# Water Network Design Assignment

Introduction

EPANET is a water distribution system modeling software which is used for developing the division of water resources and water supply. It mainly performs for stimulation of hydraulic and maintains the behavior of water quality.  It provides an integrated model for editing input network data and analysis of the movement of non-reactive and reactive material.

# 1. Design of Water Supply Network and Hydraulic Analysis of Software

Hydraulic Simulation

In this study, the user has used the Hazen-Williams Method for maintaining the flow. The flow conditions are based on Temperature in 60 degrees Fahrenheit, Flow on Turbulent Condition and the viscosity of water.

In EPANET, pumps are used for the head-flow curve which mainly defines the relation between hydraulic head flow for imparting the system by the pump and makes the flow that is conveyed by the pump (Tavosi and Siosemarde, 2016, p. 396). The models are generally used for calculating the flow by pump element in the provided system for head condition on a curve.

Network Solver

The network of hydraulics solver is used on EPANET in a gradient method. Here the user has used various Parameters such as Pipe Diameter = 100 mm, Roughness = 110, Auto-Length = ON, Head-loss Formula = Hazen-Williams and Unit = MLD. The dimension of the map is set as 1.4km * 1 km. Analysis time = 24 hours. The input file is used for describing the topology, control rules and consumption of water (Desai and Pathan, 2016, p. 39668)It is full-featured modeling of hydraulic analysis and simplifies the network for which involves several pipes and nodes (junctions).  Flow is maintained within the pressurized condition for storage tanks, reservoirs, and valves. It is used for tracking the flow of water and makes the pressure on each node (Zhang et al. 2016, p. 615). The pressure in nodes depends on the water height of each tank and required to measure the pressure for every node. The network models of pipe are used modeling network and editing the data properties (Constantin and Ni?escu, 2018, p. 17). EPANET controls analysis of hydraulic engine analysis which includes various capabilities such as

(i) Operation of tank based on the level of the tank or control of timers which is based on control rule.

(ii) The friction of computers head loss is used in the Hazen-Williams formula.

(iii) It includes minor head losses for fitting and bending.

(iv) The computer is used for pumping energy which has the cost = 10

(v) The diameters are used for allowing the tank storage to make any type of shape.

(vi) Models are the constant variables and have several speed pumps.

Figure 1: Network Structure (Flow Units) in Head Loss Formula

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Figure 2: Network Structure (Diameter, Roughness and Auto-Length Settings) in Head Loss Formula

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Figure 3: Network Structure (Map Dimension) in Head Loss Formula

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

## 2. Optimize the design, efficiency, and cost

Design

Here, the user has used nodes and design functions for developing the toolkit of application EPANET. It is automated or optimized the calibration models which are required to run on various network analyses (Di Nardo et al. 2018, p. 582). It can make the simplification by adding capabilities to the integrated network model which is based on the network environment. It is used on computer-aided design (CAD), database packages and geographical information systems (GIS). EPANET helps the utilities of water for maintaining and improving the deliverable quality of water to consumers. Head loss equations are used for solving the community of flow which depends upon the characteristics of various states of the hydraulic state. It is based on the network of the pipe which is used at a given point of time. The gradient solution is used for measuring the value initially for each pipe and it is not necessary to use the flow community.

Figure 4: Reservoir Settings

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Figure 5: Adding Reservoir and Nodes

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Figure 6: Elevation of Network

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Figure 7: Settings of Pressure in Network

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Figure 8: Run Status

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Figure 9: Node Display Settings

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Figure 10: Water Supply Network

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Figure 11: Water Supply Network with Flow Analysis

(Source: Created in EPANET 2)

Efficiency

It simplifies the design in various methods such as using Reservoir (Head Variable), Average Demand. Color Codes are set by the user which has the best effect for highlighting data that suit the areas. Here the minimum pressure range is set up to 15 mm Head and the velocity is set as 1.5m/s.  Users can use several boosters for making disinfection stations in nodes (Junctions). It improves the overall plan for making a smooth performance on hydraulic analysis. EPANET provides a complex model that is used for stand-alone programs that are executable. Analysis of the water distribution system is referred to as interpretation patterns for discovering the data frame. The frame is basically linked for functioning on 32-bit Windows and 64- bit Windows. There are different types of functions that are referred on the description of an open network file and modify the design for implementing operating parameters and design of network.

Cost

The cost information which has been provided in this case was on the charges for the pumping stations and the costs associated with the lengths of the pipe. Two options have been considered in this case which has assumed different kW units for the pumping stations and different pipe lengths in total (Hurgin, 2018, p. 01017). For option 1, taking into account the lengths of the pipes based on its diameter and kW units used for pumping stations, the total initial investment has been estimated to be £ 203300. For option 2, taking into account the same information but differentiated pipe lengths and kW units for pumping stations, the initial investment amount or cost has been estimated to be £ 152000.

