Research Paper | Drug Addiction and Treatment

Introduction

The drug addiction issue killed thousands of Americans every year, the data keep increasing every year, and it is not a one-person phenomenon as it also affects the life of the substance abuser family.  Substance abuse is a medical illness where the majority of people go untreated. Despite several challenges faces by the government to effectively treat the majority of drug-addicted there are strong campaigns and programs funded by the government to treat the drug addiction and for which therapeutic approach and effective surveillance have been done by the government through coordinating with the country health sector. It is been identified that almost 21 million Americans have at least one addiction, and only 10% of the people get treated.  Though there are different factors associated with drug misuse which we will discuss as we proceed. In this research paper, we will discuss drug addiction and its treatment, we will elucidate research design, the process of collecting data to support our specifics mentioned in the paper, time, findings, and nursing intervention, in the end, a conclusion relevant to it will be given. 

Background

Substance abuse is one of the major issues in the country and its affecting people health, education, employment, and relationship, a report share by ‘’ National Alliance to End Homelessness’’ highlights the fact that more than 500k people sleep on the streets and people due to lack of economic resources and family support suffer from drug abuse or mental health disorder or both (García-Andrade, 2019). Young people are mainly the ones who are suffering from drug addiction. There are different factors associated with drug addiction, both physical and environmental circumstances affect the personal choice to use the drug, according to the US Department and Housing and Urban Development more than 50% of people living in an emergency shelter or on the streets, and many of these homeless people suffer from mental illness and are unable to build a satisfying life (GA, 2018). Individual distress life and trauma are said to be one of the prime reasons for drug problems, followed by drinking issues, socio-economic status, etc. Though understanding specific factors contributing to drug abuse is complex. It is been identified that misuse of some drug can cause much health issues such depression, anxiety, hallucination, etc. also it can be the reverse process where mental health issue leads to drug addiction, therefore, for effective treatment of the drug addiction its vital to identify the reason contributing person to use drugs. A mental health issue can be due to different reason but alcohol and drug addiction played a role in increasing the problem.

Research Question.

Persons with addiction, who deal with mental health and homelessness.

When a person has both mental health issue and drug addiction issue it can really take a toll on the health, it is been recognized either one of the problems can lead to another, basically, a co-occurring problem, both drug addiction, and mental health issue have its own sign and symptoms which needed to be identified when treating a person with drug addiction ((Evans-Brown & Sedefov, 2016). This problem can affect a person able to work effectively or carry out a day-to-day task which is essential for living, for instance, drug addiction problem can affect the person's ability to maintain a stable home life, or their ability to handle the tough situation in life.

The co-occurring disorder can affect each other, especially in the situation if the treatment is not provided in time, which is the case for many people who live in isolated/remote area or generally for indigenous people in the country, as the language barrier and economic condition is a big challenge in the provision of the treatment (Horova, 2016), delay in treatment of these problems can worsen the substance abuse problem and mental health issue that’s is why death rate due to drug abuse increases every year. 

  • 40% to 60% of people drug addiction has genetic influence. 
  • Environmental factors influence drug addiction.
  • Poor education, lack of knowledge about the bad effect of drugs on health. 
  • People with mental health disorders are at higher risk of drug abuse. 

As a mental health issue, socioeconomic status, and drug abuse are closely linked topic, though one issue does not cause others directly (MA & R, 2016). Though it is been said that drug abuse can increase the underlying mental disorder, also we know that mental health issue is caused by the several factors and complex, for instance, mental disorder can be due to genetics, environment and other factors. Though there is strong linked between the people who are homeless and drug abuse, one can say these are interrelated problems taking a toll on each other.

Research design

To prove the relation between I have used the qualitative research and target audience are homeless people who suffer from mental illness with drug addiction. Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.  The rate of homeless people reflects trends in the American economy, individual lifestyle, and health, though homelessness is caused by different factors, lack of job opportunities, lack of affordable healthcare, lack of housing, etc.  The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration reported that more than 30% of people who are homeless had some mental illness and have a drug addiction, and both drug abuse and mental disorder leading to the destructive cycle.

Data collected                                                                                     

In 2014, a survey conducted by US Conference of Mayors highlights the fact that mental illness and drug addiction is the key reason for homelessness, treatment for both mental illness and drug addiction causing homelessness issue in 43 participating cities (Egan et al., 2016). Also, drug addiction is a key reason for housing instability. 6% of American Adult which is about 16 million people suffer from substance abuse (Pokrajac et al., 2016).

