Higher National Certificate/Diploma in Business Management-Organisational Behavior
Hierarchical conduct has been one of the most significant portions in the various angles which could make the association fruitful sooner rather than later. The association like Hilton inn, Marriott inn has been thought about and its concurring ideas of initiative and authoritative conduct are additionally portrayed in thought with legitimate depiction. The exploration has been done to make the association effective soon. The various sorts of administration, culture in the association, and their efficiencies are talked about as far as the taken associations like Hilton and Marriott. These reports will give a thought of how the force, culture could make the working environment corrupted and it ought to likewise be applied similarly as the other business based associations for the improvement of their items and administrations. Ideas and methods of reasoning of hierarchical conduct have been thought about which will in the long run make them away from applying those ways of thinking in the association.
LO1 and LO2
P1 Analyze how an organization's culture, politics and power influence individual and team behavior and performance
Culture: Culture can be stated as a term used to indicate the social and human behaviour of an individual which is derived from some core values and influence that plays an important role in the life of the individual. Culture is a very important factor within an organization or workforce, culture determines the values, ethics and principles that are followed by the workforce of the firm in order to effectively operate. In accordance with the Handy’s model of organizational culture there are 4 different types of organizational culture that are power culture, task culture, role culture and person culture. In power culture there only come individuals that have the power and they make decisions and instruct the employees of the firm to operate for the firm. In Task culture there certain teams that are classified and different tasks are allocated to them and for each operation. In role culture the power is delegated to each employee in order to perform the operation of a firm with role culture each person has their own role and responsibilities and their position within the word force determines the role they have and the power they possess. Person culture is a culture in which people think they are superior to the business and single handedly control all the powers in the business as well as operate the business. Hilton Hotel seems to have the role culture in which the role and responsibilities of each individual is divided and on the basis of this there position in the firm as well as the amount of delegated authority is also made certain. This influences the performance and behaviours of the employees by making them feel responsible for the different operations of the firm and also motivates them as they have some delegated authority which they can use to conduct their operations
Politics: Politics is a set of operations and activities conducted to attain governance of a country or a business entity. Politics has an huge influence over the governance of the firm in order to manage the operational activities of the firm. In accordance with M. Jarett’s political Terrain there are 4 main metaphoric domains that are known as weeds, rocks, high ground and woods. In the domain of weeds there is personal influence and informal networks that are created in politics or in the organization. In the domain of rocks there is individual interaction and formation of a network within the authority of the firm. In the domain of high ground there is formal authority with the organizational system and at last in the domain of woods there are implicit norms and hidden assumptions other than formal process. It can be said that any type of political domain can affect the performance and employee behaviour within Hilton Hotel in an evident manner. This is because the type of politics that is within the Hilton Hotel directly affects its governance and decision making process which create regimes suiting the types of activities or behaviors conducted by the workforce transcending into the organizational performance.
Power: Power within an organizational context can be defined as an ability of the individual to make decisions The ability of making decisions may vary from small to big scale. This is because the impact that decision has on the operations of the business also varies. Decisions made by a powerful leader will have a huge impact over the firm rather than decisions made by a common worker in the organization. The Board of directors as well as the upper management of Hilton hotel has the power of decision making and power must be delegated in order to properly use the element in an unbiased manner for the benefit of the firm. Presence of power in the right minds has a huge positive impact over the behaviour and workforce of the firm as the power used by the upper management is positive in nature. Thus it can be said that power impacts the behavior and organizational performance of Hilton Hotel in an evident way.
The organizational culture, power, and performance is the most important thing which could hamper the internal and external characteristics of an organization. In terms of the future provision, it has been seen that most of the organizational hamper such as the longer time in delivery or less production rate is mostly based upon the things which are carried out by the internal politics of the organization. Hilton hotel has seen such types of issues in their organization which hampered their production rate in terms of a longer basis.
The board rehearses, approaches, frameworks, and association engineering all things considered effect workforce observations and perspectives. Consolidating these powers with representative reactions to them comprises what we call corporate culture. It is this corporate culture that drives social conduct in the association. Furthermore, it's social conduct that decides if, and how, the work completes.
