Apply nursing practice in the primary health care setting
1. Primary health care settings in Australian communities are diverse, each set comes with it a set of health challenges required to address key issues
Match the Primary health care setting (from the list) with its own unique set of health challenges:
- Mental health,
- Culturally and linguistically diverse people (CALD)
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
- People in rural and remote areas
- Community aged care
Primary health care setting
Health challenge is to provide support for severe and persistent mental illness
Health challenge is to restore function and independence to remain at home and participate in care choices
Health challenge is to have nurses acting as advocates,
Community aged care
Health Challenge is early prevention in primary health care to address the key environmental factors to social determinates of health and wellness such as housing, decimation, poverty or disease
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Health challenge is to decrease the limited access to services that support primary health
People in rural and remote areas
Health Challenge is to address common conditions affecting this group such as post-traumatic stress syndrome, anxiety and or depression, tuberculosis, cancers, substance and alcohol use disorder,
Health Challenge is to ensure referrals for ongoing support such as community clinics social workers, mental health service providers when released
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Health Challenge is based around communication, being able to source and comprehend health and wellness information
2. There are many social determinents that affect the health and wellness of all Australian communities. Discuss (3) environmental (external influences) that can impact health issues within a community.
The environmental factors besides the social factors would affect the health of the people of a country. There are a number of environmental factors that would be responsible for the effect on health. Quality of air and water and climate change would be considered as the three vital factors that would be responsible for affecting the health of people of a community (Environmental Health Sciences Center, 2020). The quality of air would be determined by the presence of pollutants in the air. The smoke, nonmaterial that is present in air and water would keep the effect on the public health of a particular place. On the other hand, climate change and the increase in temperature would affect the health of people. The frequency of drought and other disasters would also affect.
3. Discuss (4) areas of the primary health care philosophical framework that underpin primary health care.
The primary healthcare framework would be described as both philosophy and an approach to provide sufficient health service to the patients. The philosophy of the primary healthcare service would be based on the values of social justice, equity, and solidarity. It would be related to the patients who are not admitted to the hospital. The areas of primary healthcare are medical service, health promotion, continuing care, counseling and community health, and partnership (Www1.health.gov.au, 2020). The participation of people would be helpful to meet the need of their health issues. The above steps are required for a complete health care support of a patient.
4. Case Study Scenario.
Mr Jones a 65yr old farmer has been driving for 1 hour to visit a small rural community clinic as he has an appointment to review his leg ulcer which is almost healed. The temperature that day is 40 degrees and humid. Mr Jones air-conditioning in his car is broken.
Mr Jones enters the building and comes to the receptionist who asks him to take a seat and states that the nurse will see him shortly. 10 minutes later a nurse escorts Mr Jones to the observation room to have his Vital signs taken, weight and BGL as Mr Jones is a Diabetic. The nurse notices that as Mr Jones is seated he is sweaty, pale and rubbing his chest, the nurse asks if anything is wrong Mr Jones states he is feeling nauseated and his chest hurts
As this is clearly an emergency situation, outline the steps you would take in this situation considering the primary health care setting.
. As this is an emergency case, the patient should be treated immediately. A comprehensive, continuous and person-centered health care system would be needed for the person. The person would be provided with the basic support system. The person may have cardiac issues so he should be taken to the emergency care to the hospital (Www1.health.gov.au, 2020. As he has diabetes, the level of sugar in his blood should be checked immediately. Then he should be provided the basic medicines to give him relief from nausea.
5. When is it appropriate to initiate first aid and other emergency treatment? Tick the correct answer.
? When you are instructed to by the registered nurse or other members of the multidisciplinary team
When you observe an emergency situation has occurred
6. Health issues can be age specific and there are many, below in the table is a selection of various health issues that may affect specific health groups.
Match the age specific group (from the list) that best fits the mentioned health issues.
