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    Cultural values and ethics.

    1. Introduction

    With the expansion of business and the organization involves with a lot of people with different cultures and cultural values.Having the gathering of different kinds of people at the same place may create a conflict between the understandings in working culture or in their responsibilities. For an organisation it is necessary to evaluate the cultural values and must have to follow the ethical values related to the cultures and their personal beliefs of employees. In this assignment the learner is going to create a video interview session on his study related to the cultural values and ethics in business organizations.

    The study ponders on the evaluation of three cultural aspects, i.e. India, Australia and America. An investigative analysis based on competencies of successful global managers and leaders are analysed critically in the study. Based on this parameter the researcher discussed in brief about the research methodologies and process of cultural values as well as ethical values. The key point of performing this activity is to collect the opinion of different persons belonging from different cultural background and working in the same organization(Ahern, 2015). Here the learner has selected three different cultures, one is the home culture of the object which is Indian culture, second one is the Australian culture where the object is currently staying and the third one is from the American culture, which the object have to follow due to the organizational modelling.

    1. Review of the Relevant Theories

    2.1. Understanding the cultural environment

    Business organizations that are based in multiple nations are curios to maintain their cultural values in their organizations. This is why they prefers the employee from the same background where the office is located, but sometimes it is not possible to get the suitable person from those places or due to some other reasons they have to deploy their current  workers (Bailey,2019)..

    1. To avoid these kinds of scenario it became common in now a days to have a clear understanding of the cultural values of that places and the organization as well as the employees of that organization.
    2. For the environments related to the cultures and ethics of the business place there are many aspects which needs to be maintained.
    3. From beginning with the business values to the ending with the cultural and personal values they have to follow each and every things to create ahealthy environment at their business places.

    2.2. Theories and research

    From the beginning of the era when the business organizations started following standard rules and regulations to maintain the international community standard, scholars and researchers have done a lot of research regarding this topic.  With all these available theories and researches it will be easier to relate the scenario of any organization with their cultural values.  With the point of cultural relativism the business organizations can improve their ethical as well as cultural values of the organization.

    Discussing on the best and most suitable theory based on the culture with the help of an example. The theory of ethnocentrism mainly denotes the purpose evaluating other cultures with centralising their own culture. Which means in an organization they are planning to maintain the cultural values but they have centralised their local cultural values and also maintain the cultural values of the other aspects. Here the learner is going to apply the same theory in his video assignment and will discuss the outcome and results related to it.

    1. Being Familiarised with the Relevant Theories and Models of Cultural Dimension

    3.1. Theories on culture and cultural values

    Having a  lot of researches and theories based on the same topic from last few decade it is nearly a tough task to adopt a certain kind of theory for a business organization. With allthe available theories and researches the learner pointed out some notes that cultures was seen as the matter off internal enhancement and self-development but with changing time it got developed and organizations started implementing as the means of overall business process enhancement methods.

    • The most widely used cultural theory or framework which is used in an organization is of Edgar Schein (1980). According to the theory the whole model is divided in different levels and steps.
    • The first step is one with the artefacts and symbols, this includes the design and nature of the organization at the physical level like the architecture, logo and clothing’s and other things. This indicates the convergence of different cultures and their implementation in an organization.
    •  The next step in this model is espoused value which includes the expressivity nature of that organization. Which means the method by which the organizations expresses their culture and behaviours to public and other related persons.

     

    Figure 1:- Edgar Schein model of organizational behaviour

    (Source: -Johnson, 2018)

    In the sense of basic underlying assumption it is imbedded with the experienced as self-evident and unconscious behaviour. It is very hard to evaluate these things from the outer boundary.

    1. Interview of the Person from Other Culture (Australia)

    In the process of research and learning the learner performed an interview session with some people who were working in a multinational organization to know and relate the learnttheory of cultural values in the businessorganization. In thisactivitythe learner has asked some simple questions related to the values and ethics of their personal culture relating with theculture of their organization, and also discussed about the effects or impacts of these two types of cultures. There may be a possibility of conflict between the organization and the person with their person beliefs and values. The learner has also focused on the points of how the organizations manage these differentials (Piepiora, 2016).

    Q. What are the Cultural constriction and dimensions faced?

    As per the data attained from the interview session it can be stated that organizations constructing their business plans must have to consider different dimensions of the cultures and ethics.  Business organizations are now able to identify that for successful business plan, which can compete with the market, must have to include these dimensions so that they can attract their customers from out of their home base. This is why the business organizations have adopted the different cultural models which can relate and support the structure of their business plans as well as their structure of their organization.

    •  There are a lot of available model, which can be easily adopted by these organization in their working model, either they can make change in their current model or they can implement this in a new way.
    • The most common one is the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck Model (1961), which has the most number of adoptability and the organizations, has gained much benefit with this kind of model.

    Highlighting the cultural dimensions of this model, like the maintaining the relationship with people or relationship with time and human activities, this model has the combinational structures of all the dimensions.