For instance, it was culture that raised Magma Copper Company from a wasteful second rate copper maker to an exceptionally beneficial industry star. It was the culture that permitted General Electric to effectively enter and contend successfully in the exceptionally serious airplane motor space. It is a culture that permits Apple to make its exceptionally desired items. It is a culture that makes and continues the surprising victories highlighted by an infamous administration that looks like a work of art. The correct culture can pivot the most minimal performing association making it a sparkling star in its space. An inappropriate culture can crush an association, even one with an extraordinary item and business procedure. An association's prosperity relies upon its capacity to execute, and execution is about culture (Burrell and Morgan, 2020).
Authoritative culture to a huge degree decides the exhibition of the representatives. In this manner, it is in light of a legitimate concern for associations to kill negative factors that hinder representative presentation to encourage a positive work environment condition or a positive hierarchical culture. The team culture, performance, and significant adjustment are very well needed to be addressed which could make the organization more productive engagement. The inner atmosphere of an organization assumes a colossal job for representatives while picking where to work. Hierarchical correspondence is one of the primary angles that powers representatives to take a gander at other work offers or, whenever done accurately, ensures workers remain within the long stretch, acquiring back the underlying venture made with them (Burrell and Morgan, 2020).
As per an ongoing report by the Deloitte University Press, HR pioneers consider the culture and commitment to their main test. Andrew Harvey, Director of Internal Communications Practice at the VMA Group, has stated: "The line between the inward correspondence and HR is getting progressively obscured. The two capacities are drawing in with a similar crowd, so it bodes well that the two work together. What's more, with the two offices continually looking for a more grounded voice in the meeting room, the coordinated effort could be a genuine distinct advantage."
M1 Critically analyze how the culture, politics, and power of an organization can influence individual and team behaviour and performance
The power and influence of the political aspect have impacted the organizations in a very crucial way. It has also maintained its significant adjustment in the delivery of products and services which are offered by the organizations. The best quality of management in delivering the perfect products and services in the organization, the culture of the organization must adhere to the industry standard.
In some organizations, it has been admired that most of the leaders and the managerial authority are based upon the autocratic leadership style which is not at all suitable to run a business in terms of the long term. The sustainability of the business depends upon the future base ideas and their proper execution in the near future, It will make the organization as well as their product to be unique and very important to the customers for their quality management. The latest technologies are needed to be used in comparison to the other old fashioned technologies which are being outdated in recent days. The leaders and the managerial authority must have to listen to these typical things which could make the organization more improved. There are approximately 3,80,000 members in the Hilton Hotel who are very much positioned in regard to the atmosphere of the organization (Burrell and Morgan, 2020). The influences of politics, culture, and its impact in the organization are very much induced in the particular absorption.
P2 Evaluate how content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques enable effective achievement of goals in an organizational context
The content and process theories of motivation have several factors that are enabled to have the most important aspects of the management segmentation. These theories and their application in context to the best possible aspects are being discussed
1. Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory
The Two-Factor Theory of inspiration (also called double factor hypothesis or inspiration cleanliness hypothesis) was created by analyst Herzberg during the 1950s.
Hygiene factors – these are factors that lead to fulfillment and propel representatives to work more enthusiastically. Models may incorporate making the most of work, feeling perceived, and professional movement.
Cleanliness factors – These elements can prompt disappointment and an absence of inspiration on the off chance that they are missing. Models incorporate compensation, organization strategies, benefits, associations with administrators, and colleagues.
