Critical Evaluation of the research report
The name of the research report is “The usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking cessation: a randomized trial”, which is based on the core psychological instances and differentiations on smoking cessations. At the time of critical evaluation of the research report, there are many that will be discussed. There is some range of issues that are concerned with the different impacts of interventions and thereby it also determines the magnitude of the health issues. It can be observed that the article also is much concerned with the detailed impacts of interventions, causality and also determining different magnitudes, which is related to the health problem. Within the core critical evaluation of the study, there are also different assumptions that are related to the type, reference population and source population and sampling method or frame of the article, which has been selected for critical evaluation. The face validity perspectives of the article will be also discussed in the study and therefore finding out whether there are any measurement errors or not. Different sample issues have been considered in the study and whether the sample size is sufficient, will also be described in the study.
The main theme of the study is evolved around “The usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking termination: a randomized trial", where different government entities have been spreading awareness news in Australia for controlling the high smoking range of the population. Thereby, the local concern group has developed different types of acceptable and widely available platforms and also described effective cessation methods (Borland et al. 2001, pp.881-889). It is considered as the central focus of the public health strategy for controlling the smoking phenomenon that destroys lings and pulmonary activities. It can be noted that, according to the recent trends in the Australian counselling phenomenon, the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking termination has been the most effective treatment that can be seriously compared with the self-help resources at a simultaneous manner (Byaruhanga et al. 2020). It can be deciphered that within the article, there are significant issues and problems and there are also some important research questions that have best described the main essence of the research topic. The research questions those are related to the processes for examining the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking termination, where the psychologists and doctors have been taking off early appointments for meeting different types of patients and clients. It can be observed that, within recent years, the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking termination has been one of the prominent and popular methods that can be included under the provision of standard care (Tzelepis et al. 2018). The usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking termination also included the perspectives of the initial call and also the call to the Quitline and mailed-out printed as well as the self-help materials. There are also diverse types of range of issues and troubles that have been delivered by the research article and therefore a null hypothesis can also be stated for this paper. It can be understood that a null hypothesis is one type of phenomenon, which the researchers try to disapprove at any cost. The null hypothesis can be like,
H0: There is no statistically significant relationship between the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking termination and the growth of the smoking habit of the individuals living in the area and the country.
Apart from the core intervention of the null hypothesis, the research article is also much equipped with the impact of different types of interventions, causality and also determining the magnitude of the severe health issues. It can be noted that within the provision of self-resource, and benefits have also been sustained over a huge timespan. There are also different aspects of proactive counselling and thereby finding out some several proactive counselling calls as it is much beneficial to have some long term effects. It can be proven by the human beings those who are in daily schedule with the clients (Borland et al. 2001, pp.881-889). Additionally, this is the only piece of literature study that have imposed the greatest impact on longer-term perspectives. It is noted that it has also some delayed effect with the smokers, who were also least involved with the research study for quitting smoking as it is their prime addiction (Guillaumier et al. 2018). On the other hand, it is much noticed that intervention was also having a great impact as more relationship expectations can be done from the dose-response relationships. However, from the study, it can be noted that there are some of the important aspects that are related to the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking cessation proximities. There are also different components for relapse sensitive timing for quitting and it can also be provided with the help of diverse centralized services. It can also be done with the help of isolated services that represents a large population group. The population group are also much sense because they provide the best services, those are cost-effective and these are also widely- an available form of "smoking cessation theory" (Chung et al. 2018). Therefore, according to the core merit of the study, it can be conceptualized that identification of cost-effective means is much needed for enhancing core impacts of the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking cessation.
The study is much related to the healthcare attitude and proximities because the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking cessation helps the individuals or addicts to quit their regular bad habits through different types of procedures. The study is cognitive and it has different social aspects that are much important for society (Borland et al. 2001, pp.881-889). The study is just appropriate for the core development of research questions because it has a series of numerous aspects and ventures that are related to the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking cessation. The research questions can be developed appropriately by asking different questions based on Quitline services. The types and methods that can be used for making the study more successful and prominent also are the prominent aspects that can be included within the research questions. Different questions can also be asked with the Quitline services that are taken and included in the study.
With the data collection chapter and a detailed analysis of the study, it can be understood that the primary data collection process is used in this research article. Numerous respondents have been taken in the stud, those can be termed as reference population and source population. In the case of the participants for the study, it can be easily understood that there are diverse categories and all the population were not also eligible for sheer recruitment. It is because, at the starting phase of the study, many members have left the study as they did not want to quit their smoking habits. Moreover, there are also different resource population as well as source outlooks, who are having some aspects of intellectual disabilities and psychological disabilities in their brain (Sweeney et al. 2019). Some of the participants or primary data resources have also language difficulties. They are all under the age of 18. The participants only smoke cigar or pipes and they were already on the call-back services. The primary resources have also called other individuals to join call-back services.
On the other hand, in case of the sampling features and techniques, it can be noted that data collected from the surveys have been analysed with the help of SPSS tool for the representation of more complex analysis STATA (Borland et al. 2001, pp.881-889). It can be suggested that random sampling would have been more effective more the research study which is based on the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking cessation. It is because, with the help of the random sampling technique, different responses and criteria of correspondents can be found out. Within the detailed analysis of the study, consistent and stage-based theories that can be predicted for further developments is one of the most strong points. However, different aspects of the study are also taken as the sample that is in the uniformly advanced stages. The interest of the individual is also quitting at the baseline (Longman et al. 2018). Furthermore, it can be understood that the sampling frame of the participants those are within the age group of 18 years and sampling method is much appropriate for the reference population. Nevertheless, it can be conceptualized that random or systematic sampling technique is much appropriate for the reference population. It can also be a primary source of the selection bias and eventually it has not also threatened at any kind of validity of the study. Whilst, this paper demonstrates a vast range of issues and platforms, there are also diverse outcome factors that have been reported in the study (Ngo et al. 2019). The outcome factors are mostly related to the patterns of calls and the authors have not also collected the exact quit date and thereby and it cannot also be assessed, whether the pattern of calls within the quit days can affect the outcomes. There are also different recommended schedules that can be limited up to three calls in the first week, which is normally prescribed according to the counsellors. On the other hand, quality of outcome is also much preferable for the researchers (Young et al. 2019).
