FS1NET111 | Network Infrastructure | Noroff School of technology and digital media

  1. Introduction

 

This network has two branches OSLO and BERGEN. Both branches have 150 employees. OSLO and BERGEN branches are connected using leased line. Each branch has one gateway router, this router connected with internet and local network. Both branch has wired and wireless network, it has access point and PCs, servers. PCs and laptop are connected with layer 2 switch and access point respectively. Router is layer 3 device and it connects with other network using IP addressing. Switch is layer 2 device which used at data-link layer and connect with LAN network. The purpose of this report is to build the network fully operational and both branch can be able to access the resources from the each other. OSLO branch has one server, that server hosted website and aim is to accessible from any device in the network. In the OSLO branch has IT admin, which manage the network as per requirement and necessary. The report contains the full configuration of network with snapshot and explained it why it configured. The configuration made by step by step from bottom to up layer.

  1. Main part
  1. Network design

 

 

Figure 1

Figure 1 shows the network design for two sites, one branch is OSLO and second branch is BERGEN. Both sites are connected with each other using leased line. Both branches have layer 2 switches and PCs for user. This network used collapsed core layer architecture methodology to build network. In this network used Cisco router and Cisco catalyst switch to build the network.  OSLO branch gateway router connected with the Internet. Oslo and Bergen branch connected with serial link leased line. Router works at layer3 on network layer, Switch works as layer 2, data-link layer. Router used to forward traffic ahead based on IP address, switch forwards the traffic based on MAC address, switch connects multiple users together. Switch works in LAN (local area network) network. In the network, there are placed PCs, Server and laptop for users to access the resources from the Internet and local network. In both branches installed AP (access point) which provides wireless connectivity to users. Laptop has wireless network adapter using the Wi-Fi laptop connected with AP and access the internet. (Techopedia.com, 2020)

  1. Subnetting

 

Site Name

Sub Network address

Broadcast address

Usable IP addresses

Oslo

192.168.10.0/24

192.168.10.255

192.168.10.1

192.168.10.254

Bergen

192.168.30.0/24

192.168.30.255

192.168.30.1

192.168.30.254

WAN Link

192.168.20.0/30

192.168.20.3

192.168.20.1

192.168.20.2

 

Above table shows the Network address and usable address of particular branch.  OSLO branch has network 192.168.10.0/24 and usable network address are 192.168.10.1 to 192.168.10.254, which provides 254 usable hosts. Same as for Bergen branch, it configured with network address 192.168.30.0/24, both branch router configured with WAN serial link. That link configured with network address 192.168.20.0/30. This link has only two usable address 192.168.20.1 and 192.168.20.2. for this network used IPv4 addressing scheme. Each branch has 150 users which use class c block for IP addressing scheme.

 

Device name

Interface address

Subnet mask

Web Server

NIC - 192.168.10.10

255.255.255.0

Oslo Router

LAN - 192.168.10.1

WAN – 192.168.20.1

255.255.255.0

255.255.255.252

Bergen Router

LAN - 192.168.30.1

WAN – 192.168.20.2

255.255.255.0

255.255.255.252

 

Above table represents the important interface address for network. these interfaces use static IP address in the network. Web server IP address is 192.168.10.10/24; server IP address does not change in the network. Same as server IP address, router interface IP address does not change. Both router interfaces IP address shown in above table with LAN and WAN tag. LAN represent the local area network of OSLO branch and WAN represents the wide area network, which is WAN link between OSLO and BERGEN.

  1. PC configuration

 

 

Figure 2

Figure 2 shows the IP address of PC0 and PC1. Each end devices have unique IP address to communicate with rest of the network and Internet. There are two ways to assign IP address to end device. Static and dynamic. In above figure 2 shows IPv4 address assign through DHCP server. static IP address used when users are less, but when users are more that time DHCP service is feasible to use. In this network both branch use DHCP service to assign IPv4 address automatically to end users. As shown in above snapshot user get successfully IP address from DHCP server. DHCP service increase efficiency into the network. Also the work of network administrator will decrease. Management of IP address in the network will be less and network administrator can easily manage it with DHCP. DHCP assign unique IPv4 address automatically to end users using DHCP pool, it assigns DNS server address, gateway address, subnet mask and IP address.