Vroom expectancy theory is a process theory of motivation that can be used by an organization in order to motivate its employees. The Vroom expectancy theory, unlike Maslow and Herzrberg, has classified the three elements known as effort, performance and outcomes that can be used by the firm in order to motivate its employees. In this way it is assumed that the employee behaviour is driven by the types of conscious choices that they make and the purpose of these choices are to increase the pleasure and optimize the pain. The theory has also realized that the behavior of the employee is based on some individual factors that are skills, knowledge, personality and experience. The theory states that an individual performance and motivation levels are linked with each other. The theory uses the variables such as expectancy, instrumentality and Valence in order to check the following relationship. Expectancy is the belief that more effort will derive better or more results, instrumentality is the belief that if the employee performs well a certain valued outcome will be received and at last Valence is the importance that the employee has placed over certain outcomes that are needed by the following. Through analysing the relationship between all of these factors it was seen that the association that is made by employee on the expected outcomes and contribution that they have put in the organizational operations can help them achiving the outcome they desire and in return they will be motivated.
Emotional intelligence and soft skill of managers
Emotional intelligence is a way through which a person is able to manage and control their own emotion considering the individuals that are around them. Emotional intelligence is very much required by leaders and managers to make sure that they understand what they feel and how it can impact on others. High emotional intelligence is a part of social skills in leadership that helps the leader in attaining the required behaviour which is needed within a workplace. There are various elements within the emotional intelligence process and they are self awareness, self regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. There are other soft skills that a manager must have in order to effectively operate and motivate the workforce of the organization that includes soft skills related to decision making, problems solving, conflict resolution, empathy and empowerment. Using all of these soft skills help a manager to manage and motivate the workforce of the organization.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantage of applying motivation theories within Hilton Hotel is as follows:
- Through the application of Herzberg the management of Hilton Hotel will be able to create motivation for the employee from within the operations of the firm. This theory will also be advantageous for the firm in order to resolve employee problems to keep the team motivated.
- Vroom theory is very accurate for Hilton Hotel as it helps the company to boost performance and motivation of the employee by engaging them in the operations and by motivating them through providing valued outcomes of tere operations such as rewards and gifts.
The disadvantage of applying motivation theories within Hilton Hotel is as follows:
- This theory ignores external factors that affect employee motivation for example external factors such as hike in basic salary within an competeitor will demotivate the employee of the firm as they are getting lower salary than that of the competitor company.
- The disadvantage is that sometimes the employees do not value the rewards given to them hence they may lose motivation in such case the management has to provide perceived rewards to the employees in order to keep them motivated and this is a complex process.
D1 Critically evaluate the relationship between culture, politics, power, and motivation that enables teams and organizations to succeed in providing justified recommendations
Authoritative culture is the interior culture of an association. Associations, for instance, enterprises, open administrations and volunteer associations, regularly arrive at a point where the individuals don't have any acquaintance with one another straightforwardly and the 'family' model of an individual colleague is not, at this point adequate to keep up the beliefs and inspirations that initially helped structure the association (Burrell and Morgan, 2020).
An organization, for instance, may be fruitful and develop to have a bigger number of individuals and areas than a solitary proprietor can know and keep up relations with. The job of the board for this situation grows to incorporate keeping up the association just as the creation of gadgets or giving different gadget administrations. For this situation, corporate culture may begin as an approach expected to keep up consistency or potential quality. Such a culture may create to incorporate unique strategies for employing and remuneration.
Social assorted variety is definitely not a huge issue for any association rather organizations can truly profit by the alternate points of view and encounters that decent variety at work offers since it can assist with boosting development and adaptability. Be that as it may, overseeing social assorted variety is testing. Here are a couple of tips to do that: Ask questions, escape usual ranges of familiarity, and become more acquainted with people as opposed to making suppositions.
To make all representatives connected with and significant, connect those holes that exist in the association. Not simply between partners or representatives and supervisors, however between various social, sex bunches too. One approach to achieve this is to request that the pioneers demand contributions from individuals around them (Burrell and Morgan, 2020).
Influence Training for all age gatherings: Having all the age bunches engaged with preparing, associations can evade the expertise holes in the workforce. Distinctive age gatherings and encounters empower increasingly gainful group discussions and thoughts.
In order to mitigate the things which are addressing the social and cultural issues in the organization, most of the higher authority of the organization must have to admire the best possible attire which is suitable for the organizational development.