- Older people
Age specific group
Eating Disorders, Menstrual Disorders, Mental Health
Parkinson’s, Cancers, Urine And Bladder Problems, Kidney / Lung Disease, Access To Health Care, Falls
Hypertension, Diabetes Type 11, Heart Disease, Cancers, Anxiety Disorders
Immunisation, Low Birth Weight, Jaundice, Colic
Immunisation, Asthma, Measles, Chickenpox, Meningitis, Congenital Disorders,
Diabetes Type 1
a) Evidence based practice (EBP) uses the best available evidence, clinical expertise, and patient references to take a problem-solving approach to clinical decision making, with the aim to deliver the highest quality of care to ensure the best patient outcomesTick the answer that best describes why we need evidence-based practice
- Increase in information and healthcare costs decreases the need to be more efficient in performance and outcome standards for healthcare practices
- Increase in information and healthcare costs increases the need to be more efficient in performance and outcome standards for healthcare practices
- Decrease in information and healthcare costs decreases the need to be more efficient in performance and outcome standards for healthcare practices
- Decrease in information and healthcare costs increases the need to be more efficient in performance and outcome standards for healthcare practices
b) Give 2 examples of where a nurse can locate evidence-based information to assist with their nursing practice and client education.
A nurse can get the information from evidence to provide better services to the patients and to know about the issues of patients and their health-related problems (Apna.asn.au, 2020). A nurse can get information about diabetic patients and expectant mothers. A nurse would be able to get evidence-based information about their health.
c) Give (2) examples of professional bodies within Australia that contain literature about primary health care management.
APNA or Australian Primary Health Care Nurses Association and Australian Wound Management Association are the two professional bodies that would contain the literature about the primary health care system. APNA is considered as one of the best professional body of Australia that works in the primary health care for the people of Australia. The association is focused and bold for the future (Swsphn.com.au, 2020). The professional nurses across the country have made the association. It would represent a significant and expanding workforce working around the country. n the other hand, the professional organization Australian wound Management Organization is a non-profit organization that has been consistent to develop and improve the wound management for people (Swsphn.com.au, 2020). They would do the work through the research, communication, and research on the study.
8. The health illness continuum or the illness – wellness continuum is a process that is never static. Individuals can move up and down the spectrum depending on their health / illness.
Death Neutral Optimal wellness
Consider that further down the continuum your patients go towards illness the closer they are to death; rather, the further up the continuum your patients goes towards wellness, the closer they are to optimal health. Many factors contribute to the illness – wellness spectrum and nurses along with a multidisciplinary team play an important role in providing optimal care and resources to assist a patient to achieve optimal health and wellness.
a) Discuss (3) ways that a nurse can contribute contribution to the health and wellness of individuals
A nursed would be able to provide health promotion to the patients providing them information about the health care system. The nurse would also provide the information to manage and to improve the health of the patients (Huffpost.com, 2020). The responsibility of the nurse is to make the environment easy to take advantage of the routine check and interaction with the patients and to educate the patients about their health care system. There are different ways to provide health promotion. Those are promotion counseling and education, administration of medication, and wound care, that would be done by a nurse (Huffpost.com, 2020). The advocating and counseling about the health system and proper treatment protocol would be the way to provide health service. They would be the care coordinator of the health issues and administer to the medications of the patients. The wound case would be also taken for care by the professional nurse.
b) From the multiple choice below tick the answer that you feel best outlines the (6) main components that reflect the needs of a person along the illness-wellness continuum
- Sleep, Stress, Energy, Diet, Relationships and Finances.
- Fruits, Vegetables, Carbohydrates, Protein, Dairy and Amino Acids
- Physical, Emotional, Social, Mental, Environmental and Spiritual.
- Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate, Temperature, Oxygen Saturation and Pain
- Cholesterol, Blood Sugar, Potassium, Sodium Chloride, White Blood Cells and Red Blood Cells
9. There is a need for the development of sound service delivery models to ensure that health services are able to provide optimal people centred care. These models can range from preventative, curative or rehabilitative models.
