PUBH6012-Applied Research Project in Public Health

INTRODUCTION

a. Introduction and justification of topic area

In recent times, there are several children just like teenage group gathers with their same group of people. In this context, they are facing the issue of respiratory diseases that may be caused due to smoking tobacco, infection, breathing in second-hand tobacco smoke, etc. forms of air pollution (Cordova, Aguirre, and Rengifo, 2020). There are several diseases involved in this such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, etc. In Australia, several children are facing this problem which affects the lungs or respiratory for a longer time. However, these diseases can be prevented and manage with an appropriate medication system. In the country, there are thousands of people suffering from death due to this disease. Many children are suffering from this disease (Lambert, Bowatte, and Erbas, 2017). Among different kinds of respiratory diseases, there are different diseases take place such as explained earlier. This is a major concern for the country as they lost their teenage group of children which places greater threat towards the health care system.

From the different diseases, asthma is illustrated as the main issue among several children so that it is a priority to solve this kind of issue in the National Health Area. Respiratory diseases also affect the process of breathing which possesses many kinds of symptoms, outcomes, and pathways. It creates significant issues in the health of children in Australia. However, there are different factors of risk exists so that preventive measures can be considered that helps to solve issue and problem exists among children (Nascimento, Santos and Reisen, 2017). Along with this, it can be stated that respiratory diseases are major causes that increase illness in Australia. It increases stress and financial burden for individuals and communities where they live. On the other hand, within the country greater attention nowadays paid for prevalence, consequences, and prevention of chronic respiratory diseases. In this aspect, it has been assessing that tobacco smoking is the greater risk which increases chronic respiratory diseases in the country (Silva, Ignotti and Hacon, 2016).

From Capstone A, it has been assessing that family history is the most vital indoor factor of the respiratory disease in infants. When in someone's family, one person or more than one person using inhalers, there is a chance to the occurrence of respiratory diseases among children. Hence, indoor factors are more influential to children instead of outdoor. The home environment places a very important role because it incurred dust everywhere such as carpets, toys, bedding, etc. Apart from this, there are several houses also contain pets which also increases the chances of a humid environment (Herrera, von Ehrenstein, and Berger, 2016). This is because it spread allergens. Furthermore, in different nations level of air pollution also increasing due to biomass fuel, second-hand smoke, toxic gasses, carbon monoxide, etc.

Aim of the study: To Find out Indoor Causal Agents of Respiratory Diseases among Australian Children, the Precautions and Prevention or Intervention Measures.

Objectives of the study

  • To understand the concept of Causal Agents of Respiratory diseases for Australian Children.
  • To evaluate the causes and effects of Respiratory Disease among Australian Children.
  • To assess indoor causal agents sufficiently or not towards respiratory diseases among Australian Children.
  • To identify precautions and preventive measures for respiratory diseases.  

b. Research questions

  • What do you understand the concept of Causal Agents of Respiratory diseases for Australian Children?
  • What are the causes and effects of Respiratory Disease among Australian Children?
  • How to assess indoor causal agents sufficiently or not to create respiratory diseases among Australian Children?
  • How to identify precautions and preventive measures for respiratory diseases?

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Summarise research design

Research design can be defined as a framework in which research methods and techniques successfully chose by the researcher. It helps a researcher to implement suitable methods that are implemented as subject matter and set up to gain success. There are different kinds of research design exists such as experimental, descriptive, correlation, etc. From these all, the researcher undertakes a descriptive research design in which the researcher describes the situation in the research problem (Bonniaud, Fabre, and White, 2018). It is theory-based that analyzes results through gathering, analyzing, and presenting collected data. There are several benefits of using descriptive design in which this design helps to provide insight to research with problem statements.  

b. Data collection

The research approach refers to as plan and procedure which consists of different steps with broad assumptions in a detailed method of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. It is based on the research problem that is being addressed with an appropriate approach. There are three approaches such as quantitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. The present study undertakes a quantitative research approach because it considers different themes that explained descriptively. It is a suitable technique for present research because it includes a constructivism view (Gomes?Filho, Cruz, and Scannapieco, 2019).

