Literature Review on incorporation of digital education


Digital education can be determined as one of the personalized methods of learning. It has been found that in comparison with the traditional method, this method of learning is more general by its characteristics. Digital education encompasses the usage of different modern technological instruments like the computer, Smartphone and laptops. Presently, digital education has been classified as one of the highly flexible processes of learning because this prevents the geographical plus physical barriers of learning. The current generation is witnessing an exceptional change in the education system and the prime reason behind it is the massive development of technologies. The applications of various new technologies are becoming very useful for Vocational Educational and Training. To increase the knowledge of students, updated technologies play a crucial role. In this context, this can be revealed that the major aim of the Vocational Educational and Training is to develop the students for obtaining significant expertise in a specific field. In order to train the student specifically for the job, vocational education and training play a major role and it is very much beneficial as well for improving the skills of the students. Presently, this has been found that competition is very much high among the students, who are seeking for their jobs. In this regard, digital education becomes very useful for the VET to improve the students' capability.

Research problem

In the case of digital education, this has been acknowledged that digital education can be revealed as the way, which offers the students massive opportunities for learning. In this case, it has been said that vocational education and training is not the same as the standard training of the classroom. Digitalization of education is one of the most beneficial aspects for the students and this helps in a wide range.

Research Questions

Few questions are there, which are raised during the completion of the research.

  1. What are the applications of Blended learning in the field of VET teaching? 
  2. What are the core themes in Digital Skills and Competencies? 
  3. What is the importance of Summer Training Programs (STP)?

Literature Review

The implication of Blended learning in the field of VET teaching

Through the explanation that has been delivered by Machumu et al. (2016), the active involvement of blended learning propagates the diversity on the part of VET teaching. Blended learning comes up in an intention that constructs the mixture of teaching techniques based on the concept of advance learning. The enrolling of the blended learning can be projected through the support of face to face and online procedures that deals with the presence of better approaches of the learning technique. The range of learning can be specified by the implication of the model that convey regarding the specification based on the subject of blended learning. The presence of blended learning can be presented through the guidance of face to face projection in the form of lectures, seminars and study workshops. On the other hand, the projection of blended learning can be presented through the support of E-learning technique in the form of activities that takes place in the classroom.  Therefore, this can be stated that the implication of blended theory will be helpful in terms of projecting positive enhancement on the part of VET programming. The role of blended learning plays a crucial role towards the projection of further enhancement that delves with the development of the perceptions created by the programs backed by the power of VET (Machumu et al., 2016).    

Figure 1: Model of Blended Learning

(Source: Machumu et al., 2016)

Core themes in Digital Skills and Competencies

Sz?cs (2019) has conveyed about the projection of the significance of digital skills that help to create further development on the part of competencies. Thus, it can be suggested that the presence of core themes help to elevate through the projection of technological varsity.  The implication of pedagogies helps to create a sustainable level in the arena based on the projection of collaborative learning methods. This helps to create developing features backed by the power of learning prospects that enrol the participation of potential analytics. 

The themes can be presented through the support of digital education that reveals the specification based on the practices and policies that belong to the group of digital technologies. The projection of developing features takes the help of certain programming backed by the involvement of digital technologies that help to create further development on the part of VET. 

The level of core competencies can be channelized through the support of enhancement that tends to rectify the loopholes of the scene. The presence of teaching ability can be adjusted by the support of practical means that helpfully creates the developing features on the grounds of generating knowledge and learning experience. Therefore, it is important for the person who conducts the models and theories in terms of projecting the concept of teaching needs to be familiar with the key terms of education such as formal and informal. Notably, the collaboration of the types of education helps to maintain the balance between the two core competencies.    

Whannell et al. (2015) have helped to illustrate the further specification based on the scene of teaching that delves with the scenario based on the projection of pedagogy. The implication of this scenario associates with the propagation that can be presented through the guidance of successful programs that revolve around the specification on advancements of the teaching skills. Furthermore, this has been observed that implication of teaching programs help to create certain development and enables the level of improvement on the both of parts of UNE and TNE.  Thus, teaching skills plays a significant role towards the projection of developing features through the means of educational programs. However, this simplifies that the presence of various developing features help to enhance the level of teaching programs, which can provide with better opportunities and choices to incorporate successful paths in the student’s life.

Importance of Summer Training Programs (STP)

Reddy et al. (2017), has presented the importance of STP that comprises of the various projection deals with certain classes and theories that delves with the projection of further development. The development of STP helps to enhance the level of proper training that delves with the projection of several demos that created the path for exclusive channelization of sessions. The interrogation of STP has been dealing with the presence of simultaneous sessions that help clarify the expression regarding the approaches on the part of Computing, MAP and others. This has been perceived that implication of teaching session can be conducted by the support of chip systems that demonstrates a lucid technique providing the enhancements on the procedure of the teachings. 

