ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR- Hilton Hotel and Marriott Hotel Assignment Help
In the following assignment, the information related to the Hilton Hotels will be discussed. It will provide information about the culture, politics, and power of the organization. It will also enumerate how Maslow’s and Vroom theory affect organizational behaviour and how these theories affect performance in the workplace. It will also provide information related to Marriott hotels. There will be an inclusion of Marriott as the second hotel to assess the importance of organisational behaviour theories and activities.
P1: Define what is culture, politics and power?
Culture: Organizational culture is an arrangement of shared values, beliefs, and attitudes of the members in the organization. It mainly maintains the members of how they act, dress, and perform their tasks in the organization (Chadwick, 2017). Every organization has its unique style of culture which provides guidelines to the members related to their behavioural action in the organization. According to Hilton Hotel, this organization maintains the organizational culture which was derived by Handy Charles. In this type of organizational culture, there are four categories i.e role culture, power culture, person culture, and task culture.
Role culture: This type of culture in an organization supports the organization to become job-oriented. This culture mainly defines stability, predictability, and safety. According to the Hilton hotel, this organization mainly uses this type of culture so that the employees maintain strict procedure and the main motive of this culture is to provide more attention in status and in performance. The cooperation level as well, as the power distribution level both, is low in this type of culture.
Power culture: In the context of Hilton Hotels, this organization utilizes this culture as the whole power lies with the top management and the employees are loyal to their leaders. So, this culture is helpful as the employees will perform their tasks according to the orders delivered to the employees by the top management. This will support the organization to attain competitive advantages (Buchanan and Badham, 2020).
Person culture: In this type of culture the power is given to the members of the organization. The members hold full authority to perform the tasks according to their own decisions (Yerznkyan, 2016). This organizational culture affects the behaviour of the members in the organization as they don’t work by maintaining the order of a high authority. Generally, this culture in Hilton Hotels affects the behaviour of the members.
Task culture: In this type of organizational culture results are more vital than the rules (Kegan and Lahey, 2016). According to Hilton Hotels this culture supports the organization to perform their tasks in an efficient manner where they could easily get the results. This affects the behaviour of the peoples in the organization as they will not maintain any rules in the workplace and this could affect the cooperation among the employees in the organization.
Politics: Organisation politics is an informal way through which the people in the workplace try to exercise influence in the organization with the help of the management of shared meanings (Christensen, Lægreid and Rovik, 2020). According to the Hilton Hotel, this organization faces many problems in the managerial structure due to organizational politics in the workplace. Michael Jarrett political pyramid is discussed below and how this pyramid influences individuals and teams in Hilton Hotel are enumerated below:
The woods: The unspoken rules and regulations that are generally followed by the Hilton Hotels are moved with a sense of urgency. The employees in this hotel need to provide fast services to the customers which may increase the customer interest without this being officially written as a rule.
The high ground: The Hilton Hotels have some strict rules which every member needs to follow: no involvement in politics, don't accept bribes, don't bring prior job methods in the current job. These are the rules to be maintained and this could support the organization to maintain a better brand image in the market.
The weeds: The weed here identifies the controversial thoughts and personal beliefs that may harm the organizational operations. Here the Hilton Hotel terminated the employees who spread bad rumours about the organization. This could help the organization to perform its assigned tasks efficiently.
The rocks: The strong connection that the organization has to support the crisis for Hilton Hotel they have a Realty firm Embassy group, this organization works as a supporter for the Hiltons Hotels. The Embassy group will provide revenue to the Hilton Hotels when they will be in a crisis.
Power: Power is the capability to influence other people in both a negative and positive manner. It affects the behaviour of the subordinates with the control of resources. The managers of an organization maintain some sources of power which influence the behaviour of the individuals who perform their task in the organization. The sources of power which Hilton Hotel maintains are:
Referent: It is an ambiguous power, here the people perform the work by observing an ideal person. This affects the performance in the workplace as many mistakes arise due to this power. According to Hilton Hotels, this power affects the behaviour of the individuals as they don't perform their tasks according to the company’s circular. This also affects the customer satisfaction part of the organization.