  1. Server configuration

 

Server is end device like PC, it provides different services into the network like DHCP, Web, DNS, SMTP, FTP and Database. Server user static IP address into the network as shown in below figure.

 

Figure 3

Server configured with static IP address in the network with subnet mask and gateway address. In this network has only one server which provides the web service, domain name service, and DHCP service. Benefit of using static IP address, it does not change in the network, and server services need to be up all the time, that is why it configured with static IP address. User may connect with network or not but server should be connected with network all the time.

 

 

  1. DHCP configuration

 

 

Figure 4

Figure 4 shows the configuration of DHCP service in server. DHCP stands for dynamic host configuration protocol, it used to assign IPv4 address automatically to end using DORA process. When network is large or medium size, that time is difficult to assign manually IP address to end users, so for that used DHCP service. As shown in above figure to enable DHCP first turn on this service. Create DHCP pool, after that assign network address with subnet mask, default gateway address, DNS server address and start address. There are two ways to configure DHCP service into the network. First we can configure it in dedicated server or Cisco router provides the functionality to configure DHCP service in router. In OSLO branch DHCP configured in dedicated server, while in BERGEN branch configured with Cisco router. (Computer Networking Highlights, 2020)

 

Figure 5

As we discussed above, we can configure DHCP service in Cisco router, above figure 5 shows how to configure DHCP service in router. First we need to exclude address which use static IP address like router interface. Thant create DHCP pool, assign network address with subnet mask and last DNS-server address.

  1. DNS/Web Configuration

 

 

Figure 6

DNS stands for domain name service. Above snapshot shows the configuration of DNS service in server. DNS used for create record of website with IP address, when user try to access website that time user’s pc makes request to DNS server to get IP address of website. Each website has unique IP address, and user pc does not know about all IP address. so for that DNS server come into the network and work for it. First user pc accesses the website that time pc makes query to DNS server, if the local DNS server has address it will reply with DNS response and you will make HTTP request to that IP address. For example in this network has configured with www.oslo.com website in DNS server and IP address 192.168.10.10.

 

Figure 7

Figure 7 shows the HTTP service turning on. HTTP stands for hyper-text transfer protocol, it used to host website on the internet. HTTP protocol allow user to access website hosted on the internet, it also allows to user access of web application. As shown in above snapshot html files are uploaded in web server to access. Index.html is required file to access website. Each website has one index file which works as homepage. In this network using DNS server and webs server address, user pc able to access the www.oslo.com website. (gwax programs, 2020)

  1. Switch Configuration

 

Switch is layer 2 device, in this network used cisco catalyst switch. Switch connects multiple end users at once. Switch works at data-link layer. It uses MAC address to forward traffic in LAN network. There are two types of switch, manageable and unmanageable (like hub), manageable switch can manage user, we can implement security, but in unmanageable switch cannot function like manageable. Switch come with 24 Fast Ethernet ports and 2 Gigabit Ethernet ports.  The basic configuration of switch shows in below snapshot. There are two switches installed in OSLO branch and one in BERGEN branch. (ComputerNetworkingNotes, 2020)

 

 

Figure 8

Switch configuration shows in above snapshot. hostname used to identify switch by unique name that is why it configured. It configured with Oslo Switch. So network administrator can identify this switch is from Oslo branch. Second command used to make login secure by network administrator or from any other users. It secures the switch from other users. There are two ways to login in switch for management purpose, first one is via console line and second one is via virtual line. There are 15 different virtual line to login into the switch. Password command used to make line secure and login command enable to make that password command enable when user login. Now when user try to access switch via console or VTY line that time it will appear with enable password and line password to grant access of switch. So this kind of configuration makes network switch secure from unauthorized access.

