Leadership factors in organizations of the world


In this competitive world, the leadership of the employees is the only way to make success not only in organizational systems but also in any type of business. Many employees in the UK worked with different organizations. It can be inferred that significant correlations exist between leadership for competitive strategies and locus of control, need for achievement, and the factors of locus of control entitled self-confidence, internality, and belief in chance. The leadership to use cooperative strategies refused to correlate significantly with either locus of control or need for achievement.

The leadership techniques differ in the public and private sectors. Selman and Broten (2017) in their research study, wanted to know the determinants of the leadership in public and private organizations. Researchers selected 629 employees. He identified 15 factors of leadership based on the preference of these employees. There were lots of similarities existed between public and private sector employees at the supervisors level about what motivated them. But there were lots of dissimilarities about leadership factors between public and private sector employees at the non-supervisory level. Supervisory and non-supervisory level employees vary related to the leadership practices followed by the organization.

Researches have also been made on the job satisfaction of the employees which is necessary to be studied before implementing any leadership techniques. Doppelt (2017) in their research study, wanted to determine the relationship between work leadership and job satisfaction with the employees' organizational commitment. Researchers identified 68 executives in Tesco limited. Right financial motivators, non-financial motivators came to know that highly motivated and satisfied executives were more committed to the company. They determined after that analysis the work leadership and job satisfaction influenced the commitment of the employee direct proportion. The exact combination of leadership and job satisfaction of employees makes them loyal to the company.

Leadership is the word required by all the employees in all parts of the world. Van der Voet et al. (2015) checked the leadership level of the employees and there are many employees in the largest retail organizations where they have expressed that they have liked it to remain using structured equation model. The factual leadership program in the organizational culture indicates that Job satisfaction and perception of management of the employee career development are the variables that motivate the employee in the organization in us Job satisfaction and promotion in the career of the employees are much required by them for being promoted from one organizational level to another level.

The busy industry in the present scenario that works all the time in the day and night is the retail industry. Anderson (2016) organized a study of the leadership practices followed in the retail industry to enhance productivity. It was organized based on previous review articles. The finding of the study inferred that "Subsidized food and Transportation, med claim retail policy, Recreation, cafeteria, corporate credit card, frequent, medical check-ups, educational benefits, performance-based incentives, flexible work schedule, flexible salary benefits, frequent get together, employee referral scheme, economic rewards, promotions and transfers". Leadership practices were followed by leading companies. Even though retail industry employees left the job more in number. Hence leadership practices may be modified as per the need of the employees in the current situation.

The leadership practices that are applied in the companies must make them sustain with success in this competitive world. Armour (2015) organized analysis of leadership practices of the organization for sustainable competitiveness. This analysis was done based on secondary data. The findings of the study said that flexible work hours, job sharing telecommuting, pay for performance are the suitable variables that motivate the employees in the organizations. Similarly, managers can motivate by creating the confidence, Trust, the satisfaction of the employees. To compete with competitors a company must just follow or practice suitable leadership practices towards its employees.

1.2 Relation of a Leadership program with Quality of Life

Analysing the leadership practices will not alone bring success to the company, the demotivating elements must also be identified. Boyatzis and Cavanagh (2018) studied the identification of motivating and demotivating elements of the employees of the retail organization in London Local Council. The selection procedure underwent also have a great effect on the quality of work life. The present research examined the effectiveness of a collaborative selection procedure employed by a new organization within the context of a Quality of Working Life Programmed. The study was administered by the internal audit committee of the Tesco PLC. The organization from the beginning allowed all type new ideas from any individual for developing the quality of work-life in the organization. Applicants received the Pre-employment questionnaire from the managers once applicants arrive at the reception. From the result, we could realize that selected gave relatively less importance on relatedness needs, and more males tended to be selected than females (Byers, 2017). Employee participative management develops the quality of work-life in the industry. Next, the routine schedule has a great effect on the quality of work life. Emanuel et al. (2015), wanted to examine the influence of routine shift, routinization of job content on the quality of work life.

The type of sectors, which are private or public is yet another factor that influences the quality of work life. Glass and Cook, (2016) tried to examine the degree of perceived quality of work-life of the workers of retail manufacturing centres and to find whether they are getting the leadership training and attitude so that they can also be a leader in the future time frame.

