Psychological Perspectives and Behaviour


In general terms, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder refers to the chronic mental illness due to which unnecessary thoughts crop up which turns out to be obsessive in nature. It is not associated with the habits of human beings. In fact, every individual possesses several habits or thoughts that get repeated with the passage of time. It is caused by several reasons are which are stated below:

  • Due to the learned behavior as compulsions take place which take the form of a habit at the time of associating it with fear of anxiety.
  • The genetic, as well as hereditary factors, are also responsible for this that creates an imbalance in the health of human bodies.
  • Besides this, several types of abnormalities including structural, operational, chemical also can create OCD in the people accordingly.

As per cognitive theorists persons who have OCD possess several working beliefs and due to their misinterpretation OCD takes place.

 The cognitive model of OCD describes that each individual has several lights that are intrusive. Due to dilated responsibility and misinterpretation, the persons having OCD start to believe that the aspects are essential which can move towards tragic consequences.  In this context it needs to be stated that, the thoughts are distressing which compels individuals to contemplate over those thoughts. The fault belief inherited in them makes them think that the violation of certain habits will bring negative impacts in their lives. Also, these individuals tend to be very cautious of their natural surroundings, emphasizing these things, perceived as a threat. It leads to issues related to the memory process which causes the disease in human beings.

Issues of hypervigilance and cognitive bias might crop up in them that will prove to be detrimental for hair health. The intrusive thoughts might lead to voluntary as well as involuntary reactions that can cause harm to those beings.  The behavioral presumption on the OCD makes a description that it can be observed in the twins also. In terms of behavioral perspectives, it can be stated that it is a learned behavior that eventually turns out to be ritualistic. These individuals suffer from fear of anxiety and they believe that with the help of proper execution of these behaviors it can be removed in a considerable manner. In this case an obsessive nature is observed among the persons in the form of hand washing after coming from a dirty place time and again. In a way, it is a spontaneous response from the persons to resolve anxiety within them. There tend to be observed several unique characteristics of these individuals who are having OCD Which are:

  • The habits occur many times a day.
  • It can not be controlled by human beings.
  • It creates irritating disturbances in real life and works related to social gatherings.

The habits of these individuals literally become distressing in terms of social responses due to which necessary issues are created. At the same time, a minute analysis of these aspects clearly points out that the individuals suffering from these sorts of habits generally are repulsive and obsessive, and always a sense of fear surrounds their minds. The fear of worry becomes a troublesome factor for them. 

In his regard, it is necessary to change the habits of certain individuals who are having OCD. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a renowned therapy with which changes can be made accordingly them by means of scientific techniques. A therapist associated with cognitive behavior can conduct this treatment by providing necessary guidelines to the individuals necessarily. However, the effective change in behavior at the earliest will prove to be effective for those individuals to recover from the disease by following specific therapies related to the mental illness disease.




Identify the key features of the perspective and how they can be used to explain OCD

Name of the study within the perspective 

Strengths of the study in terms of data collection

Weaknesses of the study in terms of data collection


These perspectives are classified into three main components which are Genetic description, Biochemical elaboration, and Brain structural illustration. Each criterion vividly describes the main features such as genetic proneness, the ways through which neurotransmitter levels cause OCD and activity of the brain related to the specific areas. The concordance rate of twins proves to be a determining factor for assessing the chances of occurring OCD. The biochemical section determines the serotonin level due to which OCD can develop in human bodies. The enhanced activity of the orbital frontal cortex with the caudate nucleus can contribute to the formation of OCD.


The primary strength of biological explanation clearly supports that disorder forms due to genetic bias. A study found that conducting a meta-analysis of 14 twins there was observed to have less chances of developing the  OCD if the co-twin poses some disorders. In that case, the possibilities of generating OCD was observed to be on the lower side in the twins necessarily. In terms of results, it provided perceived fruits that clearly stated the fact genetics plays an indispensable part in developing OCD. based on the levels of serotonin the OCD matters. The use of antidepressant drugs is effective in reducing the symptoms of OCD.