Coercive: It works as a threat to the members. These results in motivation power of the member’s reduction as the works get done forcefully (Fischer and Miller, 2017). This results in not performing the given tasks in the organization perfectly.
Reward: The increments of the salary of the employees in the Hilton are performed by the managers after every appraisal year. According to Hilton Hotels, this is the most significant problem with employees of other hotels as they do not perform their tasks perfectly when they don’t get any reward after completing their tasks efficiently. This affects the performance level of the employees and the organization fails to achieve organizational goals.
Legitimate: The power is given to the high authority and the employees in the organization need to work according to the commands and the orders of the high authority. So, this source of power affects the behaviour of the employees as they don’t get any authority to make decisions and this destroys the performance level of the employees.
M1: Critically analyse how the culture, politics and power of an organisation can influence individual and team behaviour and performance in Hilton
According to Hilton, culture, power, and politics play an important role in this organization. These factors support as well as affect the organization. The organizational culture in the Hilton is managed efficiently so that every task in the organization is performed effectively. These organizations mainly maintain a flat structure where the employees feel motivated and due to this they implement some new strategies in the organization which will support them to achieve competitive advantages. Similarly, power is also a part where the person who has the authority to order and command needs to utilize the power correctly. The personal clashes between the superior and the subordinate have a huge impact on the organization. Generally, when a superior negatively uses his power, then the subordinates get demotivated and do not efficiently perform his work. This reduces the productivity of the organization. In Hilton, the superior utilize the power positively and maintain cooperation among the employees and this helps in the attainment of focused objectives with clear discussion and understanding of requirements.. The organizational politics in the workplace also affects the performance of the employees as there are many politics which occurs. Some leaders do not provide stress to the workers whom they know personally. This affects the relationship among the members in the Hilton and affects the organization from achieving objectives.
P2: Evaluate how content theories such as Maslow or Herzberg and process theories such as Vroom : and motivational techniques of Behavioural psychology such as emotional intelligence and the soft skills for managers enable effective achievement of goals at Hilton Hotels
The theory of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is maintained by every organization as the employees perform their tasks in the organization to fulfil their needs. In Maslow's theory, there are five needs that the employees try to fulfil by performing their tasks in the organization efficiently. According to the Hilton Hotel, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is used to illustrate and influence the behaviour of employees. In this organization, the managers and the leaders are always concerned about how to implement the ideas in the motivational areas where they could motivate the employees to perform their assigned work efficiently so that they can stay with this hotel for a long-term span. In Maslow’s theory the five needs are self-actualization needs, esteem needs, social needs, safety needs, psychological needs (Bacon and Corr, 2017). In the context of the Hilton Hotel, the employees in this organization perform their tasks effectively so that they could easily fulfil these five needs. The first need which every worker demands are safety needs, this organization provides these needs by offering medical facilities, pensions, provident funds, etc. similarly, the workers are performing their work to get food, the shelter which in other words is known as psychological needs. It is described in Maslow’s theory that a person will not move up to the next level unless each stage is satisfied. The employees in the Hilton hotels fulfil their self-esteem needs by performing their tasks in the organization perfectly so that they get promoted in the higher levels and through this, the employees can make their self-image in the organization.
Similarly, there are some advantages and disadvantages of applying Maslow’s needs of hierarchy in the Hilton Hotel. The advantages are:
Discreet acumen into human nature. In Hilton Hotels the managers understand the needs of the employees and assign them tasks accordingly.
It also supports product planning, product positioning, and also sales channels designs.
In human behaviour, it maintains both the interpersonal and intrapersonal variations.
It is a dynamic process because it changes from one level of needs from the other. According to Hilton Hotels, the employees perform their tasks efficiently so that their needs get fulfilled easily.
The disadvantages are:
The most unified problem which the Hilton Hotel faces due to Maslow’s needs of the hierarchy is that the management cannot measure the level of needs satisfied.
As in this theory, not all individuals think in the same way. Some people prefer to fulfil social affection rather than fulfilling the safety needs. This affects the hierarchical structure of Hilton Hotels.