They attempted to determine if the quality of work-life has any significant relationship with Job behaviour (i.e. Performance, accident, absenteeism) and demographic variables of the workers. The result of the study indicated that there was a significant difference between the workers of private and public sectors concerning the perceptions of QWL. Characteristics of the task have a connection with the quality of work-life and enhancement of productivity of private and public sector workers. Nelson?Brantley and Ford, (2017) attempted to study the quality of work-life of employees. A Sample survey of young people in the age group of 20-30 revealed few interesting details; a lot of respondents described a conflict situation of quality of work-life and the desire for career progression. Many respondents felt that a life without career success and professional fulfilment was an incomplete life. Achievement in the job in a different situation is probable only by the quality of work life.

A lot of studies earlier conducted on a result of the quality of work-life on leadership program features of the employee. The managers of this study carried out the work to know the association of quality of the work-life and career-related factors.

There is an enormous amount of research work carried out by the researchers earlier in the retail sector. Research study like these is immensely useful to determine the areas already examined and formulate insight into this present study. All the reviews utilized in this chapter are focused on leadership program features and concerned with retail and other sectors also. This section summarizes the reviews of the quality of work-life, organizational climate, work-life balance, work value and leadership program features. This section focuses the previous year relevant research study, moreover, it informs the trend in the theoretical development, method administered in the research work.



2.0 Organizational Performance

2.1 Relationship between the organizational performance and motivation of workers

Organizational performance is one of the important perspectives that motivate employees and become loyal to the organization. Productive benefits alone could not motivate the employees. They must be exposed to the relaxed and tension-free environment. The accomplishment of goals by the companies is also dependent on the family and interpersonal relationships of the employees outside the company. Mackey et al. (2018) also examined the impact of learning commitment on the organization of employees. Because organizational learning commitment is the resource for the employees to increase their competitive advantage. This study reveals that Family relationships and interpersonal relationship are the vital variables which induce the employees learning commitment.

Organizational practices are not required only in the money involving business but also in academic centres. Mackey et al. (2018) conducted a study of work organizational practices of retail personnel in academic research libraries in the UK. No satisfaction difference was observed in the perceived work organization of professional and non-professional retail personnel.

Within the organizational performance scenario, the senior manager of the company must learn how to motivate his employees. Mackey et al. (2018), analysed and explained that the variable what might influence a person to perform well. Managers should keep up the promises made to the employees. Tesco managers have explained that outstanding employees should be recognized in the organization. The employee should feel free about the entire workplace that influences positively. Every part of the company employees starting from an office assistant to the higher officials need to be motivated for the success of the company. In his study Murphy, (2016) examined and determined the actual need of the sales and the important role it plays in the organizational performance.

Another interesting research was performed in the year 1995 by having a telephonic interview with the respondents. The total number of respondents was 101. The work was conducted in the Avon area of England. The stratified random sampling method was followed by the researcher in identifying the respondents. The findings of the study explained that the larger organizations were more likely to indicate health activity; it might be due to lifestyle or safety concerns. This survey work described that workplace health activity was influenced by organizational performances. The majority of the respondents described that facilities' were not utilized to the same extent by all employees.


Tombetti and Mason, (2018) investigated the impact of employee involvement in decision making on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This research work gives more importance to job satisfaction and commitment. Because the researchers believed that a satisfied and committed employee may produce maximum output, create novel ideas, and accept organizational change.

2.2 Organizational commitment and performances

O'Donnell et al. (2015) investigated that older employee with a high level of commitment offer output as like young employees. Older employees perform low when they were psychologically attached to the organization and the job. The findings of the study said that managers may influence older employees' output by fostering affective attachment to the company. Further, the findings informed that older worker earlier serves the customers not only by their age but also because they are experience have good work attribute and appropriate communication skills. On the other hand, the organizational commitment or withdrawal process was investigated for a sample of 85 individuals using a longitudinal research design and path analysis. The population included all the individuals using the on-campus placement service of a large northeaster graduate school of business over 18 months. Among the 500 users, 157 users were randomly selected by the authors. The results suggest mediating variable between intention to quit and turnover also received support, the results suggested that the individual's career management and exploration activities outside the work setting both before and after organizational entry are central to understanding processes before organizational commitment. The result also told that some individuals were not committed to the. The organization, they may have chosen to remain long because of lack of availability of the right alternative arrangement (Rogers and Marres, 2016). Employees with the thinking of career development are highly committed to their company. The company with less chance for employee career development will have more possibilities for employees to quit from their task.

It can be understood from the above discussion that organizational performances are all related to extreme leadership skills and competencies (Anderson, 2016). On the other hand, the motivational factors are also related to the leadership factors that are discussed in the first section of the study. On the other hand,  it can be understood that with the advancement of time, organizational commitment and performance are directly proportionate to each other. The managers are responsible to maintain the organizational performance by rendering the best leadership program towards the employees.



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