 

  1. Oslo-Router configuration

 

 

Figure 9

Router is layer 3 device and connect with other network using network address. router has less interface than switch. In this network both branches have one gateway router which are connected with Internet and other branches. The configuration for router shown in above snapshot. OSLO and BERGEN branch connected with each other using leased line serial link. To communicate with between these two branch serial link must configure. Figure 9 shows the configuration of serial link in location A which is OSLO branch. As shown in above snapshot serial interface configured with IP address 192.168.20.1 and no shut command used to up interface. There are three other interfaces which configured exactly with same command but only difference is IP address.  (Support, Routers and Guides, 2020)

 

 

Figure 10

Figure 10 shows the configuration of router with basic configuration like enable secret password. Other configuration shows about to make line console password and VTY line password to make lines secures. VTY line use telnet or SSH to make session to login into the router. Hostname also changed with hostname command. There are many different services which we can configure using command. These configured services are basic and necessary to secure the router. Enable command used to make login secure by network administrator or from any other users. It secures the router from other users.

  1. Bergan-Router configuration

 

 

Figure 11

Router is network layer device and connect with other network using network address. router has less interface than switch. In this network both branches have one gateway router which are connected with Internet and other branches. The configuration for branch B BERGEN router shown in above figure 11. OSLO and BERGEN branch connected with each other using leased line serial link. To communicate with between these two branch serial link must configure. Figure 11 shows the configuration of gigabit Ethernet interface with IP address. As shown in above snapshot gigabit Ethernet interface configured with IP address 192.168.30.1 and no shut command used to up interface. There are three interfaces which configured exactly with same command but only difference is IP address. (Support, Routers and Guides, 2020)

 

Figure 12

Figure 12 shows the configuration of router with basic configuration like enable secret password. Other configuration shows about to make line console password and VTY line password to make lines secures. VTY line use telnet or SSH to make session to login into the router. Hostname also changed with hostname command. There are many different services which we can configure using command. These configured services are basic and necessary to secure the router. Enable command used to make login secure by network administrator or from any other users. It secures the router from other users.

  1. Wireless AP configuration

 

 

Figure 13

Wireless access point used into the network for provide user to connect wirelessly. Wireless network is feasible compare to wired network. In the wireless network does not need wired to connect with network. Wireless network range is low but easy to connect with network. The throughput of wireless network is quite high compare to wired network. Wireless network use radio frequency to connect with device and transfer data. There are two bans used in wireless network 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz. Any wireless device can connect with AP using Wi-Fi module. Wireless network use SSID to broadcast signal for end device to connect. The wireless network ranges depend on the device, in the above figure 13 shows this AP device coverage range is 140 meters. It uses WPA2-PSK authentication method and AES encryption key to connect with end device. (Support and Points, 2020)

 

Figure 14

Figure 14 shows the connection of wireless device to AP using WPA-PSK and pass phrase. Wireless connectivity is easy compare to wired network. In wireless devices need to configure wireless setting to connect with network, if the pass phrase does not match with AP, it will not connect with network. WPA2-psk is most secure wireless authentication method. As shown in above snapshot, device successfully connected with AP with same SSID and pass phrase. It also assigns IP address automatically using DHCP service configured in BERGEN router. (Support and Points, 2020)

  1. Ping (Oslo – Bergen)

 

 

Figure 15

 

Figure 15 shows the successful connectivity between two branches with PING tool. Ping is a tool which is used to check connectivity with other devices. In this snapshot PC1 belongs to OSLO branch and PC3 belongs to BERGEN branch. IP address of PC1 is 192.168.10.50, from the PC3 we pinged PC1 IP address using ping command. As shown in above snapshot we got successfully reply from the PC1 end device. From the reply we can observe network configured with right configuration and network is fully operational. Other thing is any user from OSLO branch can access the data from BERGEN branch and BERGEN branch employee can access data from the OSLO branch. (How-To Geek, 2020)

 

  1. Ping (8.8.8.8)

 

 