LO3 Demonstrate an understanding of how to cooperate effectively with others
Select a Theme for the seminar of your chosen organisation
Hospitality management will be the theme of the Seminar that will be conducted by Hilton Hotel in order to analyze the problems in management and to develop the following. This will be a seminar providing training to employees and management to develop its hospitality management to a better standard.
Advise the manager where to place the welcome desk
The welcome desk will be placed within the conference hall of seminar where every employee and management of the firm will be welcome and received to participate within the current seminar that is being conducted over the theme of Hospitality management.
Organise how the delegates will be received and be given them their visitors’ cards, brochures
All of employees and managers of the firm will be given an entry card for the attending the seminary and it will be made sure every employee and manager attend the seminary by inviting them through providing the entry or visitors card for the current seminar over Hospitality management.
How would you help coordinate the team to enable smooth management and to ease the pressure of the flow of delegates.
Formula method of communication will be impacted where digital mediums and technology will be used to communicate with other employees so that there is proper coordination in between them and that is effective flow of information within the workforce about the following seminar.
The Hotel Marriot has been very much effective in making the coloration with the other employees which has been very much inclusive to make the o products successfully delivered.
The effective team management and their significant application for the benefits of the team corporation are based on interactively assisting the upper incorporation of the organizational behavior. Things such as lack of communication, lack of understanding, and lack of making proper deadline meetings are associated with the degradation of the organizational output.
The inability and ineffectiveness in organizing team management is the thing that needs to be solved within the scope and priority of organizational behavior (Hosain et al. 2020).
M3 Analyse relevant team and group development theories to support the development of dynamic cooperation
Tuckman's team development theory is most important in group development which could make the assessment more clear and to the point in the segmented approaches of organizational development. This stage is based mainly on four levels (Hosain et al. 2020).
The forming stage is based upon those things which are to make the starting or initiation of the project. The forming stage is based on making the correct and very skilled employees or team to be formed which could make the project successful. Thus, it has been very well needed for future based advancement.
The storming stage is the stage when the conflict arises between the selected team member. The team members are also engaged with different perspectives in making a particular project successfully. The project's importance and its importance are needed to be maintained under the high persuading of the comprehensive management in the organization.
In order to make the project successful, the norming stage is needed to be revived. It is also needed to be maintained under perfect significance. The norming stage is based upon the proper leadership and guidance of the resources. It has been significantly important in making the team collaboration to be maintained within the stipulated time. The best quality of management is needed to be considered by the best team managers which need to be considered for the best assessment.
The performing stage is based upon making most of the team members have collaborated with the team leader and thus managing it to the full-fledged possible aspect. The performing aspect is more or less based upon those things which are consistent with the different possibilities.
Nine Belbin team roles for supporting the development of dynamic organisation
The Nine Belbin team roles are very much helpful when it comes to developing a dynamic organisation. One can develop the organisation in a more dynamic way by simply using the Nine Belbin team roles theory. The Nine Belbin team roles are the shaper, implementer, finisher, co-ordinator, team worker, resource investigator, monitor- evaluator, specialist roles and plants role. The following points mentioned below will identify how by using the Nine Belbin team roles the development of dynamic organisation is possible:
- Shaper- The shaper helps to keep positive mental attitudes and also have great communication skills which help in motivating the members of the team. The shaper helps to keep a proper shape so that the organisation can thrive its best out of it.
- Implementer- It is the implementer in the team who turns the ideas into the actual plan of action. The work of the implementer for making a dynamic organisation is vital. The implementer makes the plans into a course of action.
- Finisher- It is important to find out the error in a plan or a team which by rectifying will help the organisation to grow dynamically. The finishers are those who find the errors in the team and encourage the other members to make things perfect (Omar et al. 2016).
- Co-ordinator- Guiding the activities of the team is the actual work of a coordinator for the development of the organisation. The coordinator in order to achieve the goal of the organisation can sometimes force the other members to do things in a proper way.
- Team Worker- For making the organisation dynamic everybody works in a team but there are possibilities when the team is indulged into some conflicts. The team worker solves all the conflicts that may arise in the team in order to make the organization the best.
