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Laboratory Synthesis : Introduction to a Scientific Paper

Lab 5  Worksheet

Name: ………………………………………………………………Group……………………

1. In the space below, describe your qualitative observations on the features of the three reflexes (Part I). Use correct terms such as flexion or extension when describing movements and write your description as if it was part of the results section of a scientific paper.     (3 marks)

Three reflexes are there, such as patellar, tricep-surae and finger flexor reflex [1]. The patellar reflex is also known as knee-jerk. The person would seat comfortably, and his/ her lower limbs should be flexed for almost 90o  firmly. It would stroke the patellar tendon below the part of the knee. The limb's movement should be observed. However, it should be ensured that the tendon should be hit, not the bone.  Other than that, the tricep-surae reflex indicates the stand on a single leg. On the other hand, another leg would be bent on the short stool. The Achilles tendon would be stroke, and the foot movement should be observed. Besides that, the finger flexor reflex is a bit harder as to produce as detect. Due to this reflex, the person should extend a relaxed hand above. On the other way, the examiner would rest their fingers by following proper manner. Now, a strike should be given to the downward of examiner’s fingers. This sudden extension may would produce the reflex flexion which would be felt by the examiner.

 

 

2. Pro ........

rong>1. In the space below, describe your qualitative observations on the features of the three reflexes (Part I). Use correct terms such as flexion or extension when describing movements and write your description as if it was part of the results section of a scientific paper.     (3 marks)

Three reflexes are there, such as patellar, tricep-surae and finger flexor reflex [1]. The patellar reflex is also known as knee-jerk. The person would seat comfortably, and his/ her lower limbs should be flexed for almost 90o  firmly. It would stroke the patellar tendon below the part of the knee. The limb's movement should be observed. However, it should be ensured that the tendon should be hit, not the bone.  Other than that, the tricep-surae reflex indicates the stand on a single leg. On the other hand, another leg would be bent on the short stool. The Achilles tendon would be stroke, and the foot movement should be observed. Besides that, the finger flexor reflex is a bit harder as to produce as detect. Due to this reflex, the person should extend a relaxed hand above. On the other way, the examiner would rest their fingers by following proper manner. Now, a strike should be given to the downward of examiner’s fingers. This sudden extension may would produce the reflex flexion which would be felt by the examiner.

 

 

2. Provide your estimate of the latency (time delay) between tendon tap and muscle response and calculate the conduction velocity of the nerves assuming synaptic transmission time is zero.                                                                                                              (2 marks)

Conduction Velocity= length of the nerve in m/the time (sec) taken to complete the reflex arc

                                    = 0.735/0 m

= 0.735 m

3. Describe the reflex arc you have measured as if you were writing part of the introduction to a scientific paper. Include references to all statements of fact you make and cite the references in the relevant sections of the text as for a scientific paper. Remember to cover the cellular events, not just the gross anatomical level, that means describing how the receptor detects stretch, and what the neurotransmitters are at the spinal synapse and the junction onto skeletal muscle.                                                                                                                                 (5 marks)

The reflex or the reflex action should be considered as almost the instantaneous and involuntary movements in the response of stimulus. The reflex is possibly made by the neural pathways which are known as the reflex arcs  [2]. It can react on the impulse before which an impulse could be reached to the brain. Therefore, the reflex should consider as the automatic response to the stimulus. No need of construction thought is there [3].  Human reflexes include Biceps reflex,  brachioradialis reflex extensor digitorum reflex, triceps reflex, patellar reflex or knee-jerk reflex and ankle jerk reflex [4].

The stretch receptors are being considered as the mechanoreceptors responsive for the distention of several muscles and organs. It has a link up with the medulla from the neurological perspective. It is connected to the brain stem through the afferent nerve fibres. Several examples are there in support of this fact. First of all, the stretch receptors in the muscles of legs and arms and in tendons should be mentioned. Even, the heart, colon wall and lung also can be affected [5].

