Environmental

China is one of the leading global energy consumers in the whole world. They are continuously demanding energy to grow their businesses which are based on the International Energy Agency’s demand scenario. Based on the report of 2012, China produced the 3rd largest energy source in terms of the Chinese Wind Energy Association. This study demonstrates a critique of paper which helps to understand different author’s views regarding the local acceptance of wind power in China. 

  1. BODY
    1. of local acceptance of wind power

As per the views of Baker, Johnson, and Macdonald, (2020), there are many factors affect due to public resistance of wind projects. In this regard, different factors into several categories such as public attitude regarding environmental issues, general attitude, and perceived towards wind energy. In this consideration, it can be stated that economic benefits and environmental costs help to make the perfect shape of local acceptance of wind energy. To consider research, deployment of wind power provides direct economic benefits for localities which increasing incomes for several people. There are different people includes such as local government and landowners, enhancement of employment opportunities for the increasing demand for commodities for local people. However, Komendantova and Battaglini, (2016) argued that services during project construction and operations develop successfully. Different kinds of economic incentives are also an important factor that affects community acceptance in wind power in Denmark. From the previous research, it has been identified that the main reason for local opposition in the construction of wind farms in countries where high-income people live.

On the other hand, Liu, Liao, and Mei, (2018) stated that perception of high local environmental costs produces a social gap between the high and stable level of different people that support for renewable energy. Generally, the low success rate in the country exists, where planning applications considered for wind power developments. This is driven by the desire that relies on maintaining sustainable energy sources. There is a positive relationship between the attitude of the public for environmental issues and renewable energy development proven something complexity. Besides this, Liu, Liao, and Mei, (2018) stated that renewable energy support an environment in positive aspects. This is because endorsing energy considered renewable energy technologies creatively.

As per the views of Manica, Cobre, and Caputo, (2017), the general attitude of the public for wind power is another kind of key factor that influences local acceptance of wind energy. They proposed a public attitude for wind power that is fundamentally different from the attitude towards wind projects. There is also an individual gap that exists when any person has a positive attitude towards the wind power in general aspect. There is active participation developed in the particular wind power project. However, Baker, Johnson, and Macdonald, (2020) stated that other studies observe those general aspects of attitude towards wind power influence acceptance of wind power. People who possess a positive attitude towards the project are more likely to accept a specific wind project.

    1. in My Backyard and Beyond

According to the views of Tan, Wong-Parodi, and Xu, (2020), NIMBY can be defined as utilized to describe and elaborate opposition to wind power by different people. Different researchers utilize this to explain support for renewable energy development. With opposition to specific projects because of perceived impact within the UK, Ireland, and Denmark, NIMBY develops general support. There are different kinds of people cannot explain local acceptance in term of renewable energy development. Besides this, Komendantova and Battaglini, (2016) argued that there are different claims centered on two criticisms.  There are generally two criticisms centric such as proximity hypothesis and another is NIMBY oversimplifies outlook for wind power. As per the first aspect, the wind farm has the most negative attitude which cannot be tested empirically. Another determined grounded with a rational actor for an individual model. It assumes that human behavior is generally based on narrow concepts towards different choices.

As per the point of French and Scott-Norman, (2019), it can be critically evaluated that individual living closest with renewable energy projects that tend to consider more positive attitude for those who live further away. Environmental justice has also been used that helps to explain social acceptance in renewable energy. In practice, it generally refers to the socio-political movement that focuses on fair distribution in environmental benefits.  However, Litvin, Smith, and McEwen, (2020) argued that local acceptance of wind power generally motivated not only on rational choice but on different aspects of beliefs, quality, values, social and psychological factors, etc. As per the role of social acceptance, it can be stated that the deployment of this wind power project considered in high income within the OECD countries. Hence, it defined the negative impacts of wind energy within China which considered the social, political, cultural, and technological impact.

