HLSC4120 Research Methodology and Design


Patient experience is one of the important concepts that have been defined for gaining attention as key aspects of quality healthcare. With this consideration, the present study based on the critical appraisal with the review experience of individuals from different nations (Bhatti, ud Din, and Ahmad, 2019).


1.1 Purpose of the study and research question

The purpose of the present study is to explore the medication-related burden and experience of patients with medicines without medical conditions or therapies. In the study, purpose also developed in which the concept of theory demonstrates with planned behavior. It includes medication-taking practices as outcomes for target behavior. In this further, identified themes showed that systematically demonstrate inter-relationship. Therefore, the following research questions must be answered:

  • What is a medication related burden in quality healthcare?
  • Explore each day to day life with their health and well-being?
  • How PLEM can be transferred to a different range of medications?
  • What are the relationships between MRB and PLEM with recommendations for enhancing successful therapeutic decisions?

1.2 Describe the justification of the need for this study

To conduct the present study, the main aim is to assess clinical implications for practitioners which helps to increase the adherence care plan and success of therapy. It helps in achieving patient's medication-related requirements which need to improve therapy and health outcomes. In this consideration, the descriptive research method in qualitative strategy has been selected (Maloney, Marshall and Johnson, 2019). It helps to describe a particular situation in large aspects in which the behavior of an individual, community, group, or particular thing considered without an affected. To describe the best part of this strategy, it can be stated that the subject is being observed in the unchanged and completely natural environment. With the help of the survey method, these aspects can be taken. 


2.1 What was the study design?

In the present study, the design must be taken that is a systematic review and qualitative methodology of meta-synthesis. In this kind of study, the synthesis will be undertaken with comparative thematic analysis. Therefore, as per different themes, research questions will be addressed. Based on this methodology, it can be stated that research focuses on obtaining data using open-ended questions that are related to medication decisions. In terms of popular and categorization qualitative methods, it can be stated that there is a perfect sample size also taken that helps to identify a particular topic.

2.2 Was the design appropriate for the study question?

The present study generally considered with reasonable quality. Therefore, data analysis and data collection methods are appropriate that helps to address the aim of a qualitative study. In this consideration, it can be stated that data are also extracted with a year of publication, country, settings and design, sample size and techniques, etc. As a result, this is the most appropriate design for the study question. Qualitative research also focuses on words instead of numbers. It is the method that exploratory and seeks to look for different people's opinions, thoughts, and feelings. It is the most common method that is used to develop new concepts, products, and theories (Gavan, Bruce, and Payne, 2018).

2.3 Are the methods congruent with philosophical

In the present study, methods that are taken generally congruent are generally philosophical. Therefore, it is more suitable for a finding of research questions in a systematic manner. This qualitative method maintains harmony in the research findings that helps to understand the topic specifically. Furthermore, it also helps to maintain consistent with existing policies in identical and coinciding considerations (Maloney, Marshall and Johnson, 2019). Qualitative research study considers the social constructivism perspective that assists to solve research issues and problems on prior research experience. In this aspect, the sample size can be small so that data collection includes interviews, observation, and content.


3.1 Describe the research strategy

Each research study considers its unique way so that it consists of different procedure and approach that helps to find a conclusion. Every time a new strategy is applied based on the accomplishment of outcomes. The main aim of the research is to build goals and adopt a new way where research objectives can be answered. In the present study, a qualitative research strategy followed which includes calculation or number that can be analyzed. In this way, it is important to understand underlying opinions and reasons to achieve a deeper knowledge of the particular issue and problem (Bhatti, ud Din, and Ahmad, 2019). It helps to provide insight into every research problem and assists to accomplish objectives by implementing different research methods such as interviews, observation, surveys, etc.

3.2 Were the sources and resources used to conduct the research adequate?

In respect to conduct the present research, it can be stated that there are several kinds of sources and resources used to conduct research adequately. With this consideration, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical abstract, etc. using as lived experience terms. These resources are adequate to conduct an appropriate research study. All these data are kind of research adequate that assists to solve different issues and generate positive outcomes as well. Hence, the above different sources and resources are helpful concerning conduct a research study systematically.

