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Public Health Informatics

Critical Evaluation of 5-week activities

According to Sohrabi et al., (2020), it can be understood that in the first week most of the tasks and activities those are posted by the organization page are not mostly related to the CoVid-19 pandemic situation. On the other hand, there are also very serious issues that are posted by the organization. It is now acknowledged that WFP now distributes, this is one of the tremendous tasks for the organization that everyone should be proud of. On the other hand, from the second week onwards, there are many activities that started appealing to society. Heavy check mark to avoid contact with sick animals or products in poor condition. 

Moreover, heavy check mark to avoid the presence of roaming animals in the markets Given the potential for increasing conflict during COVID19, What precautions can be taken and what programs can be implemented to promote peace? Upcoming webinar: Social protection responses in the Caribbean to the COVID-19 pandemic. On the other hand, Cascella et al., (2020) have stated that "Early vaccination Syringe to prevent severe cases of flu is more critical than ever—particularly for high-risk groups like health workers, the elderly and people with chronic conditions. These same groups are also at Upwards arrow high-risk of coronavirus infection." -  “Thank you Flag of Canada for the 7.5 Million (Canadian dollars) contribution to support increased access to Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and other critical supplies to assist 23 LAC countries in their efforts to save lives”. Journalists are critical to holding decision-makers to account and communicating lifesaving public health messages to the general public. They should never be a target for violence; they should be protected so that they can continue to do their critical work.

Moreover, Sohrabi et al., (2020), has stated that in the fourth week onwards, tremendous posting regarding the COVID-19 pandemic situation started and that made the population and followers of the page more alert about the current situation. People with hypertension, diabetes, cancer, chronic kidney disease, and chronic respiratory diseases are at higher risk of becoming severely ill with COVID19. Among those with diabetes, the risk of death or a severe case of COVID-19 doubles.

In the fifth week, there are also some notifications regarding the ban while traveling in airlines. All the airline's route in most of the countries is backed by the government, which paralyzed all the transport and tourism industry of the world.

The twitter review for Equity & Health are described below

Sensitive occurrences

Week 1

(1st June to 7th June)

Week 2

(8th June to 15th June)

Week 3

(16th June to 22th June)

Week 4

(23rd June to 29 June)

Week 5

(30th June to 5th July)

 

Healthier societies for healthy populations -

Two days after it surpassed Italy in the number of coronavirus deaths, Brazil stopped publishing a running total of pandemic statistics.

Principles and methods are drawn from decades of work showing that lower socioeconomic status.

.

Beijing has counted more than 100 cases since Friday with many traced to the city’s largest wholesale market.

 

Ensuring global calamities are not included within the circumstances of a pandemic situation

 

Applications of digital technology in COVID19 pandemic planning and response to the situation

 

Table 2: Activities of Equity & Health

(Source: Equity & Health, 2020)

Critical Evaluation of 5-week activities

Markus & Brainin (2020) has stated that in case of the posts those are posted in the Twitter page of Equity & Health, in the first week, it can be observed that most of the activities are based on the drug research for COVID-19. This has been a serious issue in the world and everyone is waiting for the correct vaccination. There are also different agencies those who have posted in this account twitter handlers of this organization has also retweeted about the corona-virus issues. They reported that Italy had the highest number of deaths followed by Brazil, where affecting rate constantly increased. In the second week, the most important post is regarding the socioeconomic status of many developing countries all over the world. In the third week, the organization has made continuous posts regarding the conditions in China, where Beijing recorded more than 100 cases a day. Kannan, Sheeza & Hemalatha (2020), described that in the fourth week, there are some critical posts regarding. This is related to the COVID-19 pandemic situation in European countries. In the fifth week, there are some of the important posts, from which it can be understood that organization has started predicting the number of deaths that can happen within one month. It has been assumed by the organization that New IHME COVID-19 Model Forecasts Latin American, Caribbean Nations Will See Nearly 440,000 Deaths by October 1 Childhood Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome, which is a New Challenge in the Pandemic (MIS-C).

The twitter review for the Telemedicine Journal are described below

Sensitive occurrences

Week 1

(1st June to 7th June)

Week 2

(8th June to 15th June)

Week 3

(16th June to 22th June)

Week 4

(23rd June to 29 June)

Week 5

(30th June to 5th July)

 

It can be observed on 3rd June, the twitter page of this journal  supported the rapid development of the research

On 15th June, there are some of the incidences regarding the responses to the natural disaster

“The Application of Mobile Telehealth System to Facilitate Patient Information Presentation and Case Discussion”

 

“Use of a Bidirectional Text Messaging System for Emergency Department Follow-Up Versus Usual Follow-Up”

Join us on Monday 6/29 for the third instalment of our four-part webinar series!

Time is flying by! The fourth and final webinar of our four-part series is coming up in just under 2 weeks on July 13th.

 

The Public Perception of Telemedicine and Barriers to Acceptance and Adherence

Table 3: 5 weeks activities of Telemedicine Journal

(Source: Telemedicine Journal, 2020)

Critical Evaluation of 5-week activities

In the case of the Telemedicine Journal, on June 3, the first post is about the supporting and continued growth as well as the rapid development in the research. In this serious condition, the rapid development in the research and manufacturing of vaccine for coronavirus is much needed and that is why it should be supported by all the medical journals throughout the world. On the other hand, Fauci, Lane & Redfield (2020) has stated that there are also some good initiatives taken by the Telemedicine Journal, where they have shown a tremendous response to the paediatric team and gave the response to the natural disaster. Moreover, there are some of the massive discussions in the organization, which is regarding the Application of Mobile Telehealth System for transforming the information of the patient from one individual to the hospitals. There are also different types of informative presentations and case discussions, which is much relevant in the modern world situation. In the fourth week, Ang, Foong & Ng (2020) has critically reviewed the activities of the Telemedicine Journal as the organization has generated new types of “Bidirectional Text Messaging System for Emergency Department”. On the other hand, there are most of the discussions regarding the webinar, which are performed by the Telemedicine Journal and is focused on different themes of modern world scenario (Cucinotta & Vanelli, 2020).