 

4.         Provide, attached to this worksheet, a graphical summary of the average class results for the two-point discrimination measurements. Present the data as a bar graph and show error bars (comprising the standard errors of the mean). (3 marks)

The two-point discrimination measurements are capable doe discerning that the nearby objects those may touch the skins should have two separate points. It helps in determining the efficiency of an innervated area in skin [6]. Its result helps to assess the tactical perception. During the neurological examination, two sharp points have been used for a better test of this factor. The learner has used MS Excel for this calculation.

 

AVERAGE threshold for 2 point discrimination (mm)

Initials

Finger (mm)

Palm (mm)

Back of Neck (mm)

JAM

3

9

32

reyjayangbro

3

6.75

52.25

crt

3

9.5

26

BWCK

3

10

24

EMSGPM

3

7

22

CA

1.5

9.5

17

IJARJS1

4

16

31

IJARJS2

2

9

27

IJARJS3

3

16

21

TCR

3.5

11

55

TCS

1.75

6.5

17.5

DSE

4

10

25

RN

1

11

36

NR

1

5

40

Elalns

3

9

17.5

ABITJ

2

15

30

LCP

5

9

33

DHXCC

2.3

11

10.5

YVJ

3

10

42

ABCDEF

4.5

12

30.5

EKMKD

2.4

11

28

 

Calculation for Average threshold:

Finger

Mean

2.807142857

Median

3

Mode

3

Standard Deviation

1.057861725

 

Palm:

Mean

10.1547619

Median

10

Mode

9

Standard Deviation

2.879318702

 

Neck:

Mean

29.39285714

Median

28

Mode

17.5

Standard Deviation

11.18776436

 

5.         Provide statistical evidence that the mean two point discrimination is different between the fingers and palm and between the palm and the neck.  (3 marks)

It has been already discussed that two-point discrimination would be considered as the function of the slow adaptive peripherals mechanoreceptors. Other than that, innervation density should also be measured through this process [7]. It may point the sharp object which would be intended for stimulating the pain fibres. The process of touch would not be used in this regard. Localization would be the most proper on the palmar surface of the of fingers. Especially it may include the index as well as thumb fingers. From the aspect of fingers, discrimination would be developed there. It would make these two points separate from each other. in less than 5mm [8].

 

6.         Attach to this worksheet clearly labelled pictorial displays of your data showing the distribution of warm and cold spots in one subject. Include a scale.         (4 mark)

Image result for warm and cold spots  in two-point discrimination

The distal and proximal limit of the hot and cold spot is between 1.2 cm to 1.7 cm

 

References

1. Morsella E, Godwin CA, Jantz TK, Krieger SC, Gazzaley A. Homing in on consciousness in the nervous system: An action-based synthesis.

2. Anokhin PK. Biology and Neurophysiology of the Conditioned Reflex and Its Role in Adaptive Behavior: International Series of Monographs in Cerebrovisceral and Behavioral Physiology and Conditioned Reflexes. Elsevier; 2016 Jun 6.

3. Lewis JJ. Rauwolfia derivatives. Physiological Pharmacology. 2017 Jan 31;1:479-536.

4. Chappell M, Payne S. The Central Nervous System. InPhysiology for Engineers 2016 (pp. 129-139). Springer International Publishing.

5. Stein EJ, Glick DB. 6 AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. Basics of Anesthesia E-Book. 2017 Jun 28:70.

6. Ludwig K, Ross E, Langhals N, Weber D, Luis Lujan J, Georgakopoulos D. The Autonomic Nervous System. InNEUROPROSTHETICS: Theory and Practice 2017 (pp. 12-39).

7. Cashin AG, McAuley JH. Measuring two-point discrimination threshold with a caliper. Journal of physiotherapy. 2017 Jul 1;63(3):186.

8. Ehrenbrusthoff K, Ryan CG, Grüneberg C, Wolf U, Krenz D, Atkinson G, Martin DJ. The intra-and inter-observer reliability of a novel protocol for two-point discrimination in individuals with chronic low back pain. Physiological measurement. 2016 Jun 20;37(7):1074.