- Resource Investigator- The resource investigator keeps the record of all the resources and makes sure that all the resources are available for the organisation. The networking skills of the resource investigator are very strong and they play a vital role for making a dynamic organisation (Ruch et al. 2018).
- Monitor- Evaluator- The evaluator are those people who carefully understand and analyse any critical situation and then make a proper conclusion. For making the organisation dynamic it is important to understand and analyse things in a more precise manner which is done by the monitor- evaluator.
- Specialist- The specialist maintains a standard where they provide proper suggestions to the team members in terms of some specific area. If the team members face any problem for a particular thing then they take the help of a specialist to understand the problem. This helps to do things in a perfect way which makes the organisation dynamic.
- Plants- Overcoming challenges is one of the important things for making a dynamic organisation. The plant helps the team members to overcome the challenges.
- Hence by using the Nine Belbin Team Roles the organisation will be able to make itself dynamic. Each role mentioned by Belbin plays a vital role for making the organisation more dynamic.
M2 Critically evaluate how to influence the behaviour of others through the effective application of behavioural motivational theories, concepts and models
The behavior of others is very much precipitated in terms of managing the internal and external assessments in different organizations. There are several leaders who are in charge of making internal politics a bit of influence for better delivery and production (Burrell and Morgan, 2019). Organizational behavior is quite simply the study and application of how employees behave within organizations. Modern-day thinking on organizational behavior has been greatly influenced by a range of organizational theories. These include:
- Scientific management
- Job simplification
- Classical organizational theory
- Fayol’s 14 principles of management
- The Hawthorne studies
- Human relations theory
- McGregor’s Theory X And Y view on management styles
These theories are most applicable to the product as well as service sectors and organizations in terms of their organizational behaviour. The organization Hilton Hotel is based on the last style which has been mentioned in the list
McGregor's Theory X
This hypothesis recommends that the normal person has an intrinsic abhorrence of work and will keep away from it in the event that he/she can. Furthermore, as a result of the human trademark aversion of work, the vast majority must be forced, controlled, coordinated, undermined with discipline, to get them to invest satisfactory energy towards the accomplishment of hierarchical objectives. The normal individual likes to be coordinated, wishes to keep away from obligation, has moderately little aspiration, needs security most importantly.
Accordingly Theory X Managers:
- Intently oversee and control workers
- Separate errands into straightforward, dull and effectively learned activities
- Build up nitty-gritty work schedules and strategies
- Authorize schedules and methods solidly yet reasonably
- Conversely, McGregor's Theory Y recommends:
- The consumption of physical and mental exertion is as normal as rest or play
- Outside control and the risk of discipline are by all account not the only methods for achieving exertion towards authoritative goals
Individuals will practice self-bearing and discretion in the administration of destinations to which they are submitted. Promise to targets is an element of the prizes related to their accomplishment
The person learns, under legitimate conditions, not exclusively to acknowledge however to look for duty. The ability to practice a generally high level of the creative mind, inventiveness, and imaginatively in the hierarchical issues is broad, not barely, conveyed in the populace. Under the state of present-day modern life, the scholarly possibilities of the normal individual are just halfway used.
Therefore Theory Y Managers see their job is to
- Cause every worker to feel significant and valuable
- Keep workers educated and tune in to their interests
- Permit workers practice some self-bearing and command over routine errands
LO4 Apply concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior to a given business situation
Subject: Recommendations on how the application of OB theories and philosophies would. enable the organisation to improve performance and productivity
Organizational behavior has become one of the most important factors that determine the approach of the organization in conducting their business operations. In this letter there will be discussion over the Organizational behaviour philosophies and theories. The following philosophies and theories will be applied to Marriott hotel to understand the organization behaviour of the company.