2. Telemedicine in Australia

“Summarise the barriers to the uptake of telemedicine in Australia based on articles provided in the learning resources and wider literature (last 5 years). Classify them into ICT issues and management issues and evaluate current methods. In your opinion, what are the key barriers and how can these be addressed? Provide suggestions and practical recommendations based on evidence”

In Australia, there are different barriers in the uptake of telemedicine. The barriers are structural barriers, financial barriers and personal/cultural barriers, and also collected information on preventive and curative basic health services. However, the issues are classified between the ICT issues and the management issues to evaluate the current ongoing methods. In the case of the ICT issues, it can be observed that the main problem is within the Knowledge-based control system. It is found in a wide range of “applications, including robot path planning, process supervision, automation of manufacturing systems, fault detection and diagnosis, flight control, control of biomedical systems, and intelligent instrumentation” (Estai et al., 2016).

The newly developed decision-making system provides a solution to the above-stated disadvantages by acting as a filter which also issues primary medication advice with risk levels to the subject on its own, thereby decreasing the workload of the physician. And depending upon the risk level, the system either provides primary medical advice or immediate tele appointment with the physician ensuring better control of the subject's condition without wasting time. The proven success rate of a fuzzy rule-based system in the number of biomedical diagnosed application is the major reason for choosing fuzzy in developing the decision support system. As it has been observed that each 1mm Hg of blood pressure rise causes 1.2% increase in several problems, hence fuzzy not only ensures an accurate diagnosis but also avoids the hard threshold and thereby increases the tolerance towards the contradiction in the data using human expertise (Liu, 2019). As the blood pressure baseline of each individual depends upon variables such as age, gender, body mass index smoking habit, alcohol, family history, pregnancy respective trimesters, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, a fuzzy algorithm considering above variables is developed. The importance of this work is like the existing blood pressure meter setup, it not only gives the blood pressure readings but the proposed work also identifies the baseline blood pressure of an individual by itself and helps the individual to have an accurate assessment of his condition, extended with a telemedicine application in the emergency condition.

There are also different issues regarding management which include time management problems due to possible increase in workload: Thirdly confidentiality of patient's records due to unauthorized access and the last is complexity in the understanding of tools used. The developed system is a solution for all the above-mentioned barriers. In this work, a system is developed, which not only access the patient's data (ECG waveform) but also diagnoses the heart abnormalities itself, so that unnecessary duplication of test results and other complexities in diagnosing from the poor quality image can be reduced.

Management issues have been one of the important problems and it occurs for the increased physician's workload. As the system itself diagnoses the actual disorder, the number of patients getting the appointment from the doctor will be reduced in the case of no abnormality and even the doctor can also give the appointments by just giving the priority to the patients with high-risk levels so that the adverse damage of patient with a bad health condition can be rescued first. From the literature, since it has been proven that Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) based telemedicine system can replace multiple stand-alone devices at the cost of a single instrument using virtual instrumentation.  In case of suggestions and recommendations, mentioned advantages of LabVIEW are used to develop a user-friendly system (Zachrison et al., 2020). Similarly, fuzzy expert systems which have been proved to be accurate in medical analysis with minimal computational requirements helps the medical experts in diagnosing.

This section aims to address the key barriers and therefore work aims for a complete intelligent telecare system, where a fuzzy decision support system has been developed for diagnosing the patients’ health condition and it extends its help with a tele appointment with the doctor only in the case of any abnormal health condition, which can result in decreasing the workload of the doctor and providing immediate medical attention to the subject needed.

As a critical solution, Zobair, Sanzogni & Sandhu (2020) identified telemedicine as a provision for offering medical services and counselling through the modern means of communication. The telemedicine was defined as “the application of information technology and resources in the field of health service and medical care to the people who are in remote areas and isolated from such services". The need for telemedicine in Australia seems to be due to the fact of the moderate population and the vast area of the country being provided with insufficient health services. Other such factors involved are the expenses involved and that people in the rural areas are below the normal standards of affording to see such specialists. In such situations, telemedicine offers an advantage to the people by freeing them of the expenses involved in transport and other related costs. The infrastructure needed for this could be sponsored by the government whose role plays a major part in this mission. The fact that about 80per cent of the basic communication networks laid in Australia belongs to the government has made it more important and a key player for implementation of this project (Estai, Kruger & Tennant, 2016). The government provides services and sponsorship through providing network facility and through discounting and complementing the import duty and other such taxes involved for implementing the project.

The government has made it an initiative to carry out research for the development of the project and to make telemedicine available to every one of its populous. This seems to be possible after the growth of three other projects which had been introduced here a few years ago. The first of these was established by the private healthcare giant hospitals. The prime objective being simple of establishing telemedicine services to rural areas. They have extended their services to the army units present in the southern states of Australia. With the capability of helping the army during disasters and relief programs, this seems to have quite the capacity to achieve many feats.

 

 

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