3.3 Do the researchers provide adequate information about data inclusion criteria?

In respect to considering the present study, it can be stated that the title retrieved and abstract generally selected in the studies were screened. Therefore, it includes relevant information on MRB and PLEM that were considered full-text analysis. In addition to this, the present study more focused on the patient’s perspective of medicines with information needs. This study core focuses on this aspect of the research requirements. On the other hand, with selected aspects information provided with reinforced negative emotions towards medicines (Gavan, Bruce, and Payne, 2018). However, inadequate and contradicting information about medicines persistently high lighted which is commonly encountered on medicine information burden. In addition to this, other barriers influenced each person's beliefs regarding medicines and other health care services. Due to inadequate or conflicting information regarding medicines acted as a barrier to the proper use of medicine.


4.1 How was the critical appraisal of studies concluded?

In the present study, research data validity determined in different ways. In this aspect, 1st is a critical analysis by independent authors, 2nd is citing supporting evidence, and 3rd and final is a comparison of finding with others. Furthermore, it also assessed that the comprehensiveness of reporting includes articles based on conceptual input. Therefore, the researcher assessed that the comprehensiveness of reporting includes an article with a critical appraisal skills program (Bhatti, ud Din, and Ahmad, 2019).

4.2 What were the criteria for appraising the studies and were this appropriate?

To demonstrate the criteria for appraising the studies, it can be stated that there are a total of 4047 studies were identified. After reviewing full-text versions of includes 122 studies, it can be stated that it met eligibility criteria which include in the review. Furthermore, the relevance of the studies also revealed 26 articles as key papers and the remaining eight articles as satisfactory in terms of relevant content (Hong Fàbregues and Rousseau, 2018). These criteria are effective that is appropriate for accomplish data.

4.3 How was the independence of reviewers handled?

In the present study, primary data collected from different geographic locations in which independent of the reviewer’s number handled. Furthermore, in this study firstly selected and screened by one author, and then it is independently reviewed by RJM, TFC then approved three authors. In this way, the independence of reviewers will be handled (Hong and Pluye, 2019).

4.4 Were the methods described to minimize errors in data extraction?

To minimize bias, all the data extraction was first carried then it is independently checked. It checked by TFC and RJM after this approved by three authors. Furthermore, data extracted included the year of publication, study population, country, design, etc. (Maloney, Marshall, and Johnson, 2019). Studies were first selected and screened by only one author (MAM). After this, it is independently reviewed by RJM and TFC.

4.5 Was the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?

In the study, review incorporates PLEM in a broad range of medical conditions. It is generally used for systematic searches of multiple databases and rigorous analysis techniques (Schneider, Whitehead, and Faan 2016). In this regard, the following method of meta-ethnography and CTA approach generally used which demonstrates that data analysis sufficiently rigorously. Sensitivity analysis of the initial search approach and different use of strategies reflect the strength and comprehensiveness of our search strategy (Gavan, Bruce, and Payne, 2018). Based on eligible qualitative studies, it can be stated that PLEM was combined to accomplish a large volume of data across different medical conditions.


5.1 What were the main findings?

To determine findings in the present study can be defined as the clinical implications for practitioners to consider appropriate therapeutic decisions in PLEMs. Therefore, individualized care can maximize adherence to the care plan's success in therapy. Along with this, three interrelated major themes and 13 sub-themes explained in PLEM emerged. In the study transparency and trustworthiness of the findings detailed analysis among authors about the interpretation of the findings. From this, it has been an analysis that there are new insights create that helps to generate overarching themes and conceptual models of PLEM. Although, findings also consider as limited experience among each individual involved in studies (Kaplan, Chambers and Glasgow, 2018). The conceptual model of PLEM is also transferable across a different range of medications and conditions.

