INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

Behaviour would not change unless and until the external factors that help in undertaking the reaction is altered or changed. How are you working this particular scenario is tested on individuals, they might agree, come into a compromise, fall out, start a conflict among each other and many more assumptions could be drawn with two individuals are brought into a particular scenario. In case of humans the permutations could be considered as endless and for the purpose of understanding the behaviour of individuals various psychologists required to understand what every party to a certain relationship chooses to act.

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Theory

Key Features (Column 2)

 

Column 3 – Key Theorist

Column 4- Date and outline of example Study

Psychodynamic Cognitive

The psychodynamic and Cognitive Theory has been consciously and unconsciously explains personality and social awareness useful for addressing problems of human beings and human experiences (Alvarez-Monjaras et al. 2019). It also describes psychoanalysis and scientific psychology, as per Freudian concepts as well as problems that occur due to anxiety. As per Freudian concepts, the layers of mind have been examined by the theorist’ approach for the sake of finding negative as well as positive impulse within human beings

The theorist associated with the theory is Sigmund Freud.

It has been taken from an example study that highlights a wandering experience off into hermeneutic wonderland

Social

Social theory has been known for its experimentation and explanatory speculations of human societies (Sengers et al. 2019). It identifies systematic theoretical thinking relevant to particular substantive problems in human life and social disciplines. However, this social perception of theory and its psychology has been examined by using the concepts and perceptions of other human beings so that it can be understood by sociologists as well.

The name of theorist associated with the theory is Spencer and Durkheim and influenced by George Herbert mead

For example, it has been outlined with the study of public health research using a qualitative methods that has derived from social experiences of groups

Biological

Biological Theory has been described as a conceptual integration of field of evolution as well as cognition of emphasizing on developmental approaches (Neuheimer, 2019). It helps audience of scientists throwing on the role of human behaviours. Similarly, in this case of Biological theory of psychology, a theorist to throw light on the cognition power and capacity that can be learned from this theory has approached it.

The name of biological theorist is Charles Darwin

For example, this theory has been naturally been selected that is outlined with the study and observation of human nature in the social environment

Developmental

This theory looks into pattern of thinking as well as feelings as well as behavioral changes in an individual’s life (Demetriou and Spanoudis, 2018). This helps in finding lifespan of most of the human beings that change. As the developmental changes occurs in every mind, therefore, it approaches with an attempt of describing about the key facts and formulas for understanding stages of human psychology in terms of developmental theory of psychology as well.

One of the theorist associated with this theory is Lawrence Piaget

For example, this outline study has been conducted once through an empirical research that has been conducted by intersectional ties if social identities of children and youth living in USA.

Learning

Learning theory of psychology has been described by a systematic process and emotional development and environmental influences that plays important role in an individual’s life (Ramnerö et al. 2016). This theory has been focused with the understanding of the others’ psychology and study of minds in terms of technical issues. Hence, through learning theoretical approach, it cannot be possible for having any other options of understanding human mind just depending on the process and pattern of learning and thinking styles.

The name of theorist in this theory is John Locke and john Watson associated with the education and learning psychology of human beings

For example, it has been conducted with and approach of certain stimulus and linked factors that are demonstrating classical conditioning acquired through a social involvement as well as contribution study outlined in a social setting with a constructivist approach.

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Psychodynamic theory

Psychodynamic is one of the theories that is based on personality and organisations. This theory is supporting the personal development of the organisations or the characters based on dynamics of a person. In this context, it can be mentioned that psychodynamic theory offers guidance for the treatment of psychotherapy of a person. This theory was first played out through the Sigmund Freud. The overview of this theory denoted that in the late 19th century, this theory underwent multiple refinements based on its activities. The study of this theory offers opportunity in front of its users to emphasise the systematic nature of human beings based on their psychology (Gibbs, Marchant & Andersen, 2017). The psychological kind that is undergoing with this theory are underlying various aspects of human beings such as social behaviours, feelings, nature and emotions that are related with the early experiences of human beings.

At the time of performing different actions, this theory serves its concern to the dynamic relationship between the conscious motivation and the unconscious motivation that human beings are gathered in case of performing various operations in their life. Sigmund Freud used the terms psychology in his theory in order to describe the process that is presented in the minds of human beings as the flows of psychological energy. This psychodynamic theory helps in the adoption of proper studies for the psychological treatment methods. The psychodynamic approach is assisting in the adoption of multiple areas that are associated with the psychological treatment are cognitive behaviours, biological and humanistic treatment.