Organizational behaviour theories are theories that are developed from Organizational study that have been conducted to analyze and understand different aspects of an organization using which the leading and managing of organizational operations can be done in an efficient manner. It is important to understand that through the use of Organizational behavior theories Marriott Hotels will be able understand the behavioural aspect of workforce or operational teams that conduct the operations of the firm in various functional departments to manage them in an efficient manner increasing their overall efficiency and productivity (Bracher and May, 2019). Using organizational behaviour theory such as Path Goal theory and Social captal theory will help the company in effectively managing the workforce of the firm to drive better efficiency and productivity in the company’s operational activities. Path goal theory is a theory of leadership that can be used by the leaders and managers of Marriott Hotels to derive better operational performance from the workforce of the firm. Path Goal theory is leadership theory that helps the leader to manage their followers which in this case are the employees of Marriott Hotels. Now in the path goal theory the leader or manager of the department can define the expected performance that the following expects form each of the employee and this expected results are stated to the employee and the way the task should be performed is also directed. In this way a goal is created in front of the employee that the following wants to achieve through their operational activities. This helps in boosting the efficiency of the firm’s workforce and employees in different functions of the company. The other Organizational behaviour theory which can be used by the leaders and managers of Marriott Hotel in order to effectively increase the efficiency and productivity of the employees is the Social Capital Theory. Social capital theory is a theory which states that through the use of social relationships a company can develop and accumulate the human resources or capital in an effective manner. Social capital theory can be defined as a process through which the company can grow its workforce productivity by developing effective relationships with the employees of the firm. The leaders and management of Marriott Hotel will be able to use this theory in order to develop their relationship with the workforce which will increase the communication and coordination within the organization benefiting the operations that are conducted by the workforce. Usage of these theories will directly benefit the workforce productive and efficiency in different departments of Marriott's Hotel’s operations (Hosain et al. 2020).
Looking at the path goal theory and social capital theory that have been intended in the development of workforce efficiency and productivity. It is important to understand that through the path goal theory the manager and leader of the company can ensure that the firm is able to effectively increase their product and performance. The path goal theory can be used by the managers and leaders of the firm to influence the employee behaviour by setting goals that are to be achieved in their future operational activities. In this way the company is able to motivate the employee by setting up the goal, making sure they are operating efficiently to achieve that goal in a prominent manner. In this way it can be said that through the use of path goal theory the managers and leaders of the firm will be able to influence the behaviour of the employees and workforce in the firm. On the other hand through help of Social Capital theory the firm will be able to create a good relationship with its human capital which will eventually help the company in bridging the communication and coordination gap that existed between the two parties creating a good influence over the employees for the operational objectives that are to be achieved by the following in the operational activities (Zaghini et al. 2017).
It is important to understand that team development theory like Belbin Team role theory is a way through which the management and leader of Marriott Hotels will be able to effectively influence and enhance the performance of the company’s workforce. Through the usage of Belbin Team theory the managers and leaders will be able to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each employee within the workforce and divide their role accordingly. In this way all the employees will conduct their operations in a successful and efficient manner increasing the overall efficiency of the organization in their operational activities. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the workforce will ensure that the workforce is influenced by their strengths and operate in a significant way to achieve operational goals and objectives.
Concluding in the light of above context it can be said that using organizational behavior theories, leadership theories and team development theory will help the management and leader of Marriott hotel to derive efficient and productive performance from their workforce. This will be done using a systematic workforce operations that will effectively enhance the overall operational efficiency of Marriott Hotel within the operational activities. Looking at the case and discussion above there are some recommendations that are to be made for the development of the company operational efficiency. It is recommended that the company should implement the theories from the top to bottom operations of Mariot hotel as in this a complete implementation of the framework would be done to enhance the operations of the firm.
Organizational behavior has been one of the most important segments in the different aspects which could make the organization successful in the near future. The organization like Hilton hotel, Marriott hotel has been taken into consideration and its according concepts of leadership and organizational behavior are also described in consideration with proper description. The research has been done to make the organization successful in the near future. The different types of leadership, culture in the organization, and their efficiencies are discussed in terms of the taken organizations like Hilton and Marriott. These reports will give an idea of how the power, culture could make the workplace degraded and it should also be applied in the same way as the other industry-based organizations for the betterment of their products and services. Concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior have been taken into consideration which will eventually make a clear understanding of applying those philosophies in the organization.
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