Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering | Dissertation

1. Project Progress

Answer a

In this report, the research questions, problems, research aims and objectives have been discussed in a proper manner. In addition, the researcher has also described the harmful effects of plastic bags in the report as well. By describing the harmful effects of using plastic bags, the researcher has given an idea about the procedures for replacing the plastic materials. Moreover, the research aim also highlights the pros and cons for paper material as an alternative solution for replacing the usage of plastics. On the other hand, the objectives of the research report also highlight the negative impact on the environment for using the plastic materials along with the life cycle analysis on the alternative material. In the same context, the objective of the research paper also sheds light on the use of CES for analyzing the materials in terms of cost, strength and durability (Ning et al. 2017).

 It has been identified that the main aim of this research project is to present an alternative solutions for replacing the plastics.  Moreover, the researcher has also presented usage of plastic packaging system in terms of protection, preservation and transportation in food and drink industry.  Furthermore, the research report also highlights the statement of British Plastics Foundation. In the statement of BPF, it has been seen that the plastics are being used due to its unique combination of the benefits like safety and hygiene (Lee, 2018). In addition, the low level of environmental impact is also being mentioned in the British Plastics Foundation.

However, some of the researchers have claimed that the plastic packaging is harmful for the environment as they are non-biodegradable. The problems of using plastics have also been discussed in the research report. From the research report, it has been found that the environmental pollution is increasing due to the growth rate of the plastic packaging industry in the global market. Moreover, the research paper has also stated that Australians are using 3.9 billion light weight plastic bags, which can be found in the supermarkets, restaurants, liquor stores and fast food centres.  In addition, the examination point likewise features the favourable circumstances and disservices for paper material as an elective answer for current plastic bundling utilized in the beverage and nourishment industry. Then again, the destinations of the exploration report likewise feature the negative effect on nature for utilizing the plastic materials alongside the existence cycle examination on the elective material. In a similar setting, the goal of the examination paper additionally reveals insight into the utilization of CES for breaking down the materials as far as cost, quality and strength (Mohamed et al. 2019).

Answer b

In the literature review, the researcher has mainly described the types of plastic food used in packaging, plastic pollution, plastic pollution on aquatic life and alternatives to plastics. It has also been observed that the general population of UK mainly prefers to reduce the usage of plastics (Rasel and Sarkar, 2019). Moreover, the 82% of the people in UK are concerned about the plastic waste and they are trying to find out an alternative for reducing the usage of plastics. In the same context, the House of Parliament has also provided a list of ways in order to provide an idea to the people about the recycling process of the plastic materials. According to Zhu et al. (2017), the polyethylene is one of the harmful components associated with the plastic materials. In addition to this, the polyethylene is mainly used in the manufacturing of drinking bottles, yoghurt pots and meal containers (Chen et al. 2016). This material is mainly used in the process of making yoghurt pots and trays.

In addition to this, the literature review has also highlighted the plastic pollution and plastic pollution on aquatic life. As opined by Zhu et al. (2017), the plastics are the main reason for the degradation of environmental sustainability. Some of the studies have showed that 46.2% of plastic packaging is being collected from different sectors in order to reduce the plastic waste. Moreover, 34% of the plastics have been recycled and exported to countries like Indonesia and Malaysia. It has also been evident that the plastics are also being burned, land filled and dumped into the environment which causes pollution. On the other hand, the plastic pollution is also harming the aquatic life in an effective way. Based on the study of Wu et al. (2017), it has also been seen that the travel industry is one of the main reasons for increasing the pollution in water. In addition, the tourists mainly throw plastic bottles and bags into the water which cause pollution in the water in an effective way. Moreover, the hard surfaces of plastics are being used as an alternate for invasive species like molluses, algae and barnacles (Cakmakci and Demirel-Ortabas, 2019).  On that note, it can be said that the plastics should be recycled and reused in such a manner so that the pollution rate in the environment can be reduced.

The literature review has also highlighted the alternatives to plastics so that it can be used in food packaging. In addition, the recycling rates of plastics have been increased after the ban of its usage by several countries. As opined by Nwanya et al. (2017), the glass, metals and paper can be used as an alternative to plastic. The usage of paper can also help a specific industry to promote sustainable environment and can be recycled for number of times.

Answer c

In this research study, the researcher has used the secondary research process in order to conduct the paper. In addition, the secondary information has been collected by the researcher from different journals, books and articles. For collecting data from different journals and books, the researcher has also gone through various research scholars. Moreover, the researcher has also gathered information based on the benefits of plastic packaging in food and drink industry. In the same context, the researcher has also analysed the negative impact on environment due to the usage of plastic bags and materials.

