Second part of 891 - Investigative Conclusion and Testimony
Pathology itself is the study of disease and injury, and forensic pathology is taking that study into a forensic context applying it to the dead. Important it is and important it will be because it determines how and why someone died, by doing an autopsy.The scope of forensic science mainly works upon the DNA and footprints. It helps to identify an unidentified person.
Provide a list of people you believe should be interviewed for this investigation and how they relate to the investigation. What information could they possibly supply?
Answer 1: the list of people that must be interviewed for the purpose of carrying out this investigation include the manager of the organization, the accused professional, the assistant of the accused professional, the team members involved in the team of accused professional and the team leader of the professional (Robertson, Vignaux& Berger, 2016). They relate to the investigation because the manager would have details on the days on which the accused professional had been present, the time and days that he had taken leave or off from his work. The team members would have detailed knowledge on the project that he was working in, and the members with whom he was close. The leader would have little knowledge on the performance of the accused professional. This would not only to provide the data on if the professional was good at his professional work or if he lacked some skills and competencies in order to perform the projectbut also on if the professional involved in any unethical practices while working in the workplace (Richmond, 2018). They would be helpful to the investigation because the data collected would provide detailed knowledge on the attitude of the professional in the workplace and whether he was dedicated to his work.
Provide a narrative description of the interview setting and the intended process, before, during, and following the interview (remember that depending on the type of interview, the setting may be different).
Answer 2: the interview has been carried out depending on the professional who would be interviewed. The manager would be interviewed alone in a room and no other professional would be allowed to intervene. The team members would be interviewed in a group. The accused professional will be interviewed in a room and no other professional will be allowed to intervene in the interview process (Muehlethaler, Leona & Lombardi, 2016). The timespan considered for the interviews is half an hour for individual interviews and one hour for the group interviews. The interview questions would be such that they provide detailed knowledge on professional and his daily activities not only within the workplace but also outside the workplace. After the interview is over none of the professionals would be allowed to disclose the questions that have been asked in the interview.
Explain to the management why these stages are important to a successful interview and investigation.
Answer 3: these stages are important in order to carry out a successful interview as well as investigation because the setting of the interview would help in creating a serious environment while the investigation is carried out. The environment of the interview room must be serious such that the professionals feel the importance and that of the interview. Some of the interviews are supposed to be carried out an individual because the data that are expected from these professionals would be very confidential for the organization as well as the professionals. Hence, it would be ensure that the other professionals for employees are not allowed to access to this data (Bell, Sah& Albright, 2018).Apart from this, the employees would be told to keep the interview process and the questions confidential such that the accused does not know regarding the data that had already been accessed by the investigators.
The laboratory has asked you to write a short summary of what information you want them to look for on the submitted thumb drive. Identify, for the lab, what digital or non-digital evidence you would like them to look for and explain why that evidence would be important to the case.
Answer 1: information that would be required for the investigation and must be looked for into the thumb drive into the transactions that have been carried out by Mr. Belcamp. The thumb drive is likely to provide data on the professionals with whom he had shared confidential letter regarding the organization. This would help the team in finding the crime that has been attempted by Mr. Belcamp and expected to get through it (Kukucka, Kassin & Zapf, 2017). The digital pieces of evidence that the lab should be looking for include the profiles of the professionals and their job designations in the organization. The no digital evidence that the lab is supposed to look for is the professional relationship of Mr. Belcamp with other professionals within the organization. The lab is also supposed to keep an eye on the communication that had been carried out between Ms. Evans and Mr. Belcamp. This data would be important for the case because it would help in finding out the unethical practices that have been carried out by the professionals within the organization.
Because you are the most familiar with the investigation, Ms. McPherson is asking you to brainstorm all the locations outside of Mr. Belcamp's immediate work space where pertinent digital evidence might be found to help with your case. Identify all of these locations, including places where police would have to be involved to search. Identify what places are legal for the company to search, and which ones would require police involvement. Support your inclusion of each location with a short description of what type of evidence might be found there.