- Review the following web link and answer the question
The National Rural Health Alliance
The National Rural Health Alliance Australia covers various topics in their models of servicedelivery state, which of the following is NOT a topic they cover:
- health service delivery for rural and remote areas;
- integrated primary care;
- acute/hospital care;
- illness continuum
- patient transport;
- outreach services and electronic health services and the policies that
- Health Care service models rely on a range of elements to be able to develop and implement them. Tick the answer which most determines the delivery of health care service:
- Budgets and funding sources
- Available resources, including nursing and allied health professionals
- Identified needs of the target communities
- All of the above;
10. Review the following web link and then answer the question.
My Community Directory
Molly is a 22 yr. old Aboriginal woman who has Diabetes and has moved from the Northern Territory to Queensland and she is looking for a Medical centre that caters to Aboriginal people.
From the “my community directory” state an Aboriginal medical centre in your local area that you could recommend for Molly. Include in your answer the medical centre’s contact details and location.
. The University of Western Australia - Centre for Aboriginal Medical and Dental Health (CAMDH) would be recommended for the treatment of Molly. The medical center is situated at the University of Western Australia. The address of the center is The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009, Australia and the contact number of the center is + 61 8 6488 1917.
a) From your research, describe in your own words what the primary health care service models encompasses. Within your answer identify (5) members of the multi-disciplinaryteam.
A multidimensional health care system would be termed as a group of workers of health care. They are members of different disciplines. They may come from different professionals such as specialists, psychiatrists nurse or social workers. They would provide the required health services to the patients. The workers of the health care system would make a pyramid. The pyramid would include aides, nurses, assistant physicians, therapists, social workers and attending physicians (Basu and Isaacs, 2019). The five prominent members of the multidimensional healthcare system are nurses, community mental health nurses, social workers, psychiatrists, psychologists. The other members of the team are counselors, drama therapists, care workers, advocacy workers, and many others.
- Which of the following best describes the role of a multidisciplinary healthcare team?
- A group of healthcare professionals led by a nurse
- A team of healthcare professionals working together to meet the biopsychosocial needs of a patient
- A team consisting of nurses and doctors who are commissioned to work with patients and their families
- Several healthcare professionals led by the patient
12. Tick the correct answer from the options below, to complete the following statement:
In Australia, people living in rural and remote areas -
- Have the same health status as people living in urban areas.
- Are generally healthier than people living in cities.
- Have higher mortality and morbidity rates than their urban counterparts.
- Have the same health status as people living in urban areas except for road crashes.
13 Case Study Scenario.
Jamie Boaz is a 56-year-old Greek man who is an interstate truck driver. He weights 110kg – he states he eats a lot of fast food at truck stops with his mates on the road. He is to be discharged from a small rural hospital where he lives in Boonah after having a myocardial infarction (MI) 4 days ago. His doctor has told him that he is to stop smoking, change diet and lose weight.
You know that he is struggling with the lifestyle changes he must make, including how to kick his cigarette habit, losing weight and eating healthier. He is reluctant to tell his wife all the information that the doctor told him as she has been nagging him for years to make lifestyle changes. You inform him that you would like to include his wife in the discussions you have with him and with the cardiac rehabilitation coordinator.
- Under each of the 3 headings, discuss one (1) example of how his health problem/s would affect his activities of daily living.
The patient Jamie Boaz has put on weight up to 110 kg. There would be a lot of problems and risks as well as health issues due to the overweight of the person. Cardiac arrest would be faced by the patients due to such overweight. The larger body would prevent the lungs to expand fully and it would result in the breathing trouble (American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, 2020). Other problems such as fatty liver, gallstones, and osteoarthritis would also be found soon for high amount of fat in his body.
An obese person would suffer from mood disorders and anxiety disorders. Obesity would affect negatively affect mental health and it would result in the degraded quality of life of the patient (Obesity Action Coalition, 2020). Sleep apnea would cause mental health degradation.
It has been studied that being fat would cause social discrimination (Obesity Prevention Source, 2020). The lower wages would be the cause of depression. Subsequently, it would result in the lower quality of life of the patient.