c. Analyzing  the data

In the present research study, the survey method considers 100 children’s parents. In this process, from Perth and Adelaide area respondents will be taken where children suffer from respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergies, pneumonia, etc. Furthermore, the consent form will be taken from parents for engaging their children in the present research study. The area selected for the present study considers western and south Australia. In addition to this, the questionnaire will be prepared in which several aspects like family history will be done (Rabiei, Hosseini, and Ezatian, 2017). In this way, Therapeutic drug monitoring also carried out so that preventive measures also suggested with this strategy.

d. Ethical issues in this research study

To conduct present research, it can be stated that ethics are broadly considered set of rules that govern for expectations of others and own behavior. The present research conducted honesty and integrity which means that all data are validated and not mislead anyone during the present research program. Furthermore, this research also is written without any copy of data or plagiarism. In addition to this, during research, all respondents fill the consent form without any bias (Nowakowski, Kli?, and Wronka, 2017).

RESULTS

a. Results from findings

1. In the family people using an inhaler

1. Does anyone in your family use inhaler?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

50

50

No

45

45

Can’t say

5

5

Total

100

100

 

2. There is an occurrence of infant death syndrome before the child be taken in the study

2. Is there any occurrence of infant death syndrome before the child to be taken in the study?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

60

60

No

25

25

Can’t say

15

15

Total

100

100

 

3. Family members are suffering from cough or cold for more than two weeks

3. Is there anyone in the family suffering from cough or cold for more than two weeks?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

80

80

No

15

15

Can’t say

5

5

Total

100

100

 

4. The family are suffering from asthma, tuberculosis

4. Is there anyone in the family suffering from asthma, tuberculosis, or pneumonia?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

82

82

No

10

10

Can’t say

8

8

Total

100

100

 

5. A family is facing troubled by shortness of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a slight hill

 

5. Is there anyone in your family facing troubled by shortness of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a slight hill?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

75

75

No

15

15

Can’t say

10

10

Total

100

100

 

6. In a family, infected people get a short breath to walk with other people of same age group

6. Does anyone feel get a short breath to walking with other people of the same age level people?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

80

80

No

10

10

Can’t say

10

10

Total

100

100

 

 

7. Whether affects family member’s chest

7. Does weather affect your family member’s chest?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

78

78

No

12

12

Can’t say

10

10

Total

100

100

 

8. Chest illness kept a distance with usual activities in a week

 

8. During the past three years have anyone in the family had any chest illness which kept a distance with usual activities in a week?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

88

88

No

10

10

Can’t say

2

2

Total

100

100

 

 

9. Asthma is a disease generally faced by family members in term of respiratory diseases

 

9. In your family which kind of diseases generally faced by family members in terms of respiratory diseases?

Frequency

Percentage

Asthma

75

75

Lung cancer

5

5

Pneumonia

5

5

Emphysema

5

5

Chronic Bronchitis

5

5

All the above

5

5

Total

100

100

 

 

10. Indoor smoke ash and dust affect disease

 

10. Does indoor smoke ash and dust occur to affect the disease in your opinion?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

80

80

No

10

10

Can’t say

10

10

Total

100

100

 

 

11. At maximum homes, the daily occurrence of humid cleaning create positive effects

 

11. What is the occurrence of humid cleaning in your home?

Frequency

Percentage

Daily

78

78

Ones in a week

8

8

Few times in a week

4

4

Less than once in a month

10

10

Few times in a month

0

0

Never

0

0

Total

100

100

 

 

12. Air quality at home generally very good

 

12. What do you generally think about your home indoor air quality?

Frequency

Percentage

Very good

75

75

Good

10

10

Middle

10

10

Bad

5

5

Total

100

100

 

13. Indoor causal agents sufficient towards respiratory diseases among Australian Children

13. Does indoor causal agents sufficient or not towards respiratory diseases among Australian Children?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

86

86

No

10

10

Can’t say

4

4

Total

100

100

 

14. All the above precaution people take for measuring respiratory diseases

 

 

 

 

14. What kind of precaution do you take to measure respiratory diseases?

Frequency

Percentage

Stop smoking

2

2

Clean house

3

3

Wash hands properly

5

5

Cover cough of an infected person

5

5

All the above

85

85

Total

100

100

 