According to the researching style of the authors, it can be understood that different outcome factors vary as a function of magnitude and also depend on the quality of service, which is provided. There are also different aspects of long induction incidents and interviews where the call-back tailored for the urgent client needs and assumptions. The main outcome is based on the "self-reported smoking status of 3-12 months follow up and it has been envisaged of different questions like "Are you currently a cigarette smoker?". The measurement has also been done in the 30 minutes of start-up time that includes telephone call, different administrative tasks and also the downtime. However, the counsellor also costs at Australian dollar 25.70 per hour, that is 33% represented on-costs (Borland et al. 2001, pp.881-889). This measurement cost is included within the cost of superannuation and also housing.
There are also different face validity perspectives of all the relevant outcomes that have been assessed in the study and fortunately, there are also no measurement errors that are related to the outcome factors discussed above. In different studies, it can be noticed that measurement errors give a new dimension to the researchers and they are also being rectified with the help of chi-square and SPPS tool testing methods. Within the study of the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking cessation, the sample size issues and memorandums have also being considered those are specifically with the 18 years and below candidates and they have been much addicted to the consequences (Segan et al. 2017). The issues regarding sample size and power of the study have also been much indicated. On the other hand, it can be also be recognized that sample size that has been taken is much helpful and it is also much important to detect clinically with social and meaningful differences. There are approximately 497 participants who have been selected for the final data collection process (Borland et al. 2001, pp.881-889). They have made the final entry to the research study as it indicates the core process of power study. 497 respondents reached the final follow up and it has not threatened the internal validity of the study, which is based on the usefulness of call-back psychotherapy for smoking cessation. Therefore with the help of the core response of participants, callers to the Quitline can be identified, who has made the research possible and can be considered as the best component in the research article.
Every critical evaluation of the research study has a concluding part, where it can be acknowledged that authors have identified the Quit-line callers who have made the research possible. On the other hand, the contribution has also made the counsellors and staffs of the quitline services and some are also the data entry staff. This project was also much supported by the “National Health and Medical Research Council” and can be very important for making the chain smokers quit from their life-taking habits and addictions in the modern age of globalization.
- Borland, R., Segan, C.J., Livingston, P.M. and Owen, N., 2001. The effectiveness of callback counselling for smoking cessation: a randomized trial. Addiction, 96(6), pp.881-889.
- Byaruhanga, J., Paul, C.L., Wiggers, J., Byrnes, E., Mitchell, A., Lecathelinais, C. and Tzelepis, F., 2020. Connectivity of Real-Time Video Counselling Versus Telephone Counselling for Smoking Cessation in Rural and Remote Areas: An Exploratory Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(8), p.2891.
- Chung, Y.H., Chang, H.H., Lu, C.W., Huang, K.C. and Guo, F.R., 2018. Addition of one session with a specialist counselor did not increase efficacy of a family physician-led smoking cessation program. Journal of International Medical Research, 46(9), pp.3809-3818.
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- Longman, J.M., Adams, C.M., Johnston, J.J. and Passey, M.E., 2018. Improving implementation of the smoking cessation guidelines with pregnant women: How to support clinicians?. Midwifery, 58, pp.137-144.
- Ngo, C.Q., Phan, P.T., Vu, G.V., Pham, Q.T.L., Chu, H.T., Pham, K.T.H., Tran, B.X., Do, H.P., Nguyen, C.T., Tran, T.T. and Ha, G.H., 2019. Impact of a Smoking Cessation Quitline in Vietnam: Evidence Base and Future Directions. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(14), p.2538.
- Segan, C.J., Baker, A.L., Turner, A. and Williams, J.M., 2017. Nicotine withdrawal, relapse of mental illness, or medication side-effect? Implementing a monitoring tool for people with mental illness into quitline counseling. Journal of dual diagnosis, 13(1), pp.60-66.
- Sweeney, R., Moodie, M., Baker, A.L., Borland, R., Castle, D.J., Segan, C., Turner, A., Attia, J., Kelly, P.J., Brophy, L.M. and Bonevski, B., 2019. Protocol for an economic evaluation of the Quitlink randomised controlled trial for accessible smoking cessation support for people with severe mental illness. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, p.618.
- Tzelepis, F., Wiggers, J., Paul, C.L., Byaruhanga, J., Byrnes, E., Bowman, J., Gillham, K., Campbell, E., Ling, R. and Searles, A., 2018. A randomised trial of real-time video counselling for smoking cessation in regional and remote locations: study protocol. Contemporary clinical trials, 74, pp.70-75.
- Young, J.T., Puljevi?, C., Love, A.D., Janca, E.K., Segan, C.J., Baird, D., Whiffen, R., Pappos, S., Bell, E. and Kinner, S.A., 2019. Staying Quit After Release (SQuARe) trial protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a multicomponent intervention to maintain smoking abstinence after release from smoke-free prisons in Victoria, Australia. BMJ Open, 9(6), p.e027307.