M2 Critically evaluate how to influence the behaviour of others through the effective application of behavioural motivational theories, concepts, and models
The Vroom expectancy theory refers that the motivation of the people will help the organization to achieve its objectives (Schlüter et al. 2017). It also illustrates that the actions of the people will support the organization in achieving competitive objectives. The Vroom expectancy theory is also known as the VIE theory. The acronym of VIE is valence, instrumentality, and expectancy. According to Hilton Hotels, this organization utilizes this theory to gather knowledge of how the employees are supporting the organization to achieve objectives and what strategies they are implementing. According to the Hilton Hotels, the Vroom’s expectancy theory plays a vital role as sometimes this organization offers higher positions at that time the employees implement their ideas in the tasks assigned so that it can be performed efficiently and the positions can be achieved. This is termed as instrumentality. Whereas valence is the value individuals place in the organization to achieve a higher position, this increases the motivational power of the employees. In the context of the Hilton Hotels, the individuals achieve success by implementing the ideas of renovating the hotel rooms according to a particular theme that can easily attract the customers and will help the Hilton hotels to increase its revenue. The Vroom theory supports this hotel in many parts as it increases the motivational power of the employees and also encourages the employees to maintain better behaviour in the workplace (Nilsen, 2020). Similarly, expectancy in the Vroom theory helps the Hilton Hotels, as they encourage the employees to implement the ideas into action through which the organization can achieve objectives and the employees can also achieve higher positions in the organization.
D1: Critically evaluate the relationship between culture, politics, power and motivation that enables teams and organisations to succeed providing justified recommendations
Emotional intelligence indicates someone's capability to identify, interpret and dominate their own perception and passion (Ta?tan and Davoudi, 2017). There are five components in emotional intelligence such as self-awareness, self-regulation, internal motivation, empathy, and social skills. Emotional intelligence training increases the motivation of the employees and this supports the organization in achieving objectives. Emotional intelligence helps in performing better in the workplace. According to Hilton Hotels, this organization generally selects the managers who have the high emotional intelligence that could help the organization to become productive. The managers can increase the motivational power of the employees by implementing their emotional intelligence in the organization.
Similarly, the soft skills for the managers also need to be maintained by the organization as this results in the achievement of competitive advantages. According to Hilton Hotels, the managers need to have better communication skills, teamwork, decision making knowledge, and problem-solving knowledge. This organization selects the skilled workers so that they can perform the assigned task in the organization efficiently. The soft skills of the managers also have an impact on the behaviour of the employees. The managers provide training and motivational port to the employees so that they can implement the ideas in the organization perfectly. In the context of Hilton Hotels, this organization mainly focuses on customers. The achievement of the demands of the customers can be possible if they provide better services at a cheaper price. It is recommended that this organization needs to provide some opportunities for the employees to achieve higher positions that will result in an increment in the productivity of the organization.
1. Select a Theme for the seminar of your chosen organisation
The theme for the seminar is “World of opportunities”
Advise the manager where to place the welcome desk
The welcome desk should be placed left to the entrance gate.
Organise how the delegates will be received and be given them their visitors’ cards, brochures etc.
The delegates will be received from the gates by our volunteers. The delegates will have to write their names in the register and then we will be giving them brochures and a file containing a pen and notebook to note down the relevant things of their concern. The visitor’s card will also be given at the entrance gate itself.
How would you help coordinate the team to enable smooth management and to ease the pressure of the flow of delegates
Right at the entrance we will place as many volunteers as possible and make separate lines to smooth the process of receiving the delegates at the entrance. This will help us avoid chaos in the entrance. The team will be trained very properly and will be efficient and effective at their respective jobs. The jobs will be segregated and will be informed to them 2 days prior to the seminar. There will be supporting staff and a supervisor to maintain the coordination and inform if they need more people at the entrance.
Write a reflection based on your imaginary experience ensuring you provide the following information:
2) Explain what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team.