At the same time, the biological illustration can be criticized for being too deterministic. It states that the effective presence of genes such as COMT, SERT in the people can be observed as pre-programmed for developing the symptoms of OCD. It is considered to be a weak point as it neglects or overlooks the free will of the person. In fact, free will can also have a commendable influence on the behaviors of those individuals. Another negative aspect of his approach is that it can be censored for reductionism. It focuses on the fact that OCD develops due to the COMT and SERT gene or the level of serotonin. The reason for which it is seen as a weak point is that it is a simplistic process and there is no need to observe important factors such as experiences of childhood, the stresses of everyday life.


This perspective terms to figure out the aspects of OCD in relation to excessive non-adaptive efforts for coping with the issues for coping with the imminent dangers created by aggressive impulses. Basically, it has been observed that due to neurotic disorders a conflict between ego and superego occurs which leads to this type of disorder in a significant manner. Often the adaptive sexual impulses also are responsible in this regard to create a personality disorder. Effective treatment is required for these individuals to overcome these issues in an effective manner.


The perspective provides a profound insight into a specific subjective presence of patents based on which an idea is gained accordingly. More importantly, it aims to make out the specific characteristics of the patients that creates disturbances in the human minds and the ineffectiveness in providing proper treaties might prose problematic issues in later life. However, the perspective helps to understand the succinct ways of sexual impulses due to which obsessive attitude develops in human bodies accurately. Therefore steps will be proactive in this sense for the purpose of eliminating the symptoms in a systematic manner that will assist in leading a healthy life free from OCD. The scientific measurement used in the perspective really prove to be a significant factor in terms of segregating the important aspects related to psychodynamic issues effectively as well as efficiently. 

Various sources provide data on how this therapy had have the patience in improving their lifestyle based on the previous activities that has already occurred in their life. But it does not mention regarding the changes that have been brought about in the life of the patient. This results in providing a vague idea on the effectiveness of the therapy as a result various psychiatrist have doubt on the effectiveness of the therapy.




Type of therapy

Evaluation of therapy



Serotonin reuptake inhibitor

This particular therapy had been proven to you have respective changes in the patient. According to various psychiatrists, it could be stated that this particular therapy helps a patient suffering from depression to get started into various activities that are more important than their ritual of cleaning. This therapy helps them in realising the fact that the time that they invest in there rituals could be decreased investing the time to a more necessary event. This particular theory had been used in various cases along with providing effective results (Álvarez, Yépez andJurado, 2019). According to a report this particular therapy news on an individual who was of 25 years old and head various rituals of checking things around him. He feared the fact that things around him might harm him and the vice versa. As a result he kept on checking on various things that could harm him. This caused him in spending more than 5 hours into these activities. This particular ritual kept on increasing as he grew old. Initially he was provided with different therapies which did not work, lastly he was provided this particular theory which proved to work. The psychiatrist did not support in providing this theory initially it might have negative impacts or side effects on his behaviour and health (Hirschtritt, Bloc and Mathews, 2017).But lastly this therapy proved to be  working on him.This particular therapy proved to have adverse effects on different patient who was going through similar symptoms. Hence it could be stated that, this particular theory could not be implemented on every patient.


Serotonin reuptake inhibitor

According to the second case study, the individual suffered from the fear that he is suffering from HIV and he might contaminate people surrounding him and caused them the he develop various rituals of cleaning and summer activities that he continuously carried out he developed various rituals of cleaning and some more activities that he continuously carried out throughout the day. This resulted him in investing least time for other activities that are more necessary then this rituals (Calvocoressi, Mazure and Van Noppen, 2019). Stated that he spent more than 5 hours in this rituals and he could not concentrate on any other activities. He had a fear of contamination from various things and kept on washing his hands and cleaning our surroundings.He continuously stay away from his family members in the fear that he would contaminate them of HIV. The psychiatrist provided him with two options one being the serotonin reuptake inhibitor and another one included exposure and ritual prevention. Considering the fact that exposure and ritual prevention would result in in exposing the individual to various contaminating activities or things, he decided to choose the Serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It could be stated that his rituals had grown to such a level that he feared in his treatment process as well. After choosing the later option, the individual was treated accordingly and it was noticed that the individual had cure a lot and his rituals had decreased to a great extent (Robbins, Vagh and Banca, 2019). This particular treatment had a negative effect on the individual and his life because, it was noticed that the individual turned completely different and ID he behaved completely opposite than his previous behaviour. He was reluctant to touch the floor of a dirty place such as public toilet. He was also reluctant in Japanese family members knowing the fact that it would contaminate them of HIV. From this study it could be analysed thatthis particular treatment did not prove to be effective for this individual because he proved to add completely different for the treatment had adverse effects on him. Apart from this he also about his family members which is completely uncommon and must not be the result of this therapy (Adams, Kelmendi and Brake, 2018). According to various researches it could be stated that this therapy might have adverse effects on the patients. This effects could be result of improper dosage of the therapy. The less amount of dosage might result in different side effects compared to the patient receiving excess amount of dosage. comparing this case with other cases presented in various sources it could be stated that this particular therapy provided to patients considering their situation (Hallion, Tolin and Diefenbach, 2019). Every patient suffering from the disorder of obsessive compulsive disorder or depression must not be treated because instead of providing positive result it might turn to be negative.