5.2 Were the findings consistent?

Yes, findings consistent in the present study. This is because; its impact was consistently raised to emotional distress that is related to the present and experience of any event. Along with this, apprehension of upcoming future occurrences, the impact of perception also needs to maintain a meaningful life (Johansen and Thomsen, 2016). To diminish the negative impact on an individual’s quality of life, it can be stated that findings consistent that are important for the present study outcomes. 

5.3 How were concepts under the study clarified & refined and relationships made clear?

From the present study, it can refer that social influences on medicines use and impact of medicine use on an individual social life. It includes family, friends, and the public who made clear relationships as medication associated with the social burden. On the contrary, it can be stated that the influence of social connection, family and public views influence which clarified & refined relationship that made clear. However, the lack of public understandings had a detrimental impact on the beliefs of patients towards medicines (Downes, Brennan, and Dean, 2016). The concept of self-confidence affecting the activities of the social life of patients.

Furthermore, it can be stated that after looking at the relationship between categories of each theme and grouped them, building a broader coding frame of comprehensive analytical themes. Identified themes and sub-themes selected at first and second-order which construct to shown on online supplementary (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber, 2017).

5.4 Describe recommendations for policy and practice

From the study, it has been assessed that medicine represents a common form of therapy within the management of different medical conditions, the experience of patients who have limited consideration in practice. Furthermore, advanced practice sites organizational offices and research centers also need to improve to provide proper medication to each patient. However, the exchange of brands for the generic medicines caused feelings of insecurity that increases the confusion of the indication (Shea, Reeves and Henry, 2017). Therefore, in this risk of mixing up medicines and leading poor medication-taking practices in the present research study.


From the present study, it can be concluded that it focuses on the shared commonality of PLEM in the study. Therefore, MRB plays a very important role that helps to influence patients well being, healthy outcomes, etc. In terms of complexity, MRB considers its impact evident from this view. However, every practitioner needs to understand insight care plans in PLEM. With the help of their understanding of this provide effective care to each individual. In this consideration, medication-related needs must be provided to each member that helps to develop positive outcomes at the workplace. Furthermore, it is also needed to improve therapy to accomplish positive results with medication.



Books and Journals

Bhatti, M. M., ud Din, I. and Ahmad, R. N., 2019. Assessment of research methodology concepts through critical appraisal among undergraduate medical students and their perception: A single center study. Journal of Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University. 2(1). pp.39-44.

Downes, M. J., Brennan, M. L. and Dean, R. S., 2016. Development of a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS). BMJ open. 6(12). p.e011458.

Gavan, S. P., Bruce, I. N., and Payne, K., 2018. Fri0608 a systematic review and critical appraisal of economic evaluations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Hong, Q. N. and Pluye, P., 2019. A conceptual framework for critical appraisal in systematic mixed studies reviews. Journal of Mixed Methods Research. 13(4). pp.446-460.

Hong, Q. N., Fàbregues, S. and Rousseau, M. C., 2018. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) version 2018 for information professionals and researchers. Education for Information. 34(4). pp.285-291.

Johansen, M. and Thomsen, S. F., 2016. Guidelines for reporting medical research: a critical appraisal. International scholarly research notices2016.

Kaplan, R. M., Chambers, D. A. and Glasgow, R. E., 2018. Behavioral medicine and the benefits of healthcare: a critical appraisal and the need for exnovation. In Principles and Concepts of Behavioral Medicine (pp. 1069-1086). Springer, New York, NY.

LoBiondo-Wood, G. and Haber, J., 2017. Nursing research-E-book: methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Maloney, L. M., Marshall, R. T. and Johnson, S. E., 2019. Using a journal club series to introduce paramedic students to research fundamentals and critical appraisal of medical literature. Prehospital and disaster medicine. 34(4). pp.449-453.

Schneider, Z., Whitehead, D. and Faan, P. R., 2016. Nursing and midwifery research: Methods and appraisal for evidence based practice. Elsevier.

Shea, B. J., Reeves, B. C. and Henry, D. A., 2017. AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. Bmj. 358. p.j4008.



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