Answer 2: the locations that could be investigated include restaurants where he must have carried out some informal business meetings, some hotels where he might have met some professionals unofficially in order to share data that would be unethical to share within the workplace. some other places that could be investigated include some irregular places where he does not generally visit (van Oorschot, Szkuta& Meakin, 2019). The places where police might be involved include hotels because the hotel staff would not be comfortable to provide their confidential data regarding the customers to anyone else except the police. The data that could be extracted from these external sources include the professionals to whom he shared data with, the intention due to which he performed the unethical practices.
Write a response to the following email that you have received
Answer 3: Importance: we are the people that actually get into the state cause of death and the death certificate and we also have the power to testify or findings in a court of law. In fact, criminals and civil laws get an application by police and legal matters (Bitzer, 2019). Mostly blood, urine, skin, hair, semen, and saliva are all proof in front of a judge as evidence for the culprit. Some forensic tools are vividly described with manufacturing and use details-
Mostly used in cutting.
Pro discover Forensic
It can recover the deleted file permanently and helps to make reports of old accidents.
After taking the thumb drive out of storage, you, as the digital forensics analyst, sit down to examine the data. (Presume all personal protective equipment discussed in the course readings is already in place.) Prior to looking through the data contained on the device, you have to make a forensic image. Document what step you take prior to making the image and why this step is important to your overall case. Explain your actions and reasoning thoroughly.
Answer 4: Digital Forensic Analyst: Although it is privacy and comes under the investigation department but still the police and researchers have to follow certain rules and they are bound to investigate within certain limits (Morgan, 2017). As digital equipment is used to deliver the reports and approximation does not work in forensic but the exact results are analyzed by forensic reports. TO develop the image there are multiple steps. The steps are-
Five tools needed
FTK imager, Belkasoft acquisition tool, Encase imager, Forensic imager.
FTK imager can create the image by capturing capricious memory analysis.
Belkasoft Acquisition used to create images from hard drives.
Encase the imager tool used to capture the image.
Using these features we can draw the image online and it is used for the fields which are under special treatment. It covers a large area of artistry. It makes it easy for the investigation team to work upon the case. The 3-D is the most difficult type of drawing but this is treated in special cases. Later this is considered as official police evidence (Robertson, Roux & Wiggins, 2017). To completely depend on software sometimes misguide the report. It is better to hire experts and they can work from surveillance footage as well.
You, as the digital forensics examiner, used hash values to help locate the source code on the thumb drive. Using verbiage that would be appropriate to communicate to a judge and jury that may not understand computer technology at all, detail and explain the following:
Answer 5: What is a hash value, and how did you use it to identify the source code was present?
Hash value could be used to trace the data for files. The data on a file is encrypted through a process, using the hash value when produced that locates information of the file. If information goes through changes, the hash value transforms consequently. Two algorithms are currently widely used to produce hash values.
The hash value represents the data of the file. When the encryption process of hash value has a source code of the information during that time source code is used to track the data in the pen drive. The hash value can also use to represent data belong to different types (Dror, 2018). Data types of characters, string and integers can be represented by hash values, hash values can be used to locate and identify the location of the information and its storage space as well.
• Explain an additional use of hash values in the context of digital forensics.
The hash value is also used to hold value for variables. The hash value is used to store in data in a program. Hash values are used by high-level languages to store their data during the processing of a program. Hash value helps to temporarily represent wide types of data. This feature is widely useful for the process of programming.
Do you recommend reporting the crime to law enforcement? Why or why not? Are private companies required to report crimes to law enforcement?
Answer 6: initially investigation of the crime would be carried out within the organization and the lab would try to extract data that would be helpful in resolving the issue. incase sufficient data is not extracted or the lab feels that various external sources are involved in the crime, the law enforcement in the investigation of the crime. The law enforcement could be involved because they would be able to find data that could not be found by internal sources of the organization. Private organizations might require to report various crimes to law enforcement when they feel that the crime involves the unauthorized access of confidential data relevant to the organization. Law enforcement involves police force in order to resolve crime and identify the criminal.