### 3. Efficiency and NPV cost analysis

The objective of this project is to measure the profitability of the projects considered for installing the water supply network design. In general terms, it is known that NPV is used for assessing the efficiency of projects and evaluating what dollar value a project can add to the concerned company or the investment plan (Marchioni and Magni, 2018, p.361)

Costing and NPV analysis

This section has focused on the costing mechanism followed for installing the water supply network with the application of hydraulic software. In this case, the efficiency of two options concerning the pipe diameter and the power unit of the pumping stations has been analysed.

Before the analysis of NPV, it is necessary to determine the initial investment amount decided for supporting the two options. This analysis of the investment amount has taken into considerations both costs included for pipe installations and the installations of pumping stations.

Option 1;

Considering Option 1, the initial investment amount has been calculated in the following way based on the assumptions regarding the pipe length and pumping stations;

 Total capital and installation expense Pipe diameters (in mm) 150 Installed in the road (in m) 12 Installed in the field (in m) 12 Installation cost for the road (in £) 2100 Installation cost for field (in £) 1200 Total kW for pumping stations 20 Capital cost for 1 kW (in £) 10000 Installation cost for pumping stations (in £) 200000 Total initial investment (in £) 203300

Table 1: Initial investment for option 1

(Source: Created by Researcher)

For estimating the NPV; the following assumptions have been made;

• Discount factor - 10%
• Initial cash flow for year 1- £ 16500
• The initial cash inflow is considered to increasing by 2%
• Designed life is given to be 60 years

Hence NPV is given in the following way;

 Total present value 204027 Initial capital cost 203300 NPV 727.49

Table 2: NPV for Option 1

(Source: Created by Researcher)

Option 2;

Next, the NPV for option 2 has been dealt with before which the initial investment amount has been calculated in the following way;

 Total capital and installation expense Pipe diameters (in mm) 100 Installed in the road (in m) 10 Installed in the field (in m) 10 Installation cost for the road (in £) 1250 Installation cost for field (in £) 750 Total kW for pumping stations 15 Capital cost for 1 kW (in £) 10000 Installation cost for pumping stations (in £) 150000 Total initial investment (in £) 152000

Table 3: Capital cost for Option 2

(Source: Created by Researcher)

The above table presents the assumptions made concerning the kW units installed for the pumping stations and lengths of the pipes. Some added assumptions made in this regard are as follows;

• Initial cash inflow for year 1 has been considered to be £ 12550
• According to information, the designed life is taken to be 60 years
• The initial cash inflow is allowed to increase by 2% for 60 years.
• The discount rate has been considered to be 10%

Now the NPV for Option 2 has been calculated to be;

 Total present value 155185 Initial investment 152000 NPV 3184.55

Table 4: NPV for Option 2

(Source: Created by Researcher)

Based on the observed NPV, it could be analysed option 2 has emerged as a better suitable option for the project for it projects a higher NPV which means greater profitability led by higher efficiency.

Methodology

The methodology used here is based on deciding on the cash flows. It is then combined with the present value of the assumed discounting factor to get the present value of the cash flow. The NPV measurements have relied on the initial investment amount, total resent value and measurements for the discounting factor.

### 4. Innovations and Refinements

The software which is used in here is EPANET for assessing the hydraulic system embedded in the water supply network. Some of the refinements and the innovations which could be done here may be related to the air valves along with reflex and relief valves. The usage of these valves may be forecasted in handling the water pressure ate each pressurised nodes standing the source trading within the distributions systems. The hydraulic model and the program design can be calibrated with proper management strategies and alternative measurements which are as follows;

• Filling of tanks, emptying scheduling and altering and the pump designs
• Desired utilisations of available resources
• Treatment of satellite data and handling storage tanks.

Further refinements can also be foreseen in using the data of network design and a variety of hydraulic system and simulation formats.

# 5. Health and Safety Risk management register

This risk management register highlights the risks which may be encountered while setting up this water management project.

Health and Safety Measures

While installing the water supply system, some of the events and the failures of safety measures are predictable. No matter how well the outlook of the supply system appears, it is essential to look into the technical details to measure and control any unpredicted and predicted events (Gunnarsdottir et al 2020, p. 134185)

Activity Element and Designed Measures;

Some of the control measures which can be considered in this case are as follows;

• Construction standard maintenance thereby maintaining any contact between sewer mains and water channel
• Continue or periodic operating of valves and pumps for controlling sudden water flow surges
• Conducting cleaning programmes on a routine basis in the water mains
• Inspecting the reservoirs and looking out for gaps in the installed pipes
• Avoiding excessive water detention
• Coordinating piping purchase and the fixture
• Checking and maintaining a minimum level for chlorine residuals
• Giving proper training to the operational and construction staffs about the safety measures (Pietrucha-Urbanik and Tchórzewska-Cie?lak, 2018, p.1679)
• Assessment of water overflow frequency

Potential Hazards

Approaches have also been identified in regards to managing the risk associated with a third party.