Strength

According to the experts' view, the psychodynamic theory is helping in the multiple areas of treatment that are based on the psychological behaviour of human beings. This process denoted that with the involvement of this theory, the nature of human development could be analysed. Not only that the mental functions of every human being are also analysed through the introduction of the psychodynamic theory. Therefore, this theory also allows the psychotherapists to exaggerate the human behaviours toward positivity. Furthermore, the human behavior is also generalised with psychodynamic theory as this theory is serving its primary focus on the psychological practices or the state of mind of the people. This theory is offering opportunity in front of the service users or the patients to talk with the experts or the service providers with clear ways. This process helps them to clarify the problems that they are facing in their daily life due to their psychological aspects of mind. The clear presentation of the issues of the patients can help the service providers to deliver the best or appropriate treatment to the patient for the reduction of those psychological issues.

Limitations

There is also the presence of some limitation with the use of psychodynamic theory is the treatment method of the psychological issues of human beings. In that context, it can be mentioned that the psychodynamic theory increases confusion in front of the service providers of the psychologist instead of clarifying the concepts of issues of the patient. Therefore based on the current aspects of the contemporary world, the thoughts of penis envy and Oedipus are outdated, and those concepts are not useful for clinical performances. The concepts of the treatment process are delivered based on this theory and are subjects, and there is no scope for the scientific investigation.

Social theory

Social theory is an analytical framework that is used for the study and interpretation of the social phenomena. This theory is used as a tool by the social scientist. The concepts that are linked with the social theory are also linked with the historical debates (Giraldeau & Caraco, 2018). The old debates that define social theory have the validity and reliability of various methodologies. This theory is singing the relationship between the contingency and the necessity of society and its citizens. Auguste Comte invented this theory in the late 19thn century.

Strength

It helps in the dealing of the social behaviours of the society people. That this theory also helps in the maintenance of optimism among the nature of human beings. It offers basic needs and functions of the society and the people who belong to the social structure.

Limitations

This theory examines inequality in society, and it does not acknowledge the explosion in its performances. This theory assumes that everything in society is mostly positive and that serves issues in front of the people who belong to the lower class or working class.

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Determinism vs. free will

The debate between free will and determinism is known to revolve around an extent up to which the behaviour of individuals is the outcome of numerous forces on which the individuals do not have any control or if individuals have the ability of deciding for own selves weather to behave or act in a particular manner.

Deterministic approach proposes the fact that every behaviour has a certain cause and this particular cause could be predictable. Free will could be considered as a particular illusion and the behaviour of individuals is known to be governed by external or various internal forces on which individuals do not have control (Thorp, 2017). The external determinism aims in seeing the cause of every behaviour in the form of outside the person like the influence of parents, influence of media, the school and some more external factors. Various approaches that adopt this particular position is social learning theory and behaviourism along with social learning theory. Example of these includes the fact that in most of the cases children tend to become very aggressive through imitation as well as observation of parents who are violent in nature or practice violent activities at home (Franklin, 2017). Internal determinism is another part of determinism that is adopted by a particular biological perspective. In this particular case, the patients go through an internal determinism factor instead of an external factor.

This implies the fact that the individual suffers internally and the factors causing determinism are internal factors. On the basis of various social biology evolution governs, behaviour of individuals as well as generic inheritance of every individual within 8 have a considerable relationship. For example, various resources have stated that every child has a particular in net and requires to attach to one among the many attachment figures (Willoughby and Love, 2019). Various personality traits such as neuroticism and extra version along with the behaviour that has been relevant with it are triggered with the help of hormonal processes as well as neurological processes in the body of an individual. The caretakers do not require any concept of autonomous individual. Lastly this particular view does not see individuals more than certain machines matter biological in nature and are conscious. This particular aspect have been incorporated in the form of a particular level of arousal within the nervous system of an individual. Various researchers have read the aspect of behaviour that could be controlled from the inside of individuals in a certain form of motivation that is unconscious in nature or certain events that had been offered in childhood which is also known as psychic determinism (Scardigli and Hooft, 2019).

On the contrary to the above statements free will could be considered as a particular idea that an individual has the ability of having certain choices in how they could react and hence the fact that they are provided the freedom to choose their behaviour. If you also be stated that individuals consider themselves as self-determined. An example of which could be stated as people are allowed to make certain which officers regarding if they could commit a crime or they cannot, this particular ability does not work if individual is a child or he is insane. This aspect does not mean the fact that behaviour of the individual cannot be considered as random but it is free from certain casual influences of certain events that had been caused in the past. According to the concept of free will a particular individual is known to be responsible for his own actions (Ekstrom, 2018). One among the major assumptions of a particular humanistic approach is the fact that humans are provided with their free will and its takes that not every behaviour could be determined. A particular personal agency could be determined as a certain humanistic term for describing freewheels. Personal agency could also be referred to various choices that individuals make in their lives, videos parts in which they go down along with their consequences. According to various psychologists like Maslow as well as Rogers, freedom could not be stated as the only e think that is possible it is also necessary if individuals want to be completely functional in nature. Both of the psychologists see the concept of self-actualization as a form of a particular unique human necessity along with a certain form of motivation that sets individuals apart from any other species. Consider that there is a particular line that could be drawn between the social sciences and the natural sciences. If a particular simple example is considered, status that will a set of chemicals react there does not exist any sense in imagination to the fact that they might behave in a certain way that they are not supposed to do.

