Critical Review of Articles

INTRODUCTION

The present study based on a critical review of the research method which can be applied in different aspects. Therefore, different views of authors considered that it assists to lead with a proper understanding of the study. In respect to deal with research, the survey method is one of the important parts of qualitative methodology. It is used for the collection of information from different respondents from asking multiple questions in a survey. In this study, the critical aspect of this method will be explained in a case study. Ethics can be defined to do things in the right manner. In these several things included that is related with the right spirit, respect, etc. for particular things, person, group, event, etc. The present study is based on ethics in human research which is critically defined with different author’s views.

CASE STUDY 1      

As per the views of Algozzine and Hancock, (2016), case-based research is the most appropriate methodology to use. Therefore, in this case, study, it has been shown that customer service and some convergent interviews considered with different industry consultants. With the interview protocol model, it can be stated that each case studied. It shows the relationship between different suppliers and different policies. This methodology studied in which different tools used to collect data such as brochures, newspapers, articles, observation, etc. As critical consideration, Hancock and Algozzine, (2017) stated that case-based research used for teaching consideration. In this way, decision making is one of the issues that create problems in any study. Furthermore, case-based research can be considered as explanatory and theory-based research that incorporates and explains ideas from a situation that exists outside of the case. When the researcher uses one inductive stage, a case-based project run risk with drifting already crystallized review of the literature. This also considers further rediscovering, existing theory and fined answer to the client’s problem.

            However, Duff, (2018) considered their views in terms of new qualitative researchers for working in different areas for understanding that already accomplished. This case study research also considered suggestions from different choices available in front of the researcher. As a critical understanding, it can be stated that when the suggestion is incorrect, there induction and deduction mixture often required. With the help of the prior theory of induction, it can be stated that the researcher has benefited from the existing theory. On the other hand, in deduction might prevent the development of useful and new theory. As per argued views of Harrison, Franklin, and Mills, (2017), both extremes such as induction and deduction process required advancement for continuous development. As a result, it can be stated that induction and deduction linked with research approaches that tradeoffs between different theoretical frameworks. There are formers locally focused and site-sensitive that facilitates between different sites. In addition to this, it can be stated that interviews, in this case, study research help to confirm or disconfirm before structured questions. In other words, a prior theory developed from literature and pilot studies.

            Besides this, Ridder, (2017) stated that there are different literature review is an important protocol that will be standard across different kinds of interviews in a case-based research project. When the researcher detects issues from prior theory, it applies in a thesis. Different models of theory drawn as boxes and lines that are developed positively. In addition to this, the prior theory provides a focus on the data collection phase in the form of research issues that assists in the literature review. It helps to identify gaps to set further hypotheses in the research. However, as a critical aspect of Algozzine and Hancock, (2016) it can be stated that researchers can generate new ideas that might be tested and it is important for illustrating theories that help to show different aspects of a person’s life that are related with each other. For instance, case study research considered in-depth study of events, group or any person. Different theories applied with a great example that assists to find outcomes. Moreover, there is more focus required on analysis with assessing different problems in it. After this, uncover possible solutions made to understand the case.

            According to the views of Hancock and Algozzine, (2017), it can be stated that a case study is one of the popular forms of qualitative analysis which includes careful and complete observation for social units. This study focuses on more emphasis on the full assessment of in-depth. Generally, a study taken as a longer period, that ascertains the natural history of the unit. Therefore, enough information drawing with correct inferences. The case study method considers fruitful hypotheses with data that may be helpful for testing. As a result, it enables with generalized knowledge to get richer. Moreover, Ridder, (2017) argued that case study research explains the process that helps to attract potential customers for better understanding. This allows focusing on problems that target the audience and helps to solve the issue in it. It enhances credibility and authority with a particular study to understand it systematically.

CASE STUDY 2

As per the views of Belov, Eroshenko, and Mavromichalaki, (2018), there is a key issue in management research is the choice for finding an appropriate survey method. A successful researcher has a choice of different kinds of methods through they can collect data in term of survey method such as face to face, telephone, mail survey, etc. However, the wrong decision at this stage can harm the brain of a person that can cause frustration, disappointment. Therefore, efforts get wasted which impacts negatively on the results. With the help of the mail survey method, the researcher can get a response in a single frame. The main aim of this method is to provide the relative merits of using these methods as the correct choice by the researcher. On the other hand, Pizarro, Friedman, and Madin, (2017) argued that this research method gets a lot of time to understand responses from different respondents. This is because respondents not feel encouraged to provide appropriate and honest answers. Sometimes, they do not feel comfortable providing answers which present unfavorably. Further, they are not fully aware sometimes to give any answer because of a lack of knowledge.