Explain what additional steps you could take to prove that the source code had been sent to his personal email address.
Answer 7: Hash value can be used to trace the location tread. This location tread is stored in the memory spaces. The hash value can be used to trace the location of the data. The source code that is sent to the email address always has the digital thread stored in the memory (Metcalf, Xu & Bouslimani, 2017). Not the source code can be traced with the help of the website cookies as well. The website cookies can help to store the information about the history of the source code as well.
8. What is the significance of you being qualified as an expert witness? How is it different from being a simple fact witness? Explain thoroughly.
Answer 8: The importance of me being a witness is that I have myself mainly developed a piece of evidence that it can be used to file for the culprit's actions. As a witness, I have the full right to condemn the culprit's action to cause damage to the victim. As a forensic examiner my expertise to understand the nuisances of the pieces of evidence and remember the details that matter to prove the law that crime is to be tested for trial (Kumar & Sharma, 2018). The evidence and my knowledge will be helpful to prove in the court of the law about the criminal's crime of theft.
The forensic knowledge and expertise in his field will also help the court to clarify terms and details that the court may not have the knowledge to understand the detailing.
"How do we know you are not biased in this case, choosing to report only what would help law enforcement and your company's bottom line? How can we know from your work that your analysis should be accepted by the court?"
Answer 9: I have been dealingwith this analysis and participating in it not only to find out the criminal and ensure that he receives the maximum punishment for the crime that had been performed, but I would also ensure that the criminal is not accepted in any other organization such that he does not get a second chance to commit such crime. If I had been worried about the bottom line of my organization and if I would have been biased, I would never agree with involving police force in this investigation. Apart from this I ensure that my investigation is in right track and due to which I have agreed to involve law enforcement in it.
From the above discussion, it could be concluded that hash value plays an important role in the process of encryption. Data encryption is very important for the privacy of users. This hash value plays a strong role when it comes to performing the role of encryption or decryption. Hash values are useful to perform symmetric as well as asymmetric algorithms as well.
Bell, S., Sah, S., Albright, T. D., Gates, S. J., Denton, M. B., & Casadevall, A. (2018). A call for more science in forensic science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(18), 4541-4544.
Bitzer, S. (2019). The use and usefulness of forensic science in the investigation. In Homicide Investigation and Forensic Sciences Conference.
Dror, I. E. (2018). Biases in forensic experts.
Kukucka, J., Kassin, S. M., Zapf, P. A., & Dror, I. E. (2017). Cognitive bias and blindness: a global survey of forensic science examiners. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 6(4), 452-459.
Kumar, R., & Sharma, V. (2018). Chemometrics in forensic science. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 105, 191-201.
Metcalf, J. L., Xu, Z. Z., Bouslimani, A., Dorrestein, P., Carter, D. O., & Knight, R. (2017). Microbiome tools for forensic science. Trends in biotechnology, 35(9), 814-823.
Morgan, R. M. (2017). Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part I: a conceptual model. Science & Justice, 57(6), 455-459.
Muehlethaler, C., Leona, M., & Lombardi, J. R. (2016). Review of surface enhanced Raman scattering applications in forensic science. Analytical chemistry, 88(1), 152-169.
Richmond, K. (2018, September). Interdisciplinary Research in Law and Forensic Science: From'silos' to systems. In 17th Annual STS Conference Graz 2018: Critical Issues in Science, Technology and Society Studies (pp. 166-175).
Robertson, B., Vignaux, G. A., & Berger, C. E. (2016). Interpreting evidence: evaluating forensic science in the courtroom. John Wiley & Sons.
Robertson, J., Roux, C., & Wiggins, K. G. (2017). Forensic examination of fibres. CRC press.
van Oorschot, R. A., Szkuta, B., Meakin, G. E., Kokshoorn, B., & Goray, M. (2019). DNA transfer in forensic science: a review. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 38, 140-166.