Exposure and ritual prevention

(EX/RP or ERP)

This particular therapy is known for curing patient suffering from obsession compulsive disorder with the help of exposing the patience to do the things which he considers would contaminate him. This particular therapy involves identifying the things which are feared by the patients and hence expose them to the patient in order to make him use to them. It works on a natural process where the individual is made to get used to the things which he fears might contaminate him or does not like being around them (McNally, Mair and Mugno, 2017). This therapy e helps them in in getting the patients used to do these things in their surroundings such that their behaviour is not impacted due to the presence of these things. Apart from this this particular therapy requires a lot of time because initially the patient does not like the things to be present around them and gradually they get used to it.


Adams, T.G., Kelmendi, B., Brake, C.A., Gruner, P., Badour, C.L. and Pittenger, C., 2018. The role of stress in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Chronic Stress2, p.2470547018758043.

Álvarez, L.M., Yépez, N., Jurado, M.M., Guerrero, J.B. and Petra, I., 2018. Stimulation of Cognitive Functions in University Students with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Using Captain’s Log Computerized Cognitive Training Program. American Journal of Applied Psychology7(1), pp.1-10.

Calvocoressi, L., Mazure, C.M., Van Noppen, B. and Price, L.H., 2019. Family Accommodation Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder—interviewer-rated (FAS-IR). Sexual Obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Step-by-Step, Definitive Guide to Understanding, Diagnosis, and Treatment, p.353.

Dayan-Riva, A., Berger, A. and Anholt, G.E., 2020. Affordances, response conflict, and enhanced-action tendencies in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an ERP study. Psychological Medicine, pp.1-16.

Hallion, L.S., Tolin, D.F. and Diefenbach, G.J., 2019. Enhanced cognitive control over task-irrelevant emotional distractors in generalized anxiety disorder versus obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of anxiety disorders64, pp.71-78.

Hirschtritt, M.E., Bloch, M.H. and Mathews, C.A., 2017. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: advances in diagnosis and treatment. Jama317(13), pp.1358-1367.

McNally, R.J., Mair, P., Mugno, B.L. and Riemann, B.C., 2017. Co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression: A Bayesian network approach. Psychological medicine47(7), pp.1204-1214.

Robbins, T.W., Vaghi, M.M. and Banca, P., 2019. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: puzzles and prospects. Neuron102(1), pp.27-47.

Rodenburg?Vandenbussche, S., Carlier, I., van Vliet, I., van Hemert, A., Stiggelbout, A. and Zitman, F., 2019. Patients' and clinicians' perspectives on shared decision?making regarding treatment decisions for depression, anxiety disorders, and obsessive?compulsive disorder in specialized psychiatric care. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice.


Tonna, M., Marchesi, C. and Parmigiani, S., 2019. The biological origins of rituals: An interdisciplinary perspective. Neuroscience &Biobehavioral Reviews98, pp.95-106.

Woody, E.Z., Hoffman, K.L. and Szechtman, H., 2019. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Current treatments and a framework for neurotherapeutic research. In Advances in Pharmacology (Vol. 86, pp. 237-271). Academic Press.

Zai, G., Barta, C., Cath, D., Eapen, V., Geller, D. and Grünblatt, E., 2019. New insights and perspectives on the genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatric genetics29(5), pp.142-151.

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