Managing Across Culture
Managing the culture program in a business organization is a very crucial thing to consider. This has to be implemented effectively to take care of the system. In this study the multi-culture concept was discussed to target many issues in an organization. System needs to apply a uniform cultural policy managing good communication and establishing a successful workflow. The study alone provided to know the importance of global cultural training and also showed many impacts regarding culture on work style. Various managing types were also discussed to know the different aspects of different culture systems. Managers from different cultural backgrounds also face the same issues and hence this common problem regarding an international culture system was focused thoroughly. It also helped in understanding its importance to build international business relationship
Managing across cultures defines the ability for recognition as well as the embracing power between the similarities and dissimilarities in the various cultures. After recognizing this management helps to identify the key organizational and strategic issues with an open and curious mind (Meyer, 2016). This is very important to understand the differences among the various cultures depending on the various geographical locations to expand the business. A business framework depends on so many things in terms of the employees, the business operational process, fundings and the various supply chain processes regarding the supply of raw materials and logistic system. Modifying the system and processes in necessary areas is the crucial factor resulting in effective cross-cultural collaboration. A basic awareness in cultural dynamics also helps to solve complicated issues (Hiratsuka et al., 2019). Cultural values mainly imply those conscious as well as unconscious beliefs that depend on any specific region having similar preferences, behaviors and also the same justification as well as judgemental attitude. Cultures generally include so many characteristics about innovation as well as being capable of handling the risks, attention towards detailing, concentration on outcomes and people involving the organization and management team orientation, aggressiveness and the stability to maintain the cultural legacy
Influences on Work
Culture is a multidimensional essence regarding professional cultures, corporate cultures, educational culture, national cultures depending on geographical differences, religious or spiritual culture, and generational as well as family-based culture. Sometimes one type of culture dominates over the other considering various factors. The culture has an immense effect on the working process, behavior, and style of the working system, facing the challenges or problems as well as the quick solving power. Moreover, it also helps to build relationships like good collaboration and helps to negotiate (Ward et al., 2018). There are mainly four types of organizational cultures present to deal with the issues such as clan culture, adhocracy culture, hierarchical cultures, and the market culture .all of them are dependent on each other and affect others. Clan culture mainly involves extended family, monitoring as well as nurturing whereas adhocracy mainly involves dynamic entrepreneurial risk-taking values innovation; hierarchical culture involves structure, control, coordination, efficiency, and stability. Again, marketing culture denotes the values of competition, achievement and the results from the implemented process. Cultural values make a business unique adding the flavor of values, traditions, beliefs, interactions, behaviors and attitudes towards the internal as well as external issues (Martineau and Arsel, 2017). Company culture is a very powerful tool to influence the sales, profits, recruiting the employees and the efforts, ethics, morals, a good work culture environment that attracts people including employees as well as consumers. It can inspire and motivate the staff to give their best to achieve the goal and provide productive service with reducing turnover (Mukhtar and Hamzah, 2019). Culture influences so many ways including leadership role, the management process, workplace practice, applied policies and philosophies, people, mission, vision, and values and most importantly effective communication.
Figure 1: Types of Culture
(Source: Ward et al., 2018)
Management culture is a collection of leadership values as well as the practices that evolve from the organizational cultural history and leadership management. Management culture considers both the cases' political system in the organization as well as the measurement expectations like the quality of the production, innovation, spending the resources, effective learning process from past failure experience and the management style. The five main management styles include visionary management, democratic management, transformational management, network management, and the coaching management style. In case of implementing the wrong management, style causes lower productivity, poor performance and work efficiency, a huge increase in turnover, issues regarding theft and unorganized process, reduced profitability and failed work culture system (Ritonga et al., 2019) . a visionary management style mainly recruits a visionary manager and helps to communicate the goal of the organization as well as provide the directs for an effective operational process. Again, democratic management rule mainly involves those managers who allow the employees to participate in the decision-making process and value their perspectives. The transformational management process mainly follows the innovations that result in the change and growth of the system. Lastly, the coaching process mainly focuses on performance and always triggers the issue regarding improvement in development procedures. This results in long learning success for the organization. A good management system needs knowledge, skill, practice, and patience. Authoritative management style generally has to be avoided because of the dominating nature by the management authority in this regard and this results in hazardous effects in the work culture environment.