A particle experiment has been carried out by various colleges where to individuals had been please in a particular scenario which is very stressful in nature. This experiment has been carried out on many individuals, three conclusions had been drawn. One confusion was that the individual would be patient and try to resolve the stressful situation, another individual ended up crying instead of thinking regarding the situation. The last individual tried to blame it on on8 the individual saying that the situation had been caused due to them.

Nature vs Nurture

According to Barlow, Silverberg, and Livingstone, (2019) the discussion between the two basic ideas of Psychology manages two separate twin substances named Nature and Nurture. This discussion from a time is presented in the field of brain science as the most initial form of presentation of the tremendous subject of human conduct and among the most prepared philosophical issues taken in the mood for arriving at a profound mind look into. Nature suggests the aggregate of the characteristics and acquired factors that sway what our personality is—from our physical appearance to our character traits. Already, certain easily proven wrong grounds over the general responsibilities of nature versus nurture routinely embraced a very lopsided system, with one side fighting that nature thought to be the most huge job in examining human conduct and the contrary side suggesting that it was the supporting structure that was purchased most being used and viewed as increasingly sweeping. Today, most authorities see that the two components expect an essential focussed job. Yet they furthermore comprehend that nature and Nurture interweave in noteworthy habits all through a human life.

Nature, also considered to be one’s innate qualities, plays a major role in deciding the improvement of certain mental prosperity conditions, for instance, an illness like schizophrenia, bipolar, and huge distress. Further when defined it elaborates that when vague twins share their characteristics, yet if one twin makes schizophrenia, the study shows that automatically the other twin simply has a half chance of similarly developing the condition. This shows nature, while it has a critical effect, is not the principal contributing segment.

Another zone where researchers may put more emphasis on nature than on help is that of addictions. Research shows that alcohol obsession, for example, can rehash in families and that particular characteristics may affect how alcohol tastes and the way in which it influences the body. Various scientists evade the discussion between nature versus support by underscoring "nature x nurture." A couple of characteristics, for example, cannot be incited without certain regular information sources. The improvement of vision is a prime instance of this. People cannot make average sight without the introduction to visual enhancements, which legitimately connected two the cerebrums and what we see, and what we need to see. Some environmental wellsprings of data may be sabotaged by specific characteristics. For example, some durable smokers who are admitting nicotine from a long period may never fundamentally experience smoking-related ailments, and this may be normal in any occasion in part to their characteristics. Environmental toxins may change the announcement of specific characteristics, and characteristics rehearse set out to have an inherited reason have not been found.

Developmental structures theory, among various hypotheses, presents a choice as opposed to this conversation that does not anticipate that specialists should either advocate for nature or support in an edge. While examiners think about the complexity of value condition affiliation, the 'nature and nuture's model continues as an essential technique for binding discussion on the purposes behind practices. It is in like manner a site of a fight between (and inside) academic trains and, through an impact on approach, has implications for those whose practices are examined. Today, the vast majority of the researchers and the authorities engaged with the investigation of human conduct acknowledge that both the substances to be specific nature and sustain sway the lead and headway of a person. In any case, the issue notwithstanding everything fumes on in various areas, for instance, in the conversation on the beginnings of homosexuality and effects on knowledge. While barely any people take the preposterous nativist or radical empiricist approach, expert masters, in spite of everything to date banter on the significant issue on how much science and condition sway one's direct. Thus, the investigation of human conduct is tremendous to be managed through. These two twin elements assume a colossal job in considering a human brain science overall.