 

15. Smoking tobacco is the main cause of respiratory diseases among children

 

15. What are the main causes of Respiratory diseases among Australian Children?

Frequency

Percentage

Infection

25

25

Smoking tobacco

45

45

Breathing in second-hand tobacco smoke

15

15

Other forms of air pollution

15

15

Total

100

100

 

b. Explain table and graphs

1. In the family people using an inhaler

1. Does anyone in your family use inhaler?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

50

50

No

45

45

Can’t say

5

5

Total

100

100

 

 

 

Interpretation: From the above graph, it can be stated that there are 50 parents said that in their family infected people using an inhaler. Therefore, they are suffering from respiratory disease asthma. There are several chances of spreading this disease to children. Furthermore, there are 45 respondents said that in their family no one using inhaler so they do not know children will suffer from respiratory disease or not. The remaining 5 respondents stated that it cannot be said that respiratory disease among children spread or not.

2. There is an occurrence of infant death syndrome before the child be taken in the study

2. Is there any occurrence of infant death syndrome before the child to be taken in the study?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

60

60

No

25

25

Can’t say

15

15

Total

100

100

 

 

Interpretation: In the present analysis, it has been shown that when data collected from children’s parents, there is a maximum occurrence of infant death syndrome before the child took their study. It is one of the causes due to respiratory diseases spread among children. There are 60% of respondents of total respondents consider their favor towards this. Furthermore, as per 25%, it can be stated that there is no occurrence of infant death syndrome before the child to be taken into study. The remaining respondents said that it cannot be said that there is any occurrence or not.

3. Family members are suffering from cough or cold for more than two weeks

3. Is there anyone in the family suffering from cough or cold for more than two weeks?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

80

80

No

15

15

Can’t say

5

5

Total

100

100

 

Interpretation: In the present graph, it has been shown that 80 respondents stated that in their family old age members suffering from cough or cold for more than 2 weeks. It is the main issue due to which increase respiratory diseases among children. This is because; an immune system of children is very weak so that it increases the spreading of respiratory diseases. Furthermore, there are 15 respondents stated that in their family no one is suffering from cough or cold more than 2 weeks. Remaining 5 respondents said that it can’t say that family member is suffering or not with these problems.  

4. The family are suffering from asthma, tuberculosis

 

4. Is there anyone in the family suffering from asthma, tuberculosis, or pneumonia?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

82

82

No

10

10

Can’t say

8

8

Total

100

100

 

Interpretation: In the present graph, it can be stated that there are 82% of respondents said that their family suffering from asthma, tuberculosis, or pneumonia. It spread disease among children so that they are facing issues in breathing. Due to the weak power of children, they are unable to fight with this kind of problem. Furthermore, as per 10% of respondents, it can be stated that in their family no one is suffering from this kind of disease. Remaining 8% said that it cannot be stated that family is suffering from the above diseases or not.

5. A family is facing troubled by shortness of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a slight hill

 

5. Is there anyone in your family facing troubled by shortness of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a slight hill?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

75

75

No

15

15

Can’t say

10

10

Total

100

100

 

Interpretation: The above graph defined like that in the family, several members are facing troubled by shortness in breathing when they are doing anything in hurrying. Along with this, when they are walking up to a slight hill, they are also facing a problem. It is also shown that they are suffering from respiratory diseases which can also infect children as well. 75% of respondents favor this aspect so that it determined the maximum people facing issues in their daily routine work.

6. In a family, infected people get a short breath to walk with other people of same age group

6. Does anyone feel get a short breath to walking with other people of the same age level people?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

80

80

No

10

10

Can’t say

10

10

Total

100

100

 

 

Interpretation: In the present graph, it can be stated that there are 80% of respondents said that people feel get short breaths when they are walking with the same age group. Concerning deal with these kinds of people, it can be stated that the maximum number of people facing issues in walking. Furthermore, 10% of respondents said that they are not getting this issue in their walking time.