The collaboration of summer trainings helps to conduct in the form of technological developments. Through the support of STP, it can be generated by the presence of deep evaluation based on the concept of further development of the competencies (Grajcevci and Shala, 2016). This has been leading to the projection of improvements on the part of creating the communication skills that help to bring positive results on the method of teaching. Thus, it can be validated that implication of communication skills help to create developing features on the department of teachings. Therefore, this has been perceived that presence of summer training helps to incorporate enhancing performances of the student.  

Grajcevci and Shala (2016) have presented the value that holds the position for creating teaching developments through the support of competencies. The presence of competencies on the part of development of the teaching skills will help to enhance the role of learning styles based on the presence of enhancing the level of teaching. Moreover, the presence of teaching skills can be represented through the support of education that has helped to create better paths and opportunities that develops the core concept of teaching in classrooms. Thu, this can be validate that implication of further development on the part of teaching helps to project the enhancing choices that have the ability to enroll opportunities in the form of pillar of success.

Detailed insight into E—learning and E-assessment

As opined by Callan et al., (2016), it is argued by advocates that several benefits can be provided by e learning alongside e-assessment over several traditional types of assessment. Benefits include the ability of providing faster feedback to the students along with effective flexibility around the timing regarding assessments and location alongside improved impartiality. Enhanced styles related to question can be utilized by E-assessment with the incorporation of more multimedia and interactivity leading to greater opportunities for proficient innovation in evaluation (Hewson and Charlton, 2019). As per various researches, it has been seen that several independent learning concerning students are encouraged and stimulated by assessments enhanced by technology assisting from purely dialectic learning along with the stimulation of independent learning of the students. The probability of e-learning along with e-assessment motivate the students as well as the VET practitioners for the improvement of the quality regarding the courses consisting of greater flexibility related to delivery along with the enhancement of increased teamwork abilities among students.

Few researches have demonstrated the challenges while applying e-assessment. For example- it has been found out that narrow applications regarding r-assessment demonstrating limited innovation along with creativity. Moreover, educators often are being unable to apply the sound principles regarding assessment. The purpose of assessment alongside the measurement related to criteria is not established by them. Cost savings are positive driver, however managers regarding training organizations alongside employers are too motivated by the cost savings, which can be offered to training organizations or employers instead of saving time or money for the knowledge seekers.

The centre of debate regarding the suitable utilization regarding new and probable disruptive technologies is referred to be the government’s interests. Several regulations for monitoring VET programmes are funded for meeting the national standards.

Detailed Insight into the reflective understanding of the VET students by reflecting on the Lachlan Swamp incident

The learning focus is the effect regarding the land use transformations, which is human induced on biodiversity along with its contribution to the emergence of infectious diseases. The location is situated contiguous to Lachlan Swamp known to be the flying foxes’ roosting side, which is grey headed where a legal case was discussed regarding the case of Royal Botanic Garden seeking permission for dispersing a fox colony, which was harming crucial specimens of tree. Excerpts, which have been modified from the lawful testimony along with public documents, have been presented by four volunteers. The statements given by the Doman Trust and the Royal Botanic Garden along with Bat Advocacy NSW, which is non-profit group opposing relocation, a veterinary virologist and a wildlife ecologist have been included in this. Students who were invited were given the chance of sharing their views regarding the reason for opposing the dispersion of the colony. At the time of the discussion, probing questions for encouraging deeper thinking regarding the causes behind the problems were asked by the facilitator. It had been learnt by the students that P.poliocephalus has been threatened as well as in decline due to habitat disruption, which has been caused by agriculture and deforestation. It had also been learnt by them that other activities of human including planting fig trees next to roots have led these wild animals into urbanized landscapes due to the depletion of the urban landscapes. Later on, it was revealed that most of the flying-foxes took resort to the resettlement in the Lachlan Swamp. Students were given the opportunity for walking beside the boardwalk since the new risks, which might arise due to the bats, which were in the location were reflected by them. The activity was concluded with the discussion regarding locally crucial manage problems, which have been discussed during the CPE. As pointed out by Mor et al., (2018) students were provided with the encouragement for reflecting on along with integrating across several stations.