    1. Energy Development and Environmental Justice

To define renewable energy development and environmental justice, Manica, Cobre, and Caputo, (2017) stated that it refers to as socio-political movement that helps to focus on fair distribution in environmental benefits that originated in the US during 1980. Furthermore, the US environmental protection agency also determined fair treatment and meaningful involvement of different kinds of people in terms of race, sex, origin, religion, etc in respect of the development of the country. With the help of enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies, these aspects can be successfully lead in wind power development. On the other hand, Tan, Wong-Parodi, and Xu, (2020) argued that environmental justice is also emphasizing fairness and processes in which successful decisions made. It not only covers the distribution of environmental benefits and burden but also looking for society or community development.

According to other scholars, Liu, Liao, and Mei, (2018), it can be critically stated that renewable energy projects have generally examined the relationship between energy development and environmental justice. This is because environmental justice not only considers the decision for the energy of renewable but it is also looking that influences defining clean energy laws. Procedural justice has been studied as an important issue for the development of wind energy within Australia and Germany. These studies also indicate processes that are more inclusive and contribute to social acceptance. Besides this, Komendantova and Battaglini, (2016) contradicting that there are different variables integrate such as perceived benefits and costs. It also includes belief variables, general attitude for environmental issues, and wind energy analysis. In this regard, the key result is particularly the identification of distance which perceived several benefits such as economic that begin to compensate for the cost.

    1. In My Back Yard but not far away from me

According to the critical aspect of Litvin, Smith, and McEwen, (2020), it can be stated that it is important to focus on research on the social acceptance of wind energy. With this regard, renewable energy is broadly developed due to different explanatory variables includes in it. It is emphasized to observe that there is local acceptance of wind power plants develop across the different geographic domains that described with inverse relation. From the data analysis, it can be stated that there are 60.5% of people consider their acceptance when wind farms located in the village. On the other hand, Stoll and Klein, (2018) argued that a slightly higher rate of acceptance appears for respondents who generally support different kinds of wind farms on their property. This is a comparatively high number so that results indicate that it is the actual lowest level of acceptance transversely different geographic locations such as city, state, country, and province.

As per views of French and Scott-Norman, (2019), people have generally considered their higher expectations with wind power projects that are developed in the city and country. Acceptance diminishes for projects that are built further away from them at a place such as China and Gansu. However, Tan, Wong-Parodi, and Xu, (2020) argued that there are different attitudes of people towards the construction of wind farms successfully developed. In respect to examine NIMBY also overlook for economic benefits from wind power project that beneficial for find perfect conclusion as well. Residents can indeed environmental cost of wind power that helps to find negative and positive effects of produced power.

In the words of Bone and Economics, (2018), critically evaluated that with wind power projects there are several negative effects also seen such as noise pollution, visual impact, and different environmental costs which contribute to perceiving local economic benefits. It generally enhances positive responses for the wind farm developments. This project is the largest in the whole nation that explained by the larger scale of wind power production. Like the larger scale of wind power is considered a potential driver in the industrial chain especially for the development of the equipment manufacturing. Furthermore, Wang and Gong, (2018) argued that this project helps to promote employment growth in the country which also increases per capita income. As a result, public acceptance of wind power could be considered rational overall development aspects to avoid costs wind power farms that are benefiting from the positive outcomes that are generally produced in the wind power industry.

    1. influencing local acceptance of wind power

To consider views of Manica, Cobre, and Caputo, (2017), small groups of stakeholder interviews considered importance in expected economic benefits that help to shape public acceptance of wind power. In this consideration, a combination of factor and regression analysis helps to find validate the conclusion. Therefore, wind power shaped strong beliefs and economic benefits with the acceptance of wind power in different areas of the local and international markets. This perception is the most important aspect that helps to show the most important factor in local acceptance. However, Baker, Johnson, and Macdonald, (2020) argued that in the developing nation China people seem to dedicate more attention to industrial development that also develops economic benefits. This could also explain a higher rate of acceptance in different nations. In this manner, the local public reaps with the economic benefits of generating wind power in China that differs from the high-income nations.