7. Whether affects family member’s chest

7. Does weather affect your family member’s chest?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

78

78

No

12

12

Can’t say

10

10

Total

100

100

 

Interpretation: In the above graph, it has been analyzing that there are 78% of respondents stated that when the weather changes, it creates an impact on their health. With this consideration, it can be said that changes in weather create a negative impact on the health of infected people. However, there are 12% of respondents opposed to this thing and said that it does not harm anyone because changes in weather sometimes create positive aspects among people. Remaining people said that it cannot be stated that weather affects anyone or not.

8. Chest illness kept a distance with usual activities in a week

 

8. During the past three years have anyone in the family had any chest illness which kept a distance with usual activities in a week?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

88

88

No

10

10

Can’t say

2

2

Total

100

100

 

Interpretation: From the present analysis, it can be stated that 88% of respondents said that during the past three years anyone in the family had chest illness which requires keeping distance with usual activities in a particular week. Furthermore, there are 10 % of respondents said that when people suffering from this disease; they do not need to keep the distance from others.

9. Asthma is diseased generally faced by family members in term of respiratory diseases

 

9. In your family which kind of diseases generally faced by family members in terms of respiratory diseases?

Frequency

Percentage

Asthma

75

75

Lung cancer

5

5

Pneumonia

5

5

Emphysema

5

5

Chronic Bronchitis

5

5

All the above

5

5

Total

100

100

 

 

Interpretation: In the above graph, it can be stated that among family members asthma is the main kind of disease that is faced by different people. Furthermore, this disease can be spread among children who make the weak respiratory system them. In this consideration, it can be stated that people who face this issue need to maintain safety and keep distance with children. Furthermore, there are 5 % of respondents said that lung cancer is another disease that takes place among family members. Along with this, there are many other diseases take place which creates issue and problems among people.

10. Indoor smoke ash and dust affect disease

 

10. Does indoor smoke ash and dust occur to affect the disease in your opinion?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

80

80

No

10

10

Can’t say

10

10

Total

100

100

 

Interpretation: In the present graph, it can be explained that there are 80% of respondents said that indoor smoke happening at their home so that it increase dust and ash which affects children as well. It is the main issue due to which children facing problems in breathing. Furthermore, there are 10 % of respondents said that indoor smoke ash and dust do not affect the diseases. Remaining, 10% of respondents said that it cannot be stated that indoor smoke ash and dust occurrence affect respiratory diseases.

11. At maximum homes, the daily occurrence of humid cleaning create positive effects

 

11. What is the occurrence of humid cleaning in your home?

Frequency

Percentage

Daily

78

78

Ones in a week

8

8

Few times in a week

4

4

Less than once in a month

10

10

Few times in a month

0

0

Never

0

0

Total

100

100

 

Interpretation: In the present graph, it has been shown that there are 78% of respondents said that they are cleaning their homes daily. In this kind of safety, they are properly taken care of their children from other people at home who are suffering from respiratory diseases. Furthermore, there are 8% of respondents maintain the safety of cleanliness once in a week. It increases the chances of spread germs towards different people. As a weak immunity system of children, it is highly affecting them. Moreover, there are 4% of respondents have views that they are maintaining cleanliness a few times in a particular week. It assists to lead with more effectiveness at the workplace. Remaining 10% of respondents have views that they are working on the cleanliness of home with less than once in a month. It is a very dangerous situation that increases many germs and negative effects on children's health.

12. Air quality at home generally very good

 

12. What do you generally think about your home indoor air quality?

Frequency

Percentage

Very good

75

75

Good

10

10

Middle

10

10

Bad

5

5

Total

100

100

 

 

Interpretation: In the above graph, it has been showing that there are 75% of respondents favor regards with very good quality of air at home. It means that there is no harmful gases effects exists, no pollution of air, etc. It is one of the best ways to diminish the negative effects of respiratory diseases. Furthermore, there are 10% of respondents stated that the quality of indoor air is good that is more effective for maintaining creativeness. As per views of a further 10% of respondents, it can be said that the indoor air quality of their home is middle so that it is not effective for maintaining effectiveness regarding respiratory diseases. However, the remaining 5% of staff members said that there is bad quality of air exists that impacts negatively on outcomes of air quality.