Detailed insight into the impact of future skills on VET training in context to Australia

Various recommendations have been offered by the VET era: equipping Australia’s workforce for the future digital economy, which has been taken in the course of CSIRO for Tafe Queensland. According to Payton (2017), the gap prevailing between the skills outline regarding the existing workforce along with the increasing demand for highly advance workers. The largest section of the workforce is trained by the VET providers and it has been argued in the report that the competitiveness of Australia in the upcoming future international marketplace is dependent on VET providers guiding the larger as well as the section of more diversified students at higher level of skill (Smith et al., 2019). Regarding the courses, which have been offered reorientation for the cause offerings for reflecting on the increasing significance regarding communication skills have been recommended in the report. Besides, incorporation of technological along with numerical skills into a broader course range will benefit the employers and the students. For a comprehensive understanding the technology utilized at the workplace, which has been reflected by the skills related to digital literacy included into courses. Hence, it can be stated that technology can solve the problems and assist in the achievement of goals. Besides, the timing and the packaging of VET offerings requires to be re-assessed as well. The courses alongside their allied qualifications will require to be more modular for enabling them to be concluded more flexibly and progressively alongside work. Modular offerings regarding course need to serve as the developing blocks for continuous engagement between employers, students as well as VET providers. An advanced strategic approach needs to be incorporated including sharing data among doctors alongside consultations with employees, which are digitally streamlined. A comprehensive understanding regarding the external environment can support Agility. Real time data in relation with job vacancies, patterns of changing employment and requirement can also be obtained for informing decision making. In terms of the VET qualifications, they need to incorporate enterprise or soft skills.

Detailed insight into the Blended Learning by the VET practitioners

Blended learning, which is referred to as the fusion regarding online as well contact between the students and the teachers face to face is considered as the mainstream approach for learning in the higher education. As pointed out by Mazohl et al., (2018) This will assist in the professional development regarding VET trainers and teachers continuously in school and work related areas. Trainers’ soft tools, which are the developed software and the Massive Open Online Course alongside face to face interactions assist teachers to utilize the tools for the effective training of the students (Deepwell et al., 2019).  


The above discussion shows that blended learning comes up in a purpose, which constructs the mixture of teaching techniques based on the notion of advance learning. Enrolment of the blended learning is anticipated through the support of face to face and online procedures that deals with the presence of better approaches of the learning technique. Cost savings can be considered as the positive driver; but managers regarding training organizations along with employers are too motivated by the cost savings, which can be offered to training organizations or employers instead of saving time or money for the knowledge seekers. 



References: Harvard     

Callan, V.J., Johnston, M.A., Clayton, B. and Poulsen, A.L., 2016. E-assessment: challenges to the legitimacy of VET practitioners and auditors. Journal of Vocational Education & Training68(4), pp.416-435.

Deepwell, M., Palmer, T. and Greig, S., 2019. Blended Learning Essentials Project reports.

Grajcevci, A. and Shala, A., 2016. Formal and non-formal education in the new era. Action Researcher in Education7, pp.119-130.

Hewson, C. and Charlton, J.P., 2019. An investigation of the validity of course?based online assessment methods: The role of computer?related attitudes and assessment mode preferences. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning35(1), pp.51-60.

Machumu, H.J., Zhu, C. and Sesabo, J.K., 2016. Blended learning in the vocational education and training system in Tanzania: Understanding vocational educators’ perceptions. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding3(2), pp.30-45.

Mazohl, P., Ossiannilsson, E. and Makl, H., 2018. Technical Innovation in Blended Learning-Concepts for the Creation of High Quality Continuous Vocational Education Courses using Multiple Devices. In CSEDU (2) (pp. 548-554).

Mor, S.M., Norris, J.M., Bosward, K.L., Toribio, J.A.L., Ward, M.P., Gongora, J., Vost, M., Higgins, P.C., McGreevy, P.D., White, P.J. and Zaki, S., 2018. One health in our backyard: Design and evaluation of an experiential learning experience for veterinary medical students. One Health5, pp.57-64.

Payton, A., 2017. Skilling for Tomorrow. 26th National VET Research Conference" No Frills". National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

Reddy, S.R.N., Kaur, J. and Chande, S., 2017. Summer training programs: a practical and collaborative approach in technical education through mobile education kit. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation11(1), pp.15-29.

Smith, E., Callan, V., Tuck, J. and Smith, A., 2019. Employer training in Australia: current practices and concerns. International Journal of Training and Development, 23(2), pp.169-183.

Sz?cs, A., 2019. Digital Education: from hype and disappointment to change. Opus et Educatio5(4).

Whannell, P., Humphries, J., Whannell, R. and Usher, K., 2015. The Integration of Study and Work-Integrated Learning Experience through the Sequential, Embedded Completion of Tertiary Qualifications. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education16(3), pp.175-184.

Wilks, J., Wilson, K. and Kinnane, S., 2017. Promoting engagement and success at university through strengthening the online learning experiences of Indigenous students living and studying in remote communities. In Indigenous Pathways, Transitions and Participation in Higher Education (pp. 211-233). Springer, Singapore.

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