An effective team is one whose members are aware of their responsibilities and the duties are segregated beforehand and are informed to the members prior to their job whereas in an ineffective team the members don't have any clue of their roles and responsibilities (Nelson et al. 2017). One of the most important features of any effective team is having common goals and all the members are working towards achieving one goal which is common to all the team members on the other hand if the individual members are not aligned towards a single goal that team will be considered an ineffective team. Every team member has the right to be heard and should have the right to deliver their views. A team which takes important decisions by a form of consensus is considered to be an effective team as opposed to an ineffective one where the decisions are being taken by only one person or the head who is not ready to listen to anyone’s view and beliefs to be right all the time (Bang and Midelfart, 2017). Every team requires a leader who is loved and respected by all the team members. The leader should listen to everyone and all the team members should put their views in front of all so a decision can be taken with the help of consensus. This is an example of how a team can be an effective team. The team leader of an ineffective team will not only listen to anyone and will take the decision alone. If there are many people working together it's almost certain that a conflict will arise but the dealing of the conflict will distinguish an effective team and ineffective team. In times of conflict or disagreement, an effective team will deal with it with a cool mind and will listen to what others have to say rather than shouting and not listening to what others have to say. They will respect each other's difference in opinion and try to present their word with the help of strong arguments which are in favour of what they are trying to convey. But in an ineffective team, they will not be able to deal with the disagreement effectively. It's for sure that chaos will arise and the members will be suppressed by the leader (Thiel et al. 2019).
3) Analyse Tuckman’s Team Development model and the Nine Belbin team roles to support the development of dynamic cooperation.
Dr Bruce Tuckman formed a model in the year 1965. It has 4 stages: Forming , Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning.
The first stage in Tuckman’s team development model is Forming. A leader is one who forms the team . There is very little coordination among the team members, having vague ideas about their roles and responsibilities. The leader is the one who directs every one. The second step is known as Storming. Here the purpose or the clarity towards achieving goals becomes clear and thus the team members become efficient and effective in their responsibilities. The 3rd is known as norming. The working style develops and the team engages in fun and social activities. The penultimate stage is performing where every team member is able to guide their subordinates and they do not require the help of their leader. Adjourning is a step of separation and working in a new environment and facing new challenges.
Meredith Belbin devised the Belbin theory. It consists of 9 team roles and their responsibilities assigned to them:
The monitor evaluator (thought orientor): they specialize in strategic planning and critical thinking and generally hold the managerial position and take most of their decisions at crisis situations.
The specialist (thought oriented): They have expertise in a specific field and are often considered the think tanks. They want to share their knowledge to juniors who have cravings for learning.
The Plant (thought oriented):Plants are often considered as creative thinkers and typically have the responsibility of finding ground breaking concepts and innovative solutions to disrupt an industry.
The shaper (action oriented): They can inspire and motivate people and are considered dynamic in nature. They are result oriented.
The implementor (action oriented) : they are self controlled and disciplined and are very practical in nature. They are often considered the backbone of an organization as they work on the field.
The completer/ Finisher: they are known as perfectionists and ensure to produce high quality work. They have the skill of attention to detail and examine products for errors or finished tasks.
The co-ordinator (people oriented): they have excellent communication and interpersonal skills and normally handle managerial positions. They help the team members to coordinate and achieve the group objectives.
The team worker (people oriented): the people who are friendly and mild are the best match for this job. They bring harmony in the team.
The resource investigator (people oriented): They are enthusiastic people and have a positive attitude towards new developments.
The following can be used to build a strong coordinated team to have a better result and smooth operation.
You have been appointed as a consultant with Marriott Hotels. The board of directors are very concerned about the team’s performance and productivity levels in the various departments
Subject: Recommendations on how the application of OB theories and philosophies would.
enable the organisation to improve performance and productivity
The following work has provided information on the recommendation that Mariott can use in order to have a better organisational operation and sufficient productivity. The theories and the ways that may have positive and negative prospects have also been discussed.
P4 Give suggestions and recommendations to the leaders and managers highlighting how the application of OB theories and philosophies such as path goal theory and social capital theory would enable the organisation to improve performance and productivity
Path goal theory is a leadership style which is contingent to the motivation, satisfaction and performance of her or his subordinates. The leader helps the team to devise the plan to follow and guide them in the process of implementation of the plan. An effective team is one which has a great leader which improves the performance and productivity of the team . social capital theory states the importance of human capital for an organization. It is one of the most important aspects as the employees should realise that they are important for the organization. This will improve the performance as they will strive to work even harder.