  • More than 100 people died every day due to drug abuse
  • Estimated 700k people in 2017 have a drug addiction 
  • More than 5 million people age 18-25 battle substance abuse
  • Men are more likely to suffer from drug abuse than women 
  • In last decade home foreclosure is increased by 28%
  • Lack of employment causing homelessness and mental health issue
  • More than 26% percent of homeless people suffer from the mental health issue 

Time and expected findings from the research

The US Department of Housing and urban development reported in 2015 that about 25% of homeless people are mentally ill, though the connection between mental illness and homeless is complicated as it surrounded by different factors, however there is strong link between the two (Egan et al., 2016. Homelessness can be traumatic event causing mental illness or vice versa, time to time survey conducted by different research centre has shown that homeless people suffering from both mental illness and drug addiction.  Though government time to time with collaboration with local hospital, NGO and other private organization try to reach out people who may be suffering from drug addiction, campaign run by government to educate people about relation between mental health issues and drug addiction, and providing the treatment to help people to avoid drug abuse.

 

Nursing Intervention

Drug addiction is a serious social problem for all, and in the United States the treatment is given considering different behavioral and Pharmacological approaches,   however, homeless people are the one who suffers more casualties due to poor economic condition and it also takes a toll on their mental health issue, despite the advancement of science there is no effective and short-sure psychological and physiological to control the use of drug abuse addiction, to control substance abuse stabilization, rehabilitation, detoxification are effective to continue care (Dell & Acoose, 2015). Therapeutic skills used by the care provider, as education does not correct drug dependence, lack of knowledge is a problem but not an only factor, thus, the best nursing intervention to treat drugs is by combining outpatient therapy, monitoring the medication. Nicotine and opiate are promising medications to treat drug addiction.  Therapeutic skills will help in managing the mental health issue and identify the factors that causing the client to use drugs, an effective plan can be made to improve the illness. Like drug addiction, mental health issues affect family and society the treatment focus should be on the patient need and priority.  Working with social welfare organizations to support a person with an unstable home to find work, employment training, working with the family to improve personal relationships, prescribing medication, and monitoring is an effective way to treat the drug addiction. So basically, substance use disorder treatment that provides counseling, behavioral therapy, work, and medications is effective in helping the homeless person with mental illness and drug addiction.

Conclusion

When a person has both mental health issue and drug addiction issue it can take a toll on the health, drug abuse is a big problem in America as more than 50% of people suffer from both drug addiction and mental illness, millions of families is been suffering due to substance abuse which is a medical illness where the majority of people go untreated. Young people (more male than female) are mainly the ones who are suffering from drug addiction. There are different factors associated with drug addiction, both physical and environmental circumstances that affect the personal choice to use drugs. The key finding of government show a strong linked between the people who are homeless, and drug abuse, one can say these are interrelated problems taking troll on each other this co-occurring disorder can affect each other, Though government time to time with a collaboration with the local hospital, NGO and other private organization trying to reach out people who may be suffering from drug addiction, the campaign run by the government to educate people about the relationship between mental health issues and drug addiction, and providing the treatment to help people to avoid drug abuse. Therapeutic skills will help in managing the mental health issue and identify the factors that causing the client to use drugs, an effective plan can be made to improve the illness. Hence, The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration which provide counseling, work, and medication are effective in helping the homeless person with mental illness and drug addiction.

References

Dell, C., & Acoose, S. (2015). Indigenous culture as an intervention in addictions treatment. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 146, e261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.09.176

Egan, K., Gregory, E., Sparks, M., & Wolfson, M. (2016). From dispensed to dispose: evaluating the effectiveness of disposal programs through a comparison with prescription drug monitoring program data. The American Journal Of Drug And Alcohol Abuse, 43(1), 69-77. https://doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2016.1240801

Evans-Brown, M., & Sedefov, R. (2016). New psychoactive substances: driving greater complexity into the drug problem. Addiction, 112(1), 36-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13528

GA, N. (2018). How to Protect Young People from Social Drug Addiction. Psychology & Psychological Research International Journal, 3(6). https://doi.org/10.23880/pprij-16000177

García-Andrade, R. (2019). Multiple Drug Use Disorder in Homeless People with Severe Mental Illness. Open Access Journal Of Addiction And Psychology, 2(3). https://doi.org/10.33552/oajap.2019.02.000536

Horova, O. (2016). TO THE ISSUE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF YOUNG MEN WITH DRUG ADDICTION EXPERIENCE. Science and Education, 15(11), 80-84. https://doi.org/10.24195/2414-4665-2016-11-15

MA, W., & R, S. (2016). Impact of Drug Addiction on Mental Health. Journal of Mental Disorders And Treatment, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.4172/2471-271x.1000110

Pokrajac, T., Nolimal, D., & Leskovsek, E. (2016). Stigma, Drug Addiction and Treatment Utilisation: PWUD Perspective. Journal of Drug Abuse, 02(04). https://doi.org/10.21767/2471-853x.100037

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