The Importance of Training Managers to Become Intercultural Competent
Intercultural training plays a vital role in understanding cultural diversity across the world. They mainly target to focus on the issues regarding the understanding of the implications in business cultural differences and understand their positions as an international counterpart. Besides these, it also helps to establish an effective s communication platform across cultures, build successful cross-cultural collaboration and relationships, and also provide the confidence to deal with competitions in the global market. Effective communication in a work culture environment enhances the essence of the workflow in terms of misleading information and avoiding any miscommunication process (Mizan et al., 2019). This kind of training also enhances to appreciate the impact of the cultures on communication. Besides this, it also has an immense effect on productivity and efficiency on the outcome. Productivity has a direct relation with this matter assisting people to work better with each other and also improve the management style and leadership style regarding reward system, retention and the recruitment policy. Competitive advantage is also an important part in this regard. It enables the effectiveness to deal with rivals and attract the various types of customers (Bissessar, 2018). It establishes the long term benefits that also help to understand the global socio-economic condition. Proper skills, experience, knowledge, and understanding are very much integral parts in this regard .all these virtues can be achieved by a proper training process.
Findings and Discussion
An International Manufacturing strategy survey was performed in the year of 2006 across 23 countries to investigate the quality priorities, practices and performance by implementing Hofstede's cultural framework model to validate the importance of culture in various work environments. Methodology mainly involved self-administered questionnaires for the directorial head of the operations of the management team in renowned organizations. According to the survey, the convergence hypothesis resulted in managers from different cultural backgrounds can adopt the same efficient management process by proper learning skill (Richter et al., 2016). Again The total quality management (TQM) process stated that top commitment management process and leadership, as well as focuses on customers, information quality, strategy planning, and the suppliers as well as the analysis, are all vital factors for quality practice and performance. The main findings of the study resulted in four cultural dimensions including power distance, individualism, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance.
The main discussion mainly involves relations among these four dimensions and their influence on each other. Different quality practices can affect masculinity as well's uncertainty avoidance at a low level. as the business market is expanding across the world and the external factors have an impact on each stage. quality practice is variable in four-dimensional measure. Whereas power distance mainly involves the present and future aspects in terms of implementing action programs in case of power distance countries. a higher degree of centralization gives rise to ineffective performance regarding effective tools and methods. Action programs can result in an effective performance to resolve the limitations. In the case of individualism, the whole quality practice depends on this action program analysis (Vecchi and Brennan , 2009). The individualist country has respectively less amount of engagement for quality improvement and implementing the control programs. but in a collectivist country, the scenario is different from applying strategic planning. masculinity has followed two different approaches in this regard. this quality affects the budget and prices by spending more money on resources and hence prioritizes the internal factors in the case of the masculine country but in the feminine country, it tends to provide resources for external quality like customer focus purpose in place of inspection purpose. the second approach mainly involves the extensive use of equipment productivity programs as well as emphasizing consistent improvement by implementing an action program and strong cooperation. Again, high uncertainty avoidance countries are biased towards huge expenditure on inspection purposes.the power distance countries expand their business internationally and they are much potent to resolve the issues regarding the global market competition. These all factors are very much inevitable in terms of supporting the hypothesis and stated that managers from different societies face similar issues and that affects the way of managing quality and it needs to be changed to maintain a proper work culture environment.
The study has provided more information regarding the cultural issues and help to understand the various factors regarding management processes and the effective way to handle the management system by implementing proper cultural background. A multidimensional cultural policy can affect the system and need to be maintained with care to achieve an effective workflow. Moreover, the study also stated a case study where the quality management service depending on cultural issues was discussed to understand the effect of culture in business across the world.
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