M4 Here you may also Explore and Evaluate how the above theories and philosophies can inform and influence behaviour in both a positive and negative way
Implementation of any idea brings positive and negative effects similarly the Path goal theory promotes dependency on the leader and reduces creativity obeying orders. The social theory on the other hand increases the freedom of the employees and they start becoming complacent (Bosse and Phillips, 2016). A framework is generally provided to leaders for a better way is provided subordinates to be kept motivated by path goal theory. On the other hand there is path goal theory that makes employees more dependent on the leaders. Social theory can be misused by the employees as a sense of freedom and there can also be a positive side of making the employees self reliant (Bakker and Demerouti, 2018).
D4 The Board expects you to Critically analyse and evaluate the relevance of team development theories in the context of organisational behaviour concepts and philosophies that influence behaviour in their workplace
A mix of both theories should be implemented as it's really very important to have a leader who is obeyed and respected. On the other hand the employees should also feel that they are important and have a say in key decisions to increase the belongingness towards the organization and should have their goals aligned in the same direction.
In the above assignment the information related to Hilton and Marriott hotels is provided. It also provided information on how these hotels are implementing the ideas to achieve success in the market. The information related to organizational behaviour is also provided and how politics, culture, and culture affects performance in the workplace.
The organisation could simply use more of a reward system for better employee motivation.
There can be gathering of resources from feedback of customers to better the performance of the employees.
Proper allocation of time management prospects must be taken care of by Mariott.
Bacon, A.M. and Corr, P.J., 2017. Motivating emotional intelligence: A reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) perspective. Motivation and Emotion, 41(2), pp.254-264.
Bakker, A.B. and Demerouti, E., 2018. Multiple levels in job demands-resources theory: Implications for employee well-being and performance. Handbook of well-being
Bang, H. and Midelfart, T.N., 2017. What characterizes effective management teams? A research-based approach. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 69(4), p.334.
Bosse, D.A. and Phillips, R.A., 2016. Agency theory and bounded self-interest. Academy of Management Review, 41(2), pp.276-297.
Buchanan, D. and Badham, R., 2020. Power, politics, and organizational change. SAGE Publications Limited.
Chadwick, A., 2017. The hybrid media system: Politics and power. Oxford University Press.
Christensen, T., Lægreid, P. and Rovik, K.A., 2020. Organization theory and the public sector: Instrument, culture and myth. Routledge.
Fischer, F. and Miller, G.J. eds., 2017. Handbook of public policy analysis: theory, politics, and methods. Routledge.
Kegan, R. and Lahey, L.L., 2016. An everyone culture: Becoming a deliberately developmental organization. Harvard Business Review Press.
Nelson, S., White, C.F., Hodges, B.D. and Tassone, M., 2017. Interprofessional team training at the prelicensure level: a review of the literature. Academic Medicine, 92(5), pp.709-716.
Nilsen, P., 2020. Making sense of implementation theories, models, and frameworks. In Implementation Science 3.0 (pp. 53-79). Springer, Cham.
Schlüter, M., Baeza, A., Dressler, G., Frank, K., Groeneveld, J., Jager, W., Janssen, M.A., McAllister, R.R., Müller, B., Orach, K. and Schwarz, N., 2017. A framework for mapping and comparing behavioural theories in models of social-ecological systems. Ecological Economics, 131, pp.21-35.
Ta?tan, S.B. and Davoudi, S.M.M., 2017. The relationship between organisational climate and organisational innovativeness: testing the moderating effect of individual values of power and achievement. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 12(4), pp.465-483.
Thiel, C.E., Harvey, J., Courtright, S. and Bradley, B., 2019. What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger: How teams rebound from early-stage relationship conflict. Journal of Management, 45(4), pp.1623-1659.
Yerznkyan, B.H., 2016. The Influence of Culture on the Economic Behavior. Theory and Practice of Institutional Transformation in Russia, (35), pp.80-88.