As per the views of Liu, Liao, and Mei, (2018), high-income nations which include UK, France, Denmark, etc. wind power companies include individual citizens to increase local acceptance and avoid a NIMBY reaction. In contradiction, wind power generation businesses within China are all state-owned enterprises. As a result, individual citizens are not included in the ownership of the wind turbine. There are citizens only get benefits from employment so that turbine produces income growth. However, Komendantova and Battaglini, (2016) argued that Gansu is an underdeveloped area of China that may contribute importance with expected economic benefits as the driver of wind power acceptance. As it is expected that results are generally confirmed that it is greater perceived environmental costs of wind power such as visual impact, noise pollution, etc. which is the lower acceptance rate within China.

Litvin, Smith, and McEwen, (2020) critically stated that consistent with reinforcing the fact with perceptions towards negative externalities of the wind power. It is also observed that economic benefits compensating towards perceived costs at the country and city level. Within the perceived environmental cost, it can be stated that the development of wind power projects positively correlated with the public’s acceptance to build far away from it. On the other hand, Brinkman and Mok-Lamme, (2019) stated that this is an empirical study which determined that public attitude to solve the environmental issue is also significantly develop local acceptance when it is considered at the city level. Insignificant aspect, it can be said that the general attitude of the public toward wind energy is not considered explanatory power in any model.

From the present critique study, it can be summarised that the Chinese government addresses public acceptance that helps to maintain social stability. It assists to identify characteristics of local acceptance in the wind power project of China. Hence, it helps the government of the country to design its mechanisms that create processes involving the local population and create an informational campaign that enhances support for the wind power project. Furthermore, it also concluded that it is the largest project of China that developed Chinese wind power with government-driven technology. The government has also the ability to implement an industrial plan compared to the other nations. Moreover, it articulated that increasing wind power projects are being also built-in acceptance to become more important in wind energy development.

 

Baker, S. E., Johnson, P. J., & Macdonald, D. W. (2020). Erratum: Baker, SE; Maw, SA; Johnson PJ; Macdonald, DW Not in My Backyard: Public Perceptions of Wildlife and ‘Pest Control’in and around UK Homes, and Local Authority ‘Pest Control’. Animals. 10(4). 644.

Bone, H. L., & Economics, S. (2018). Not In My Backyard.

Brinkman, J., & Mok-Lamme, D. (2019). Not in my backyard? Not so fast. The effect of marijuana legalization on neighborhood crime. Regional Science and Urban Economics. 78. 103460.

French, R., & Scott-Norman, F. (2019). Not in my backyard. Big Issue Australia. (582). 13.

Komendantova, N., & Battaglini, A. (2016). Beyond Decide-Announce-Defend (DAD) and Not-in-My-Backyard (NIMBY) models? Addressing the social and public acceptance of electric transmission lines in Germany. Energy research & social science. 22. 224-231.

Litvin, S. W., Smith, W. W., & McEwen, W. R. (2020). Not in my backyard: Personal politics and resident attitudes toward tourism. Journal of Travel Research. 59(4). 674-685.

Liu, Z., Liao, L., & Mei, C. (2018). Not-in-my-backyard but let’s talk: Explaining public opposition to facility siting in urban China. Land use policy. 77. 471-478.

Manica, M., Cobre, P. & Caputo, B. (2017). Not in my backyard: effectiveness of outdoor residual spraying from hand?held sprayers against the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Rome, Italy. Pest management science. 73(1). 138-145.

Stoll, L. C., & Klein, M. (2018). “Not in My Backyard”: How Abstract Liberalism and Colorblind Diversity Undermines Racial Justice. In Challenging the Status Quo (pp. 217-240). Brill.

Tan, H., Wong-Parodi, G., & Xu, J. (2020). Not under my backyard? Psychological distance, local acceptance, and shale gas development in China. Energy Research & Social Science. 61. 101336.

Wang, M., & Gong, H. (2018). Not-in-My-Backyard: Legislation Requirements and Economic Analysis for Developing Underground Wastewater Treatment Plant in China. International journal of environmental research and public health. 15(11). 2339.

 

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