmatizing as well as an informed environment. This involves working for educating the sector of healthcare regarding the expression and identity of gender and no tolerance for various conducts that would exclude transgender people (Rahn, 2016). The breach of confidentiality from various providers, derogatory comments along with the journal of services based on the gender identity could be included and some of the prejudice's manifestation.




Based on the above discussion and analysis, it can be recognized that Transgender has been still facing a number of discriminations in a society so far especially in Australia as well. However, it has also been identified from the above area of controversy that in most of the areas, it could not be prohibited by the action of the government as well. Therefore, social inclusion needs to be reduced for the transgender, as they would be able to take social responsibility and duty towards a nation as well.




Ecker, S., Riggle, E.D., Rostosky, S.S. and Byrnes, J.M., 2019. Impact of the Australian marriage equality postal survey and debate on psychological distress among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer/questioning people and allies. Australian Journal of Psychology, 71(3), pp.285-295.

Fraser, H., Bartholomaeus, C., Riggs, D.W., Taylor, N. and Rosenberg, S., 2020. Service provider recognition of the significance of animal companionship among trans and cisgender women of diverse sexualities. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 22(1), pp.16-30.

Gardner, A., Filia, K., Killackey, E., and Cotton, S., 2019. The social inclusion of young people with serious mental illness: A narrative review of the literature and suggested future directions. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(1), pp.15-26.

Hafford?Letchfield, T., Cocker, C., Rutter, D., Tinarwo, M., McCormack, K. and Manning, R., 2019. What do we know about transgender parenting?: Findings from a systematic review. Health & social care in the community, 27(5), pp.1111-1125. 2020. Guidelines For The Inclusion Of Transgender And Gender Diverse People In Sport (2019) | Australian Human Rights Commission. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 March 2020].

Kerry, S.C., 2017. Transgender people in Australia's Northern Territory. International Journal of Transgenderism, 18(2), pp.129-139.

Khoiriyah, N., Zaky, A. and Napsiyah, S., 2017, November. The importance of social work anti-discrimination approach for the islamic preachers to disseminate social inclusion and multiculturalism in society. In International Conference on Diversity and Disability Inclusion in Muslim Societies (ICDDIMS 2017). Atlantis Press.

Lynch, S. and Bartels, L., 2017. Transgender prisoners in Australia: An examination of the issues, law and policy. Flinders LJ, 19, p.185.

Rahn, A., 2016. Female-to-Male (FtM) transgender people's experiences in Australia: a national study.

World Bank. 2020. Social Inclusion. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 March 2020].

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