 

Furthermore, Belov, Eroshenko, and Mavromichalaki, (2018) stated that there is one of the main elements of the survey method is face to face questionnaire which helps to cover complex issues. Every researcher at the stage of exploratory research generally prefers semi-structured a questionnaire with certain topics. It helps to consider maximum flexibility to the interview there is a length of time devoted to each topic that can vary between different interviews. Furthermore, in this way new topics can be added as it appears relevant to the research objectives. With a telephone interview, the degree of flexibility also probing that can be obtained with time pressure. However, Zhang, Kuchinke and Margraf, (2017) argued that there is a complex issue is being researched that create more problem. For example, a detailed understanding of the decision process. A mail interview is unlikely to be viable so that a large number of filter questions necessary to the respondent. In such kind of circumstances, telephone interview and face to face interview is more appropriate.

 

As per views of Throsby, Zwar and Morgan, (2017), critical stated that there is a major drawback is to conduct face to face survey is that it needed more resources than mail or telephone. Conduction of personal interviews takes a lot of time that is more costly and not effective at every time. Due to limited funds among researchers have several difficulties obtaining information at the appropriate budget. In face to face, interviews compromise may be struck to being supplemented with telephone or mail questionnaires. It is not possible at every time so that the nature of research may be no alternative for lowering of sample size. Besides this, Belov, Eroshenko, and Mavromichalaki, (2018) contradicting that another limiting factor may be time involved for traveling to interview. Management of proper time is a very crucial aspect which is not possible to obtain an important sample size because of time constraints. In this aspect, the telephone and mail interviews considered as less time compared to other ways of survey methods. There is a major strength of mail surveys is the ability of the widely dispersed population at a very low cost. There are different information needed which is viable because of names and addresses within the companies that obtained quickly and easily.

As a critical aspect, Pizarro, Friedman, and Madin, (2017) stated that different interviewer can be biased in the face to face interviews. Furthermore, respondents age, income, voice, sex, race, behavior, etc. Different aspects due to which create a negative impact on the respondent's views. Sometimes, hidden communication creates an issue in front of the interviewer. As a result, it is essential to receive positive evaluation where responses might be distorted in correspond correct answers in the eyes of the interviewer. Furthermore, Zhang, Kuchinke and Margraf, (2017) considered views that interviewer attitude and perception also rise to bias. For instance, there is a study considered with the opinion considered in favorable responses. As per recording, it can be said that closely follow with own attitude with perfect statements. Other sources are related to certain errors which are a perfect opinion held by the interviewer for different respondents. There are different implications of different potential problems within management that researchers must be aware of dangers that can arise and consciously seek to avoid them.

CASE STUDY 3

As per the views of Weston, Mullan, and McLennan, (2016), ethics consider different issues in the research. In this regard, it can be said that collected data must be sourced with the right thing and properly. Furthermore, all documents are also needed to examine to collect data and information in positive consideration. As contradicting, ethical issues included for research in qualitative and quantitative both aspects. Different universities and research organization set their principles regarding ethics. Therefore, everyone needs to follow to get the right things. However, Shah, Kimmelman, and Zorrilla, (2018) argued that everyone needs to be part of research to provide informed consent to their representative. They can use stored data and other researches in terms of their understanding. The main thing in the ethics of human research is that the researcher needs to treat everyone in a respectful manner that is getting participation in research. This is because; each person has their right, privacy, lifestyle, culture, etc.

On the other hand, Weston, Mullan, and McLennan, (2016) stated that it is important to whole research to place the first well being of every participant and animal. The researcher must deal with retaining the level of respect and concern appropriately to all human participants. In social science research, new insight opens in perspective to respond particular situation. In the ethics of human research, there is another element is sufficient knowledge and information to prove that data are accurate and liable. Besides this, Yakubu, Hyder, and Kass, (2017) critically stated that research must be based on knowledge of the work of others which supervised by a person who qualified to do work who has importance facilities that ensure the safety of different participants. Furthermore, there are different kinds of skills also required for careful supervision in the whole study. Supervision is also needed because in this process interviewing someone uncovers different issues and problems that are beyond the ability to resolve. In addition to this, information must be collected by the researcher himself/herself instead of other enumerators. This is because it increases the chances of business.

