Police custody: An examination of the cases
Prevalence of deaths in police custody and profile of deceased;
Deaths involving police restraint;
Deaths Involving Mental Health and Suicide;
Deaths Involving Alcohol and/or Drugs; and
Investigations and It’s Outcomes
Therefore, it’s important to critically discuss each of the points so that all of the critical issues considered by the authors can be explored with clarity. The review of the article is going to be not only issue of focus but there will a recommendation too as a review report which will provide the critical information missing in the article on this particular context.
Prevalence of deaths in police custody and profile of deceased:
It is found that the rate of death differed from 3.6 for every 100,000 logical captures in 1998/99 to 1 for every 100,000 in 2008/09. Rates for police powers fluctuated from 3.8 dying for every 100,000 captures to 0 for every 100,000. According to a study report given in Ncjrs.gov. (2015), 99% spot is involved by male according to the specimen study where, 7% were Black and 76% were White, 5% were Asian, 2% were Mixed race, and 1% were Chinese/another ethnicity (the ethnicity of 9% of the example was not expressed). The age furthest reaches of the perished is in the middle of the extent from 14 to 77 years of age with the normal age being 39 years of age. Sixty-eight percent were captured in an open spot, and the most widely recognized explanations behind capture were being tanked and unable/untidy, open request offenses, driving offenses and medication offenses (Vilke, 2011).
Deaths Involving Police Restraint
FBI (2015) has noticed the passing of 17 individuals after the confinement under Section 136 of the Mental Health Act 1983 and being taken to a position of wellbeing. From these 17 dead individuals, nine were taken to police authority as a position of security rather than doctor's facility, in spite of direction in actuality. A further two individuals were confined under different segments of the Mental Health Act, and 39 extra individuals were recognized either amid the capture or once in police care as having conceivable psychological well-being necessities and a further 11 individuals were distinguished similar to a conceivable suicide/self-mischief hazard (Ncjrs.gov, 2015). At long last, there were 26 people who were not distinguished as having any psychological wellness needs or similar to a conceivable suicide/self-damage hazard, however, who went ahead to confer suicide.
Deaths Involving Alcohol and/or Drugs
About seventy-five percent of individuals in the example (72%) were connected to liquor and/or drugs (i.e. they had either been captured for offenses identified with liquor and/or medications, were inebriated, or both, and/or this was identified with the reason for death) (Hannan et al, 2015). A sum of 120 were connected with liquor either at capture, on landing in police guardianship or as the reason for death. Individuals who had a liquor element (yet not a medications component) had a tendency to be more seasoned, with those matured somewhere around 55 and 64 years of age being essentially more inclined to have liquor connected with their case than more youthful gatherings. They were additionally essentially more inclined to be male and have no lasting location. The larger part of these individuals appear to be captured for reasons potentially identified with liquor, for example, being plastered and unfit/cluttered, driving offenses, and open request offenses. Of the 87 captures for being tanked and unable or inebriated and sloppy, 60 did not include capture for some other offenses but rather prompted the individual being taken to care (this incorporated one individual who was additionally being kept under Section 136 of the Mental Health Act) (Hannan et al, 2015).
Investigations and investigation outcomes
The examiner found that police power strategy and technique on authority matters was ruptured in 91 cases (27%). These breaks would not so much have affected on the passing (Hannan et al, 2015). The most well-known proposals for enhancing power strategy focused on officer preparing in medical aid and contact with FPs (69 suggestions), and danger appraisal of authority cells and prisoners' property and attire (58 proposals). In 17 cases (5% of the example) the specialist distinguished comparative episodes which had already happened in the same power. In 50 cases (15% of the specimen) the specialist recognized cases of good practice in the same power. Specialists made 510 general suggestions, not focused at individual cops. On account of 28 (8%) of the perished, proposals had been actualized when the examination report had been finished. On 38 different events, specialists distinguished preparing requirements for individual cops. Unfortunate behaviour/disciplinary charges were suggested on 78 different events for cops and on nine different events for staff individuals – a normal of one in each four case (Vilke, 2011).
Recommendations after critical review
The critical review of the article, Deaths in or following Police custody: An examination of the cases 1998/99 – 2008/09 can come into the suggestion that the author has escaped the social and economic issue related to the death of the prisoners in the custody. It is quite possible that after the completion of the period of imprisonment the prisoners can join the common social life and lead his or her rest of the life in the right path. The economic point of view of this issue is that the productive and service activities of these persons can add a good percentage in the economic growth of UK. Their death in the custody is going to be the cause of this loss.
The Unresolved Questions -
The literature review has encountered that several steps are taken to reduce this drawback of FBI the important questions are as follows –
i) Is it really possible to reduce the unfortunate death in the police custody in practice?
ii) Is it really possible to motivate the prisoners to come back in the clean stream of life?
Hannan M., Hearnden I., Grace K. and Bucke T., (2015). Deaths in or following Police custody: An examination of the cases 1998/99 – 2008/09: Retrieved 16 September 2015, from https://www.ipcc.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Documents/research_stats/Deaths_In_Custody_Report_0811.pdf
FBI,. (2015). Excited Delirium and the Dual Response: Preventing In-Custody Deaths. Retrieved 16 September 2015, from https://leb.fbi.gov/2014/july/excited-delirium-and-the-dual-response-preventing-in-custody-deaths
Ncjrs.gov,. (2015). NCJRS Abstract - National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Retrieved 16 September 2015, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=269396
Vilke, G. (2011). Pathophysiologic changes due to TASER devices versus excited delirium: Potential relevance to deaths-in-custody?. Journal Of Forensic And Legal Medicine, 18(6), 291. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2011.05.003