Image result for life cycle analysis

Figure 1: Lifecycle Analysis

(Source: Goel et al. 2018)

In addition to this, the life cycle analysis has been used in the paper in order to address the impact of using plastic bags in the environment. The lifecycle analysis is totally based on the five factors which are as follows:

  • Raw materials- The raw materials like cellulose, coal, natural gas, salt and crude oil should be used in the production process of the plastics. With the help of aforementioned raw materials, an industry will be able to produce ore plastics. By producing more plastics, the food and packaging industry will be able to produce high quality of products which can be used for long-term as well (Spiller and Fleischer, 2018). On the other hand, the high quality of raw materials should be gathered by the industry in order to produce high quality of products. On that note, it can be said that the first stage of LCA mainly determines the plastic quality and its stability.

  • Manufacturing- After the collection of raw materials, the second stage is the manufacturing process. In the manufacturing process, the plastic is heated and pushed through a chamber by a screw. Then, it is being forced through a die which creates the final shape of the part. After giving a final shape, the plastics are being cooled in a chamber. Furthermore, it is being spooled into lengths so that the final products can be provided to the distributors.  

  • Distribution- After the manufacturing process, the plastics are being provided to the distributors through different distribution channels. In the same context, the distribution channels of the industry mainly include the wholesalers, retailers and others. By distributing the products, the industry will be able to sell its products to the consumers. At that point, it is being constrained through a pass on which makes the last state of the part (Hirakata, 2019). Subsequent to giving a last shape, the plastics are being cooled in a chamber. Besides, it is being spooled into lengths with the goal that the last items can be given to the merchants.

  • Usage- In this stage, the customer mainly uses the products and checks its efficiency. In the same context, the customers will use the plastic bags and checks its efficiency whether it can be used for long term or not before buying it. Furthermore, this stage will also help the industry to identify the factors that should be mitigated before manufacturing the products in an effective way. On that note, the authorities of the industry should try to analyse the effectiveness of the plastics before selling it to the customers (Jassim, 2017). This will also help them to increase the sales rate along with the profit rate.  

  • Recycling- It is very important for the plastic manufacturing industry to use an appropriate recycling process in order to recycle the plastic materials. With the help of appropriate recycling process, the environmental impact will be mitigated. On that note, the industry will be able to sell the products to the customers in an effective way. On the other hand, the raw materials of making plastics will also be restored by the industry as well. It is significant for the plastic assembling industry to utilize a proper reusing process to reuse the plastic materials (Jassim, 2017). With the assistance of proper reusing process, the ecological effect will be moderated.

  • Disposal- Apart from the recycling process, the plastic manufacturing industry should try to dispose the plastics in a proper way. In the same context, the disposal of plastics can also be done by following the process like collection, sorting, washing, resizing, identifying and compounding. This process should be followed by a plastic manufacturing industry in order to dispose the plastic materials in a proper manner. On the other hand, the disposal of plastic will also help the industry to focus on the environment sustainability as well (Hirakata, 2019).  

Answer d

The constraints are being handled by the researcher in such a manner so that the plastic materials can be recycled. In the same context, the constraints can also be used for satisfying the customers in a proper manner. In addition, the satisfaction of the customers can also be handled in a proper way so that the products can be reused and recycled for number of times. On the other hand, the research paper has also highlighted the problems associated with the usage of plastic materials in the food and packaging industry (Goel et al. 2018). Therefore, it is necessary for the researcher to identify new ways in order to reduce the effect of pollution in the environment. The issues of utilizing plastics have additionally been talked about in the exploration report. From the exploration report, it has been discovered that the natural contamination is expanding because of the development pace of the plastic bundling industry in the worldwide market. In addition, the exploration paper has additionally expressed that Australians are utilizing 3.9 billion light weight plastic sacks, which can be found in the grocery stores, drive-through joints, administration stations, alcohol stores and others. Furthermore, the assessment point in like manner includes the ideal conditions and injuries for paper material as an elective response for current plastic packaging used in the refreshment and sustenance industry (Goel et al. 2018). Furthermore, the goals of the investigation report similarly include the negative impact on nature for using the plastic materials close by the presence cycle assessment on the elective material. In a comparative defining, the objective of the assessment paper furthermore uncovers understanding into the usage of CES for separating the materials to the extent cost, quality and quality. Therefore, it can be said that the plastics should be used in a proper way by the food and packaging industry so that the environmental impact can be reduced.

Answer e

http://tierrasalto.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/it-risk-management-process-1-880x765.png

Figure 2: Risk assessment plan

(Source: Goel et al. 2018)