    • It contains the space and values of every kind of personality which can be found in the organization. The most famous example of the adoptability of this model is the APPLE Inc. who adopted this cultural model in their earlier days and got benefited in many different ways

    Highlighting more about the cultural dimensions which the organization needs to adopt, these dimensions like the human nature and activity and their responsibilities related to time and work may vary with person to person but it is the keen responsibility of the organization. This includes development of the plan in such a way that all the employees having different cultural and personal dimensions can fit in the organization. Here the model also describes about the pattern and marking scheming of the dimension, which cannot be considered good from ethical point of view, but for the planning process it is very important for the business organization to maintain and evaluate all these key dimensions.

    Q. What are the Interrelations and comparisons of Indian, Australian and American Culture?

    According to the interview of the employee, it can be stated that now it is time to interrelate these data from the different cultures and cultural values which will provide an extra benefit to get to know about the variations and similarities between the cultures. For this activity the learner discussed with one of his friend staying in Australia and working in an MNC.

    • As they are from India and staying in Australia and working for an American multinational Company, here the learner will find the mixture of three types of cultures. From the Indian culture they could relate the environment and natural behaviour of the employees like the working procedures and mental ability and expressivity of the employee and as the object is from Australia it may have some ascent of Australian company like the expressivity and other things. Above all the things they have to follow the organizational culture designed by the American headquarter of that company then it will surely contain some scent of American culture.
    • Which means all these kinds of organizations have the collection of different cultural values in their organizations and will the management of the organization have to maintain the ethics regarding all the cultural and other values. According to the Edgar Schein framework, this case interrelation can be easily implemented and the organization is also following the same model of cultural values. On the other hand through the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck Model one can easily correlates the analysis based on these data.
    •  According to this model the nature of the employees is dependent on different cultural dimensions and this should be evaluated on the scale of the anchors. Implementing this model in the current case study natures and personalities of the employees will depend on their home culture from where they belong, as the object, which the learner has selected for this case study id from India.
    •  This theory will possess the nature and cultures related from the Indian culture but as he is staying in Australia for his job then surely it will get some influence in his nature and work progress. Working in an American company will push them to follow the American culture like the working methodology or in the management and planning.  From this discussion one can see that here the user is getting co relation of three different cultures at the single place.

    Q. Are this interrelation of culture affecting their working process?

    The interview projected on the interrelation of culture and its benefits on the synchrony with working cultures. In a business organization for their business plans and goals, they need to implement different types of values in their business plans.

    • To provide a healthy work environment to the employees and to support them mentally and ethically the organizations need to include the cultural theories in their business plans.
    • In an organization where the learner went to perform the interview on this subject, the learner studied the values and importance of ethics in an business organization.

    In a working business plan for the company, there are a lot of possibility to include some new changes to make the current plan more effective. In some cases it is seen that the organizations having the perfect and balanced business plan has performed very well and the employees of that organizations have also contributed for their organization in an equivalent manner.

    1. Data Analysis

    With all the evolutions and researches there are some points which remains missing in most the business organizations, which delays the process of the work as well as the disturbs the working environment of the organization.

    • In an organization where the employees are belonging form different cultural backgrounds, the administration of that organization is responsible to maintain the cultural and ethical values of that organization.
    • In other words one can term it as the responsibility often plan of the organization which must be included intheir working process.

    There are some recommendations after all these researches and activities on the topic, as the interviewer in the activity section performed the interview of the employees of different organizations and following different cultural rules in their organizations they told they are free to maintain their person values but form learner’s side it is recommended to maintain the organizational values so that everyone have to follow the same rule and there should not be any kind of possibility to arise any kind of conflict in their work process.

    1. Conclusion

    In conclusion of this research assignment one can  conclude that the learner has done an in depth research about the topic related to the cultural values and ethics maintained in business organization and how they are maintain the different kinds of values together without any kind of conflict. The learner has descried in brief about the related theories and methodologies of the CEB and has also performed an activity to gain the practical data regarding this topic.

     

     

     

    References

    Ahern, K.R., Daminelli, D. and Fracassi, C., 2015. Lost in translation? The effect of cultural values on mergers around the world. Journal of Financial Economics117(1), pp.165-189.

    Bailey, B., Benson, A.J. and Bruner, M.W., 2019. Investigating the organisational culture of CrossFit. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology17(3), pp.197-211.

    Johnson, S., Rodrigues, M. and Tuckett, D., 2018. Cultural values guide consumers’ deference to experts.

    Kenter, J.O., 2016. Shared, plural and cultural values. Ecosyst. Serv21, pp.175-183.

    Piepiora, P., Piepiora, D. and Witkowski, K., 2016. Personality of the karatekas versus kumite sport fight systems (in view of the karate culture as the regulator of this interdependence). Journal of Combat Sports & Martial Arts7(1).

    Rivkin, I., Lopez, E.D., Trimble, J.E., Johnson, S., Orr, E. and Quaintance, T., 2019. Cultural values, coping, and hope in Yup'ik communities facing rapid cultural change. Journal of community psychology47(3), pp.611-627.

    Rogers-Sirin, L., Yanar, C., Yüksekba?, D., Senturk, M.I. and Sirin, S., 2017. Religiosity, cultural values, and attitudes toward seeking psychological services in Turkey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology48(10), pp.1587-1604.

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