As stated by Turkheimer (2018), nature and nurture are two correlated factors of psychology. One cannot be discussed without corresponding to the other. The term 'Nurture' has an extensive impact on the subject. The mental health of an individual partially depends on nature or generic factor but the development of the same relies mostly on the nurturing process of the environment. According to Sternberg and Halpern (2020), the development of a mental illness or sickness can be instigated by a poor nurturing environment. Similarly, in many cases people who are carrying some illness because of the gene or nature may recover it entirely because of the proper care and loving environment that has been provided to him or her from their family and friends. Therefore, it is easier to understand that even though nature is the carrier of mental sickness, the lasting of the same and development is not dependent on the same but on the nurturing process that has been practiced for the patient. On the contrary, it has also been observed that most of the mental patients are victims of poor nurture and not nature. Many patients have been observed who are not carrying the sickness in nature, their genes are clean and fit yet because of the lack of nurture, and ignorance has pestered them to catch the problems within them. Therefore, it is evident that nature is not the major reason that determines who will carry forward the mental illness in them in the future. The mental health and the recovery rate of the same rely more on the nurturing process of the environment that the patient lives in.

In addition, ‘nurture’ is also considered as a therapy for the betterment and treatment process for the mental patient. Whereas the term ‘nature’ has a very minimal role to play in recovering a mental patient from their misery (Bates et al. 2018). As the patient's future and the rate of their recovery rely a lot on the nurture of the same thus, the kit is considered as a therapy. It has been witnessed that in the early stage of the mental illness or mental issues the nurturing process plays a very crucial role. In many cases the patients of Dementia, Depression, addiction to drugs, or any other bad or fatal habit can be recovered with immense care and nurturing. The family and the friends of each individual who are suffering from any mental hardship can often recover largely by the proper care and loving attitude of the people they belong. The growth or development of the mental disease can be mitigated or suppressed largely by the proper care. Therefore, the term 'nurture' is considered as the primary therapy for many mental illnesses.

Many people in their adolescence suffer because of minor mental issues that are not inherited in them from their birth because of their nature of gene but because of the lack of care and nurture. Hence, these issues can be cured with immense love and care. Also in many cases, the core determining factor can be intimidated or mitigated with Nurturing therapy and not a medication (Montag et al, 2016).

 

Conclusion

            Many psychiatrists suggest that the mental disease can never be cured with only medication if proper care is not performed to them. The nurturing process is therefore essential for a mental patient for his or her recovery as it is the prime factor that is required to be performed on each mental patient whether they are in the primary stage of their illness or in the most advanced stage. Thus, it is evident that Nurture is more important in Psychology than Nature in every way even though they are correlated.

 

References

Adler, A., 2020. Understanding human nature: The psychology of personality. GENERAL PRESS.

Barlow, G.W., Silverberg, J. and Livingstone, F.B., 2019. Sociobiology: Beyond Nature/nurture?: Reports, Definitions and Debate. Routledge.

Bates, T.C., Maher, B.S., Medland, S.E., McAloney, K., Wright, M.J., Hansell, N.K., Kendler, K.S., Martin, N.G. and Gillespie, N.A., 2018. The nature of nurture: Using a virtual-parent design to test parenting effects on children's educational attainment in genotyped families. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 21(2), pp.73-83.

Ekstrom, L., 2018. Free will. Routledge.

Franklin, R.L., 2017. Freewill and determinism: A study of rival conceptions of man (Vol. 7). Taylor & Francis.

Gibbs, P. M., Marchant, D. B., and Andersen, M. B. (2017). Development of a clinical sport projective assessment method: the Athlete Apperception Technique (AAT). Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 9(1), 33-48.

Giraldeau, L. A., and Caraco, T. (2018). Social foraging theory (Vol. 73). Princeton University Press.

Montag, C., Hahn, E., Reuter, M., Spinath, F.M., Davis, K. and Panksepp, J., 2016. The role of nature and nurture for individual differences in primary emotional systems: evidence from a twin study. PLoS One, 11(3).

Olivos, P. and Clayton, S., 2017. Self, nature and well-being: Sense of connectedness and environmental identity for quality of life. In Handbook of environmental psychology and quality of life research (pp. 107-126). Springer, Cham.

Paxton, A. and Paxton, A., 2020. The Belmont Report in the Age of Big Data: Ethics at the Intersection of Psychological Science and Data Science.

Scardigli, F., Hooft, G.T., Severino, E. and Coda, P., 2019. Determinism and Free Will: New Insights from Physics, Philosophy, and Theology. Springer.

Sternberg, R.J. and Halpern, D.F. eds., 2020. Critical thinking in psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Thorp, J., 2017. Free will: A defence against neurophysiological determinism (Vol. 4). Taylor & Francis.

Turkheimer, E., 2018. The Nature-Nurture Question. General Psychology FA18, p.50.

Willoughby, E.A., Love, A.C., McGue, M., Iacono, W.G., Quigley, J. and Lee, J.J., 2019. Free will, determinism, and intuitive judgments about the heritability of behavior. Behavior genetics, 49(2), pp.136-153

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