13. Indoor causal agents sufficient towards respiratory diseases among Australian Children

13. Does indoor causal agents sufficient or not towards respiratory diseases among Australian Children?

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

86

86

No

10

10

Can’t say

4

4

Total

100

100

 

Interpretation: The present graph shows that indoor causal agents are sufficient for respiratory diseases among Australian children. In this way, safety can be maintained that helps to deal with different aspects of children's welfare. There are 86% of respondents support and favor this aspect that assists to promote more effective results at the workplace. There are 10% of respondents said that indoor causal agents are not sufficient for respiratory diseases. Remaining 4% said that it cannot be stated that there are sufficient members or not.

14. All the above precaution people take for measuring respiratory diseases

14. What kind of precaution do you take to measure respiratory diseases?

Frequency

Percentage

Stop smoking

2

2

Clean house

3

3

Wash hands properly

5

5

Cover cough of infected person

5

5

All the above

85

85

Total

100

100

 

 

Interpretation: As per the above graph, it can be stated that different ways help to show different kinds of precautions that can be taken to reduce the effects of respiratory diseases. In this consideration, there are 85% of respondents mainly support this aspect that helps to lead with perfect measurement within maintaining effectiveness. Furthermore, there are 85% of respondents following several aspects such as stop indoor smoking, cleanliness of the house, washing hands properly, cover the mouth of an infected person, etc. Furthermore, there are 5% of respondents have views that they need to cover the cough of an infected person that helps to ascertain the perfect measurement of respiratory diseases. There are 2% of respondents who support to stop smoking that helps to lead with taking proper safety at the workplace.

15. Smoking tobacco is the main cause of respiratory diseases among children

15. What are the main causes of Respiratory diseases among Australian Children?

Frequency

Percentage

Infection

25

25

Smoking tobacco

45

45

Breathing in second hand tobacco smoke

15

15

Other forms of air pollution

15

15

Total

100

100

 

Interpretation: In the present graph, it has been showing that there are 45% respondents said that the main cause of respiratory diseases is smoking tobacco. It creates negative effects on children and family member who does it. It increases dust and injury in internal health. Hence, it increases the problem among different children. Furthermore, there are 25% of respondents said that infection is another element that enhances respiratory diseases. There are several reasons due to which infection increases such as dust, pollution, etc. Moreover, there are 15% of respondents have views that breathing in second-hand tobacco smoke also creates negative effects on children. They are suffering from this problem with major effects when someone doing smoke around them.

DISCUSSION

a. Place results in the form of literature review

In order to consider views of César and Nascimento, (2018), it can be stated that respiratory diseases create major effects on children. There are several reasons due to which they facing this issue. Therefore, asthma is one of the main chronic diseases in which a person suffers from chest tightness, shortness of breath that associated with widespread narrowing of the airways in lings, and obstruction of airflow. There are several triggers that include due which people suffered from asthma such as exercise, viral infection, food chemicals, environment irritants due to pollution or smoke, allergens, etc. On the other hand, Pedro, Freitas, and Neuparth, (2018) argued that symptoms of asthma generally reversible with proper treatment. There are many people severe or persistent due to allergic environment from dust mites, pollens, cockroaches, or pets. This impact on children and they are also suffering from the problem of respiratory diseases. This is because it may occur in association with eczema, particularly among young children.

Furthermore, Ahmed, Weddih, and Filali-Maltouf, (2018) stated that a maximum number of children affected by respiratory diseases because at their home some people infected by asthma. A large proportion of asthma generally developed in early childhood. There are about 10% of people who develop asthma in adulthood. This is because of its exposure to a specific substance at the workplace. On the other hand, Fang, Song, and Huang, (2019) contradicting that asthma range in severity due to intermittent symptoms causing few problems for individual those serve persistent wheezing and shortness of breath. It severely generally impairs quality of life which may be increasing threatening of their life.

According to the views of Carvalho, Nakazato, and Nascimento, (2018), Australia has a high prevalence of asthma relative to other nations. Among children, this issue occurs many other problems that create negative effects as well. Mainly children are facing this issue because at their home someone suffering from asthma. There are different fundamental causes of asthma that are generally unknown but many features disorders that are becoming better understood. Besides this, Drago, Balzan, and Viegi, (2016) argued that there is a major risk factor of asthma is an allergic reaction that creates many other risks among male and female. From the present survey, it can be stated that indoor agent-causal helps to prevent respiratory diseases among children. They are also maintaining safety that helps to lead with effective results.