#### These approaches for management for Third-party management are as follows;

 Risks Likelihood of risk Impact of risk Unusual scaling of the MAP dimensions High High Developing inappropriate water design Medium Medium Detecting faulty demand patterns Medium Low Not setting the service in the reservoir Medium High

Table 5: Risk Register

(Source: Created by Researcher)

[Refer to Appendix 1]

##### 6. Environment and plan for Third-party management

Assessment:

• Defining management opportunity in in-scope areas
• Classification and identification of risk
• Segmentation of risks concerning contact with suppliers, availing the construction materials and areas where costs could go well beyond the predicted amount
• Understanding the current state of the water supply network

Scenario Planning and NPV analysis

• Formulating two options for differentiating between two projects based on profitability and efficiency
• Understanding the current financial state and the business scenario besides developing the plan for risk mitigation
• Designing the tools for gathering data and accumulating the results relating to the water project’s outcome
• Publishing reports highlighting the project’s performance

Program Management

• Tracking and monitoring the water supply network
• Reducing risk and driving acts for establishing the internal as well as the external communication methods
• Assessment of compliance program for third party management

Environment Plan

• Cleaning the construction waste
• Preventing the accumulation of the concretes remaining

[Refer to Appendix 2]

# Conclusion

Based on a subjective assessment, it can be concluded that this assignment has presented the design supported by a manageable diagram for installing the water network system. It has paved the way for adhering to the requirements for the water supply system like the source pumping, demand patterns and technical specifications. Additionally, the cost system has shed light on the efficiency and profitability of the two water supply network options. The cost analysis is based on NPV which is seen as an effective investment analysis technique.

# References

Constantin, A. and Ni?escu, C.S., 2018, October. Water Distribution Network Design Based on Numerical Simulation in EPANET. In Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference People, Buildings and Environment, Brno, Czech Republic (pp. 17-19).

Desai, Y. and Pathan, H., 2016. Hydraulic Parameter Analysis of WDN-A Case Study of Sayajipura Village. Population (no.), 13850(26759), p.39668.

Di Nardo, A., Di Natale, M., Di Mauro, A., Martínez, E. and Tuccinardi, F.P., 2018. An advanced software to manage a smart water network with innovative metrics and tools based on social network theory. EPiC Series in Engineering, 3, pp.582-592.

Di Nardo, A., Di Natale, M., Musmarra, D., Santonastaso, G.F., Tuccinardi, F.P. and Zaccone, G.B., 2016. Software for partitioning and protecting a water supply network. Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, 33(1), pp.55-69.

Gunnarsdottir, M.J., Gardarsson, S.M., Figueras, M.J., Puigdomènech, C., Juárez, R., Saucedo, G., Arnedo, M.J., Santos, R., Monteiro, S., Avery, L. and Pagaling, E., 2020. Water safety plan enhancements with improved drinking water quality detection techniques. Science of the Total Environment698, p.134185.

Hurgin, R., 2018. Automated software for hydraulic simulation of pipeline operation. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 144, p. 01017). EDP Sciences.

Marchioni, A. and Magni, C.A., 2018. Investment decisions and sensitivity analysis: NPV-consistency of rates of return. European Journal of Operational Research268(1), pp.361-372.

Pietrucha-Urbanik, K. and Tchórzewska-Cie?lak, B., 2018. Approaches to failure risk analysis of the water distribution network with regard to the safety of consumers. Water10(11), p.1679.

Tavosi, M.G. and Siosemarde, M., 2016. Hydraulic Analysis of Urban Water-Supply Networks in Marivan. Industrial Engineering & Management Systems, 15(4), pp.396-402.

Zhang, H., Xu, J.L. and Cheng, X., 2016. Interactive educational software for teaching water distribution networks design. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 24(4), pp.615-628.

# Appendices

Appendix 1: Health and Risk Register

 Title Health and Safety Risk Assessment Register Date Raised 3.3.2020 Purpose To measure the health measures and essential safety essentials Potential Hazards and Activity Element Unusual scaling of the MAP dimensions Developing inappropriate water design Detecting faulty demand patterns Not setting the service in the reservoir Measures for eliminating risk Conducting cleaning programmes on a routine basis in the water mains Assessment of water overflow frequency Inspecting the reservoirs and looking out for gaps in the installed pipes Construction standard maintenance thereby maintaining any contact between sewer mains and water channel Persons at Risk Project manager, working employees Actioned by Project Designer Date Actioned

(Source: Created by Researcher)

Appendix 2: Environment and Third Party Management Plan

 Purpose To assess the environment Plan and plan for Third Party Management Date Raised 3.3.2020 Activity Element Defining management opportunity in in-scope areas Classification and identification of risk Understanding the current state of the water supply network Environmental issue and Legislations Construction waste Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards Act 2005 Water Regulations 2008 Consequences and Non-compliances Penalties Property Inspections Mitigation measures Tracking and monitoring the water supply network Assessment of compliance program for third party management Actioned By Project Designer Date Actioned

(Source: Created by Researcher)

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