The health of the muscular and skeletal system

Comparative physiology of Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac Muscle Fibres

Source : Dolan et al., 2019

Extension and flexion of the elbow or knee joint by antagonistic muscle 

Muscles can pull but can not push and hence this is a problem regarding a joint controlled only by one kind of muscle. Anganostist muscles help to push back in its actual position . biceps for the front side of the upper arm and triceps for the back of the upper arm move the forearm by acting together(Warner et al., 2017). To raise the forearm, biceps muscle contracts and simultaneously triceps muscles relax. For lowering the arm the opposite happens. Similar incidents occur in the case for knee joints regarding quadriceps and hamstrings muscles work in this way.

Figure 1: Antagonistic muscle

Source: (Warner et al., 2017).



Poor posture effects

Poor posture causes severe back, neck, shoulder pain due to tension in the respective muscles. circulation of body fluid, lung function, digestion are also affected. Constricted nerves, misaligned spine formation, the curvature of the spine are also results for his condition.


Rickets is a skeletal disorder and the cause of the disease is lack of vitamin D or calcium or phosphate in the diet for children. They are very important for healthy bone formation. In the case of patients the bone feels weak and soft as well as growth stops. In severe cases, the skeletal deformities are also found. Vitamin D is essential to absorb the minerals for bone structure(Pettifor et al., 2018). Sunlight is an essential source for Vitamin D synthesis in the body so dark skin people are more susceptible to this disease.

Figure2: Rickets

Source: (Pettifor et al., 2018).




Dolan, E., Saunders, B., Harris, R.C., Bicudo, J.E.P.W., Bishop, D.J., Sale, C. and Gualano, B., 2019. Comparative physiology investigations support a role for histidine-containing dipeptides in intracellular acid–base regulation of skeletal muscle. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology.

Warner, H., Richter, H. and van den Bogert, A., 2017. Nonlinear tracking control of an antagonistic muscle pair actuated system. In ASME 2017 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection.

Pettifor, J.M., Thandrayen, K. and Thacher, T.D., 2018. Vitamin D deficiency and nutritional rickets in children. In Vitamin D (pp. 179-201). Academic Press.

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