Figure 16

Figure 16 shows the successful connectivity between internet and OSLO with PING tool. Ping is a tool which is used to check connectivity with other devices. In this snapshot PC4 (IT-admin) belongs to OSLO branch and 8.8.8.8 server belongs to internet. IP address of server is 8.8.8.8, from the PC4 we pinged server Internet IP address using ping command. As shown in above snapshot we got successfully reply from the Internet. 8.8.8.8 configured in Internet with loopback interface, we tried to access that interface using pc and got successful reply. (How-To Geek, 2020)

 

  1. Website access (from both site)

 

 

Figure 17

Figure 17 shows the successfully accessed the website which hosted in web server of OSLO branch. PC4 installed in OSLO branch and able to access the website as necessary. OSLO server has one website and entered one DNS record in DNS service. While user try to access the web server he must enter website name, because website name is easy to remember while IP address not. From the successful accessed website, we can observe network configured with right configuration and network is fully operational. Other thing is any user from OSLO branch can access the data from BERGEN branch and BERGEN branch employee can access data from the OSLO branch.

 

Figure 18

Figure 18 shows the successfully accessed the website which hosted in web server of OSLO branch. Laptop1 installed in BERGEN branch and able to access the website as necessary. OSLO server has one website and entered one DNS record in DNS service. While user try to access the web server he must enter website name, because website name is easy to remember while IP address not. Now any user from OSLO branch can access the data from BERGEN branch and BERGEN branch employee can access data from the OSLO branch. This network is fully operational with wired and wireless connectivity.

  1. Conclusion

 

This system has two branches OSLO and BERGEN. OSLO and BERGEN branches are associated utilizing serial line. Each branch has one router, this router associated with web and nearby system. Both branch has wireless and wired system, it approaches point and PCs, servers. PCs and PC are associated with layer 2 switch and passage individually. Router works at network layer and it associates with other system utilizing IP tending to. Switch is layer 2 gadget which utilized at information interface layer and associate with LAN arrange. The motivation behind this report is to design the system completely operational and both branch can have the option to get to the assets from the one another. OSLO branch has one server, that server facilitated site and point is to available from any gadget in the system. In the OSLO branch has IT administrator, which deal with the system according to prerequisite and essential. The report contains the full design of system with preview and clarified it why it arranged. The setup made by bit by bit from base to up layer.

  1. Reference

 

Computer Networking Highlights. (2020). How to configure DHCP server in Packet Tracer.. [online] Available at: https://computernetworking747640215.wordpress.com/2018/07/05/how-to-configure-dhcp-server-in-packet-tracer/ [Accessed 21 Feb. 2020].

ComputerNetworkingNotes. (2020). Basic Switch Configuration Guide with Examples. [online] Available at: https://www.computernetworkingnotes.com/ccna-study-guide/basic-switch-configuration-guide-with-examples.html [Accessed 21 Feb. 2020].

gwax programs. (2020). HOW TO SET WEB SERVER IN CISCO PACKET TRACER ~ gwax programs. [online] Available at: http://gwaxprograms.blogspot.com/2016/04/how-to-set-web-server-in-cisco-packet.html [Accessed 21 Feb. 2020].

How-To Geek. (2020). How to Use the Ping Command to Test Your Network. [online] Available at: https://www.howtogeek.com/355664/how-to-use-ping-to-test-your-network/ [Accessed 21 Feb. 2020].

Support, P. and Points, C. (2020). Set up a Wireless Network using a Wireless Access Point (WAP). [online] Cisco. Available at: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/smb/wireless/cisco-small-business-100-series-wireless-access-points/smb5530-set-up-a-wireless-network-using-a-wireless-access-point-wap.html [Accessed 21 Feb. 2020].

Support, P., Routers, C. and Guides, C. (2020). Basic Router Configuration. [online] Cisco. Available at: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/access/800M/software/800MSCG/routconf.html [Accessed 21 Feb. 2020].

Techopedia.com. (2020). What is Network Design? - Definition from Techopedia. [online] Available at: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/30186/network-design [Accessed 21 Feb. 2020].

 

 

 

 

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