Moreover, Sacramento, Martins, and Pamplona, (2020) stated that asthma can also create negative effects on children and other people as off work or off school. These types of children are also facing issues to participate in physical and social activities. As per the survey, maximum parents support this element that it increases issues among their children because of old age group at workplace facing issue in supervision towards asthma. Smoking tobacco is one of the main problems that increase asthma among people. However, Moraes, Almendra, and Galvani, (2019) said that parents of children who participate in the present survey also taking precaution for measuring respiratory diseases. In this regard, they are trying to control over stop smoking, cleanliness of the house, washing hands properly, etc. In this way, they can maintain safety towards their children. 

b. Contextualize results within the academic literature

From the present survey, Cutrera, Baraldi, and Duse, (2017) stated that chronic respiratory diseases are often incurable which involve irreversible damage which creates lung infection. From the knowledge of risk factors, it can be stated that action at the individual, government level, and health provider took chronic diseases that can prevent. The basis of proper prevention and management of respiratory diseases also helps to diminish the requirement of physicians and hospitalization. Therefore, it assists to enable patients and enjoy normal activities with several people. On the other hand, Mahler, de Oliveira, and Taquette, (2016) said that there are different prevention can be taken for respiratory diseases such as the promotion of education, regular monitoring of symptoms, avoidance of risk factors, etc. In this consideration, self-management activities also develop that help to meet with proper living.

Moreover, Shanthikumar, Burton and Neeland, (2020) stated that the strategic framework also integrates whole life benefits with the health system. This approach generally a kind of comprehensive model that undertaken for solving chronic respiratory diseases. With early detection, preventive methods can be taken in established solutions. The main aim of this preventive method is to consider effective management that helps to lead with problems inappropriate manner. However, Carvalho, Nakazato and Nascimento, (2018) argued that controlling tobacco is a primary preventive strategy that helps to reduce the burden of chronic respiratory diseases. This is because cigarette smoking is the single factor that harms to a person's body and trigger asthma.

As per the views of Pedro, Freitas and Neuparth, (2018), it can be stated that controlling tobacco can be considered with the cessation of smoking commencement among current people who smoke. Furthermore, in public space, the prohibition of tobacco smoke also facilitates that helps to lead with a solution of respiratory diseases. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health helps to prepare a questionnaire and conduct this survey. On the other hand Ahmed, Weddih and Filali-Maltouf, (2018) argued that therapeutic drug monitoring also carried helps to observe effects among children. In repeated emails, phone, SMS, visiting, etc. helps to consider TDM successfully.  At a particular time interval, their health conditions monitoring by the indoor causal agent that helps to understand issues among children. Furthermore, improvements or degradation of health issues also assessed that are based on diagnostic tests. In this regard, preventive measures also suggested to the family members to enhance efficiency towards the diseases. On the basis of preventive measures, it can be stated that children are protected from getting respiratory disorders.

c. Describe any limitations of the study

There are several limitations also exist in the present study that explained in the following manner:

  • Respiratory diseases cannot be fully reversible. This is because of airflow limitation usually progressive and associated with the inflammatory response of lungs with noxious particles or gases.
  • Respondents feel shy to provide information related to their family members. Therefore, it creates a problem to consider the final conclusion.
  • Children are also using a drug which is the main cause of respiratory diseases. This information hides by parents so that, researcher unable to suggest them proper precaution.
  • Children also exposed to passive smoking at home also cause respiratory troubles. There is second-hand exposure to smoke during infancy causes slow growth with the development of the lungs.

 CONCLUSION

a. Conclusion from the study

From the present research study, it can be concluded that there are around maximum people suffer from respiratory diseases. In this consideration, asthma is the main disease due to several children gets impacted. Furthermore, the death rate from asthma is two times higher which creates negative effects. Pollens are also facing issues with allergens that causing allergies among children. It increases respiratory disease issues at a higher rate. Among Australian Children, there is a descriptive research design helpful to conduct a survey of 100 respondents. Data are collected from children’s parents with fulfilling consent. Moreover, it summarised that indoor casual agents take participate to solve issues and problems among children facing respiratory diseases. Maximum children are taking a drug that creates negative effects on their health. Hence, on the basis of TDM proper medication provided to different infected people. In addition to this, improvement of health also assessed based on the diagnostic test.