As per views of Rothstein, Harrell, and Knoppers, (2018), it can be said that supervision is also needed because in this interviewing helps to solve problems that are beyond the ability of any researcher. Furthermore, the potential benefits of research must be substantially developed without harm to any participant or other. The researcher needs to always try to minimize the harmful effects that cannot create any serious ethical dilemmas. However, Shah, Kimmelman, and Zorrilla, (2018) critically stated that all participants must be considered voluntary or informed towards the research. Hence, language must be chosen as per the convenience of respondents. If this is not possible translation must be implemented with careful consideration of proper following disciplinary jargon to make the effective communication. When ideal consent forms are written, different circumstances help to maintain the relationship between participants and researchers. With the help of ethics in human research, it can be stated that risks and discomforts can be minimized which assists in carefully examined.

As critical consideration, Weston, Mullan, and McLennan, (2016) stated that there is an important issue is that risk of the disclosure of information might be harming any person. Furthermore, gaining informed consent also poses a particular issue and problems in social research. There is another issue is related to discomfort and risk which relates to asking questions regarding sensitive areas. There are different topics related to public issues, personally painful, etc. For instance, asking questions from a parent who suffers from their child before few months can get hurt. On the other hand, Shah, Kimmelman, and Zorrilla, (2018) argued that in social science research it is important to lead with large sums of money as reimbursed for expenses incurred by respondents. Ethically, it is not allowed to anyone to get pressure on participants to complete interviews and questionnaires to complete the experiment of research. It can be made frustrate participation who gives their negative views towards the research. It helps to find appropriate research results in positive consideration. Research is also a public activity that conducted openly and accountably for the community of researcher’s participation in the whole aspect.

CONCLUSION

In another critical perspective, it can be stated that this method consumes more time and also requires maximum expenditure. There is more time needed under the case study with the natural historical cycle of social units. It based on several assumptions that not are very at realistic at a particular time. Therefore, the results of this method always doubtful. From the present report, it can be summarised that the survey method is one of the important considerations for research. In this consideration, there is a positive and negative effect on the critical of the method. From the present research, it can be stated that ethics plays a very important role in human research. It helps to work honestly in the right manner that helps to increase the strength of knowledge generated by the particular research activity. Furthermore, it applies to terms and covers the rights of different assistants and researchers.

 

REFERENCES

Algozzine, B. and Hancock, D., 2016. Doing case study research: A practical guide for beginning researchers. Teachers College Press.

Belov, A., Eroshenko, E. and Mavromichalaki, H., 2018. The global survey method applied to ground-level cosmic ray measurements. Solar Physics. 293(4). p.68.

Duff, P., 2018. Case study research in applied linguistics. Routledge.

Hancock, D. R. and Algozzine, B., 2017. Doing case study research: A practical guide for beginning researchers. Teachers College Press.

Harrison, H., Franklin, R. and Mills, J., 2017, January. Case study research: Foundations and methodological orientations. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 18, No. 1).

Pizarro, O., Friedman, A. and Madin, J., 2017. A simple, fast, and repeatable survey method for underwater visual 3D benthic mapping and monitoring. Ecology and Evolution7(6). pp.1770-1782.

Ridder, H. G., 2017. The theory contribution of case study research designs. Business Research. 10(2). pp.281-305.

Rothstein, M. A., Harrell, H. L. and Knoppers, B. M., 2018. Broad Consent for Future Research: International Perspectives. IRB: Ethics & Human Research. 40(6). pp.7-12.

Shah, S. K., Kimmelman, J. and Zorrilla, C., 2018. Bystander risk, social value, and ethics of human research. Science. 360(6385). pp.158-159.

Throsby, D., Zwar, J. and Morgan, C., 2017. Australian book readers: Survey method and results. Macquarie Economics Research Paper. 1. p.2017.

Weston, K. M., Mullan, J. R. and McLennan, P. L., 2016. Academic guidance in medical student research: how well do supervisors and students understand the ethics of human research?. Journal of Academic Ethics. 14(2). pp.87-102.

Yakubu, A. A., Hyder, A. A. and Kass, N., 2017. Research ethics committees in Nigeria: A survey of operations, functions, and needs. IRB: Ethics & Human Research. 39(3). pp.11-19.

Zhang, X., Kuchinke, L. and Margraf, J., 2017. Survey method matters: Online/offline questionnaires and face-to-face or telephone interviews differ. Computers in Human Behavior. 71. pp.172-180.

 

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