- Jamie remains reluctant for his wife to know everything the doctor told him. You feel that the wife should know due to the importance and potential impact on Jamie’s health, and you are considering talking to the wife in private so that Jamie doesn’t know. Should you do this?
Indicate if this is acceptable professional practice (mark a box below for your answer) and explain your reason below.
Explain your reasoning:
The wife of Jamie should know every fact of the health of her husband. She can monitor the lifestyle of her husband. Jamie should maintain a healthy diet for a healthy life. He should do regular exercise to lose weight. The need for a healthy diet would be provided by his wife. So, she should know the details of the health condition of Jamie.
- List (2) ways in which you as the nurse can support Jamie to participate in illness prevention - health promotion programs to meet his needs?
A health promotion program would aim to engage and give power to the individuals and communities to maintain the healthy behaviors. The healthy behavior of patients would change the lifestyle that would reduce the risk of chronic disease and morbidity. A trained nurse would be able to guide the patient Jamie to maintain the health promotion program. It would help to prevent serious disease and health issues.
- You are asked to talk to Jamie about what has happened to him and provide information to him about his ongoing recovery.
Outline (2) strategies you could implement to suppport Jamie’s understanding of the information you give him.
Jamie should understand the entire situation and the condition of his health. A professional would guide him to make it clear about his illness. The professional health advisor would take a way for comparison method. He can compare the physical condition such as BMR, pulse rate, blood sugar level with a healthy person (Lv et al., 2017). Another way to make him understand the situation of his health, the professional would take another method to compare his health condition after a regular interval. The progress of his health condition would be able to motivate him to maintain his changed lifestyle.
- Jamie has finally informed his wife of all the information from the doctor, and both Jamie and his wife would now like to know how they can access resources to assist them both.
Remembering that Jamie lives in the small rural town of Boonah, use the following website plus your own research to identify (2) resources for each of the (3) categories listed below. Resources must be a combination from local community and state/national that will help to support and assist Jamie and his wife’s needs in the below categories.
You must also ensure you include somewhere in your answers, the contact details and location of (1) medical centre in their area.
My Community Directory - Boonah community
Jamie would require losing weight. Regular exercise and a healthy diet would be helpful to achieve the desired physical condition. He can join gym and start a morning walk to maintain his health condition. A regular check would be required for the betterment of health (Li et al., 2018). A dietician should be appointed. The dietician would make a proper diet for him with nutritional value. Regular exercise and a healthy diet would be helpful to lose weight.
The habit of smoking would cause a bad impact on the health of the patient. Smoking should be stopped by the patient to maintain a healthy lifestyle. He can use some medicine that would help him to stop smoking. The knowledge of the bad effects of smoking and the risk of life would be an aid to quit smoking. The regular counseling would be helpful for him to quit this habit.
A healthy diet would be required for him to lose weight and to maintain a healthy lifestyle. He would need the regular checkup for maintaining. He can consult with a physician for diet and regular check of weight.
14. Discuss (3) barriers to health literacy in Australia that may potentially inhibit a person’s capacity to access, understand, evaluate, and communicate information to maintain and improve their health.
The health literacy would require communicating with the patients. The problem to communicate with patients would be considered as the barrier in the way of health literacy. In order to provide the basic information about the health issues the effective communication would be required. The steering of health care system and accessing the facilities of the health care would also require the effective conversation with the patients (Ahrq.gov, 2020). Another barrier of the health literacy is using the universal precautions approach. When someone normally manages the information of health care, he may be anxious or overwhelmed with a large amount of information. So, the way to provide the information to the patients would follow some ways so that they can use those when they would require it (Ahrq.gov, 2020). The barriers to the health literacy in Australia would include the access, understanding, evaluation, and communications of the information to maintain and improve the health.
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Obesity Action Coalition. (2020). Obesity and Mental Health: Is there a Link? - Obesity Action Coalition. [online] Available at: https://www.obesityaction.org/community/article-library/obesity-and-mental-health-is-there-a-link/ [Accessed 5 Feb. 2020].
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