Along with this, preventive measures also suggested to family members. With the help of interceptive or preventive measures, it can be stated that the efficiency of particular diseases can be reduced. On the basis of quantitative study, data gathered, and assessed. From this aspect, it can be found that drugs and asthma are the main causes of respiratory diseases.

b. Recommendations for future research

Apart from the present research study, it can be stated that there are several recommendations can be considered that helps to lead with effective monitoring of chronic respiratory diseases. For future aspects of research, it can be stated that more preventive measures should find that helps to consider further research. Furthermore, diagnoses in interpret the role of chronic respiratory diseases must be found that helps to solve problems among different children. Along with this, smoking tobacco also need to diminish among children that create a negative impact on their health.

 

REFERENCES

Books and Journals

Agarwal, D., Hanafi, N. S. & Chinna, K., 2019. Systematic scoping review protocol of methodologies of chronic respiratory disease surveys in low/middle-income countries. NPJ primary care respiratory medicine. 29(1). pp.1-4.

Ahmed, M. L. C. B., Weddih, A. & Filali-Maltouf, A., (2018). Hospitalizations and deaths associated with diarrhea and respiratory diseases among children aged 0–5 years in a referral hospital of Mauritania. Tropical medicine and infectious disease. 3(3). p.103.

Bonniaud, P., Fabre, A. & White, E., (2018). Optimising experimental research in respiratory diseases: an ERS statement. European Respiratory Journal. 51(5). p.1702133.

Carvalho, P. C., Nakazato, L. F. & Nascimento, L. F. C., (2018). Exposure to NO2 and children hospitalization due to respiratory diseases in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Ciencia & saude coletiva. 23. pp.2515-2522.

César, A. C. G. & Nascimento, L. F., (2018). Coarse particles and hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children. An ecological time series study. Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 136(3). pp.245-250.

Cordova, J. E. D., Aguirre, V. T. & Rengifo, G. F. G., (2020). Association of PM 2.5 concentration with health center outpatient visits for respiratory diseases of children under 5 years old in Lima, Peru. Environmental Health. 19(1). pp.1-6.

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APPENDIX

Section – A

Name:

Age:

Gender:

Section – B

1. Does anyone in your family uses inhaler?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t say

2. Is there any occurrence of infant death syndrome before child to be taken in the study?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t say

3. Is there anyone in family suffering from cough or cold for more than two weeks?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t say

4. Is there anyone in family suffering from asthma, tuberculosis or pneumonia?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t say

5. Is there anyone in your family facing troubled by shortness of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a slight hill?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t say

6. Do anyone feel get short breath in order to walking with other people of same age level people?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t say

7. Does weather affects your family member’s chest?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t say

8. During the past three years have anyone in the family had any chest illness which kept distance with usual activities in week?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t say

9. In your family which kind of diseases generally faced by family members in term of respiratory diseases?

  • Asthma
  • Lung cancer
  • Pneumonia
  • Emphysema
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • All the above

10. Does indoor smoke ash and dust occur affect the disease in your opinion?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t Say

11. What is the occurrence of humid cleaning in your home?

  • Daily
  • Ones in a month
  • Few times in a month
  • Less than once in a month
  • Few times in a month
  • Never

12. What do you generally think about your home indoor air quality?

  • Very good
  • Good
  • Middle
  • Bad

13. Does indoor causal agents sufficient or not towards respiratory diseases among Australian Children?

  • Yes
  • No
  • Can’t say

14. What kind of precaution do you take for measure respiratory diseases?

  • Stop smoking
  • Clean house
  • Wash hands properly
  • Cover cough of infected person
  • All the above

15. What are the main causes of Respiratory diseases among Australian Children?

  • Infection
  • Smoking tobacco
  • Breathing in secondhand tobacco smoke
  • Other forms of air pollution

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