In the risk assessment plan, there are mainly four stages such as identifying the risk, analyzing the risk, evaluating the risk and treating the risk. These stages should be evaluated by the management of the industry in a proper way so that the issues can be mitigated. In addition, the risk assessment technique can also help the authorities of the industry to manage the risk factors in such a manner so that appropriate strategies can be taken out (Wu et al. 2017). On the other hand, the risks can also be mitigated by the plastic industry by reusing and recycling it in a proper manner. With the help of appropriate recycling process, the authorities of the food and packaging industry will also be able to apply different techniques for mitigating the risks. It has also been identified that the risk assessment plan will also give an absolute idea to the management of the industry about the process of using the plastic materials. Apart from the risk technique, the authorities of the industry can also use control technique for controlling the usage of plastic materials in the food and packaging industry (Chen et al. 2016). Furthermore, the risk management process will also help the management of the food and packaging industry to use different risk technique for controlling it. It has likewise been seen that the all inclusive community of UK primarily wants to lessen the utilization of plastics. Besides, the 82% of the individuals in UK are worried about the plastic waste and they are attempting to discover an option for decreasing the utilization of plastics. In a similar setting, the House of Parliament has likewise given a rundown of courses so as to give a plan to the individuals about the reusing procedure of the plastic materials. As indicated by Zhu et al. (2017), the polyethylene is one of the unsafe parts related with the plastic materials. Furthermore, the polyethylene is predominantly utilized in the assembling of drinking bottles, yogurt pots and dinner holders. This material is essentially utilized during the time spent making yogurt pots and plate.

Answer f

In order to plan for the next phase, the researcher should be used in a proper way so that the environmental execution. The researcher should plan the project in a proper manner so that the goal of reducing the plastic bags can be handled. In addition, the inventory examination will also help the researcher to analyse the critical solution for reducing the plastic bags. On the other hand, the impact of plastic on the environment should be handled by the researcher in such a manner so that a good image can be created among the readers. In case of interpretation, the researcher should take appropriate time and money for carrying out the research project in a proper way. This will also help the researcher to analyse the durability, cost and strength of the plastic bags and the research paper will be conducted in a proper way. It is significant for the plastic assembling industry to utilize a suitable reusing process so as to reuse the plastic materials. With the assistance of suitable reusing process, the ecological effect will be relieved. On that note, the industry will have the option to offer the items to the customers in a viable manner. Then again, the crude materials of making plastics will be re-established by the business also. It is huge for the plastic amassing industry to use a legitimate reusing procedure to reuse the plastic materials. With the help of legitimate reusing process, the natural impact will be directed. Apart from the time, the researcher should try to carry out the research paper in a proper way so that there should a scope in order to reuse it. It has additionally been seen that the movement business is one of the principle purposes behind expanding the contamination in water. What's more, the sightseers principally toss plastic jugs and packs into the water which cause contamination in the water in a practical way.

 

 

References

Cakmakci, M. and Demirel-Ortabas, N., 2019. Performance Measurement of SMED Improved Plastic Injection Molding Production by Using Process Capability Analysis for Attribute Data. In Advances in Manufacturing II (pp. 188-205). Springer, Cham.

Chen, W.C., Nguyen, M.H., Chiu, W.H., Chen, T.N. and Tai, P.H., 2016. Optimization of the plastic injection molding process using the Taguchi method, RSM, and hybrid GA-PSO. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology83(9-12), pp.1873-1886.

Goel, P., Kandasamy, J., Logesh, G., Manupati, V. and Kek, V., 2018, December. Modelling Sustainable Manufacturing practices for plastic part manufacturing organization using Interpretive Structural Modeling. In 2018 International Conference on Production and Operations Management Society (POMS) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Hirakata, J., Fujifilm Corp, 2019. Plastic cell and method for manufacturing same. U.S. Patent 10,442,165.

Jassim, A.K., 2017. Recycling of polyethylene waste to produce plastic cement. Procedia Manufacturing8, pp.635-642.

Lee, B.M., 2018. Security between Dehumidify Dryers and a Monitoring Server in Plastic Manufacturing Control. International Journal of Engineering & Technology7(4.38), pp.105-108.

Mohamed, M.S.S., Halim, I., Azani, A.H. and Saptari, A., 2019. WORK POSTURE IMPROVEMENT AT PLASTIC PRINTING PROCESS IN PLASTIC MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (JAMT)13(3).

Ning, F., Cong, W., Hu, Y. and Wang, H., 2017. Additive manufacturing of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites using fused deposition modeling: Effects of process parameters on tensile properties. Journal of Composite Materials51(4), pp.451-462.

Nwanya, S.C., Udofia, J.I. and Ajayi, O.O., 2017. Optimization of machine downtime in the plastic manufacturing. Cogent Engineering4(1), p.1335444.

Rasel, S. and Sarkar, J., 2019. Manufacturing of fabric by recycling plastic bottles: An ecological approach Part 2: Manufacturing Process.

Spiller, Q. and Fleischer, J., 2018. Additive manufacturing of metal components with the ARBURG plastic freeforming process. CIRP Annals67(1), pp.225-228.

Wu, T., Jahan, S.A., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., El-Mounayri, H. and Tovar, A., 2017. Design optimization of plastic injection tooling for additive manufacturing.

Zhu, Z., Pradel, P., Bibb, R.J. and Moultrie, J., 2017. Economic analysis of plastic additive manufacturing for production of end use products: a preliminary study.

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