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Theory Comparison, Assignment Sample

Introduction and definition

Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs theory is a development and motivational composing psychological requirements of humans illustrated in a five-staged pyramid. The chain of the hierarchy of needs for humans is galvanized or motivated in several ways with the help of this theory. Erikson’s psychosocial theory was established to develop the personality of every human being from infant to old age via adolescence. He made eight phases or stages through which humans can develop their personalities. Each phase helps to improve each psychological part of humans which in turn improves and develops their personality. Each phrase has its catastrophe which can be positive or negative, but it depends on that particular individual whether to choose the positive or the negative side.

MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY

From top to bottom the human needs are as follows:

Self-actualization needs: Self-actualization need helps people to fulfill the goals that they seek by improving their potential to be what anyone else can be. It helps humans to grow their experience in every work and to attain every single skill that everyone has the most in them. This stage also helps humans to know what they can do to improve their personality (eajournals.org, 2020). 

Self-esteem needs: Self-esteem needs helps to build confidence and cherish the level of appreciation on every task or work that the humans (employees, other members of the organization) complete. Maslow researched and concluded that self-esteem is much more prioritized than love and belongingness. It also helps humans to build their eminence and respect that is provided to them by other people, for example, dignity, position, power, trust, confidence, etc.

Belongingness and love need: The level of belongingness and love is needed by every human because it generates the relationship status between humans which in turn helps to improvise their behavior with each other. Belongingness improves the behavior among the people and they become more devoted towards their work. Love develops the level of trust, responsibility, relationships, affection, and friendliness.

Security and safety need: Security needs are provided to families and humans pursuing jobs. Every employee must feel safe while performing their jobs and they must have the proper security that will be provided by the organization (simplypsychology.org, 2020). This way the employees will not be panicked about losing their job and will be more concerned and ardent towards their job and their organizations. Security and safety need consist of employment security, financial security (accurate wage and salary payment), health and emotional security, etc.

Psychological needs: Psychological needs helps humans to sustain in their life and develop dignity between them. Psychological needs help them to fulfill some of their fundamental needs like shield, protection, food, proper health, air, and water. These basic needs are fulfilled and motivated by the psychological needs of humans.

Diagrammatically, the five stages of Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs are displayed below,        

           

ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY

STAGE 1: Trust versus mistrust – Hope (Age- 0 to 1.5 years)

STAGE 2: Sovereignty versus Disgrace – Will power (Age- 1.5 to 3 years)

STAGE 3: Leadership versus Stigma – Purpose (Age- 3 to 5 years)

STAGE 4: Industry versus Inadequacy – Proficiency & skill (Age- 5 to 12 years)

STAGE 5: Existence versus Role-dilemma- Devotion and loyalty (Age- 12 to 18 years)

STAGE 6: Affection versus Solitude – Love and friendship (Age- 18 to 40 years)

STAGE 7: Generative versus Deterioration – Care and love (Age- 40 to 65 years)

STAGE 8: Ego uprightness versus Misery or pain – Knowledge and wisdom (Age- 65+)

In this paper, only one stage is going to be explained and that is Stage 5 (Existence versus role-dilemma). This stage plays a very crucial role in the lives of teenagers because it helps the children to become mature. At this stage, children start to impart into adulthood in other words adolescence is the baby step to adulthood. At this moment of life, children want to become less dependent on their parents and make independent decisions for their future- career, love, friendship, friendship, etc. Moreover, at this stage parents must be more serious about their ward and must look after the decisions that are made by their ward and must help and listen to their ward like a friend. At STAGE 5, the children start to take responsibility and come up with future ideas about their career and adulthood. The basic morality of this stage is devotion and loyalty. If this stage brings out positivity in the children then they will be devoted to their motives and their works and also will be loyal to their family, friends, and career (Hughes, Lusk & Strause, 2016). But if personality development turns out their negativity then they will be in a dilemma and confused about their role. They won't understand their existence and will not be able to choose the right path for their future. Identity dilemma is a very drastic situation for children especially at this age (12 to 18 years). Depending on the level of maturity that will be built at this particular age will help them accordingly to build up their personality and their career. For psychosocial development, the children must devote their time to the hard work that is needed to build their career and personality. The negative identity will always bring irrespective pain and loss of loyalty and devotion towards their career, family, friendship, love, and identity. At this stage, two types of changes take place- physical or sexual change and occupational or psychological change. As per Erikson, adolescence (puberty) comes up with physical changes that every child has to accept and adapt. At this time the role dilemma must not take place in anyone's mind and if this happens the children might lose their hope in society and about their existence in society (Çelik & Ergün, 2016).

Conclusion and comparison analysis

Keeping in mind the prospects of Maslow and Erikson, it is evident that the prior stage of fulfilling the needs of human beings is the gathering of the proper knowledge about trust, personality, and adolescence. The management of the work and the better fulfillment of demands in organization and society can only be followed in Maslow if there is better evaluation of Erikson’s method of understanding the importance of age, trust, and work personality. the existence and dilemma must be mitigated in a positive sense to have a better opportunity of fulfilling demands. responsibility paves the path for getting needs fulfilled. Therefore, Maslow and Erikson’s theory are relatable to each other.

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