SHRM Theory -An analysis of HR policies and practices within the organizations against selected theoretical concepts


Human resource department is considered as a critical component that helps to develop wellbeing for the employees. The HR department of Sainsbury and Tesco are responsible for including benefits, payroll, hiring and keeping the data up to date which states and tax laws. The study will be developed upon different HR practices and policies that exist in Sainsbury and Tesco. Different external factors that influence HR strategic decisions will be identified and critically examined.

1. An analysis of HR policies and practices within the organization(s) against selected theoretical concepts

Analysis of HR Policies

HR policies can be classified into originated policies, implicit policies, appealed policies, imposed policies. On the basis of the description it has two policies one is specific and another one is general policies.

Applied policy- Appealed policy is a policy which is used to cover up all the drawbacks of the other policy like implicit, imposed and originated. To handle some situations or appeal for the formulation of specific policies, this appealed policy is used. It serves as a reference point in HR policies.

General policy- General policy is a policy which is a very basic point on the basis of the description. Particularly general policy does not relate any specific issues. It has been seen that organization leadership team formulated this general policy. As this policy does not relate to any specific issue in particular so it is designated as “General”

Specific policy- Apart from the general policy another important point on the basis of description of analysis of HR policy is specific policy. Some specific issues like staffing,compensation, collective bargaining are relatable to this specific policy. To the pattern laid down by the general policy must be confirmed by the specific policy.

Analysis of HR Practices

High commitment HRM

High commitment HRM has the potential to contribute towards organizationalperformance. It requires because it mainly increases labor turnover, reduces absenteeism, improves employee’sbehavior and attitude, and improves quality and customer services. Instead of focusing on one higher power high commitment management emphasizes personal responsibility, indolence, and empowerment of employees across all levels.

Best fit HRM

It emphasizes the importance of ensuring that HR strategies are appropriate to the circumstances of organisation.The best fit approach includes the culture, operational processes and external environment, for both the organization and its people HR strategies have to take. To the strategy of farms and its wider environment, HR strategies always adduct the best fit approach. Picking the most effective HR policy and practices are the best fit approach and it is a contingency approach.

Hard and Soft HRM

Hard and soft HRM are the two distinct forms of human resource management. It has been seen that commitment, trust, self-direction are regulated by a soft model. On the other hand tight strategy control, economic model are carried by hard model. It can be said that staff management system in which workers are seen as a resource is a classification of hard HRM.To achieve the highest profit and a competitive advantage, this hard HRM should be controlled.

Theoretical Concepts of HRM

More efficient and effective job performance is the two primary outcomes of HRM theory to achieve. It has been seen that the aim of HR theory is to increase the worker motivation and commitment. Staffing, employee compensation and benefits and designing work are the responsibility of a human resource manager.

Ulrich model

This model helps HR professionals integrate more thoroughly into business processes. It is a revolutionary model because it looks at people and roles first and foremost. It helps HR to connect directly with an organization, and include employees, shareholders, and stakeholder. The role of the Ulrich model is to manage the documents and acts as an expert in administration.

Pfeiffer’s model.

Pfeiffer’s model is a model of management which recommends several modifications belonging to its conceptions of the relationship between substantive and symbolic outcomes. The perspective of this model is neither rational nor deterministic but random and unfolding (Macau and Muna, 2020).

Michigan model

Michigan model is the model which is known as the “Matching model”. It is generally based primarily on sociological and party identification factors. It has been known that the party attachment which is formulated by outside social influences, including parents, family members are generally stable.

SHRM Theory

By the help of SHRM theory we can easily understand that the performance of business departments increases by their individual performance, and performance of farms increases because of their businessdepartment. To conduct industry labor market, demand trends such as industry growth are taught by SHRM (Patel et al.2019)

2. An analysis of some specific external forces and the effect of these forces on HR strategic decisions within the organization

External forces and its impact on HR strategic decisions

Proponents of planning the external environment are regarded as the primary influencer. To anticipate and to change in the political, economic, social and technological environment are the role of the strategy. In marketing and management to cover the business environment the acronym “PESTLE” is used. Political, economic, technological, socio cultural , ecological components are covered by “PESTLE” .In strategic decision making there is an influence of external stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, unions and government agencies. Generally firms are dependent on the legitimacy, the external environment for resources. So by influencing the manager's decision these external groups have power over the firm.

      To achieve the strategy goals and objectives various external forces can impact the ability of a business or investment. The competition, social, legal changes and economic and political environment are the external factors. It influences a business result and the performance from the outside. For direction and success, external factors are one of the most important business planning factors. It has an impact on the success of business. External factors influence the economic growth .It’s primary purpose is to determine the opportunity and threats in an industry or any segments and to examine the industry environment (Khan, 2020).

Cultural and Ethical issues

The primary factors that have enough importance in the HR strategic decisions are cultural and ethical issues.

Cultural Issues: An organization means the togetherness of people from different region and different culture.So, keeping the Organizational Culture in balance is one of the primary issues to think about for the HR strategic decisions of Sainsbury’s and Tesco. To produce a positive result, employees’ satisfaction and motivation are quite necessary which the HRMs of these two organizations should keep in mind. In the culture of the organizations, where employee involvement is common,HRMs of Sainsbury’s and Tesco can create positive effects through various practices, such as on-going trainings, creating continuous communication channels, involving employees, establishing clear goals, creating a fair reward system, developing employees and flattening the organizational structures. In this way, these two organizations will be capable of a productive result in the business and also be capable of creating a good cultural atmosphere by developing the employees’ behavior and the way of thinking positively about the whole organizations (Basterretxea et al. 2019).


Ethical Issues: The Ethical values in an organization come under the most important aspects for the positive results of an organization. Both the HR Managements of Sainsbury’s and Tesco keep in mind that ethics in human resources are very crucial for the future of these two organizations. Ethics in the workplace is directly connected to the reputation and the financial sustainability of an organization. Ethical values can add many advantages and disadvantages to a business company. If the organizations do not pay heed to the ethics, then they may obviously lose the skilled, talented or loyal employees. Ethics also attract trust of the employees which can be later proved as beneficial for the organizations. On the other hand, even the smallest breaches can cause huge legal troubles to these organizations (Lössbroek et al. 2019).

The employment market in which your organization operates (whether the workforce is high skilled or low skilled, unionised or non-unionised)

The two companies that have been chosen for conducting the study are TESCO and Sainsbury’s.

Employment Market of TESCO and Sainsbury’s: 50 The Employment or Job Market is the place from where the employer and the employee, who is not yet employed both, are benefited. The HR Managers of Sainsbury’s and Tesco understand the various aspects of the market quite efficiently so that they can hire the most skilled person, set an efficient salary scale for the employees and deal with the human resourcing properly (Husain, 2019).

Skilled or Low Skilled Workplace of Tesco and Sainsbury’s: 50 Tesco and Sainsbury’s, both the organizations’ Human Resources include both The Skilled and Low skilled workplace and we can say labors. Where Skilled labors are related to higher education, moreefficiency, experienced through training, and higher salary scale, on the other hand, Low skilled labors are less efficient in work experience and skills, and are also not much educated. So these labors automatically fall under the lesser salary scale in comparison to the skilled ones. Sainsbury’s and Tesco efficiently distinguish between Skilled and Low Skilled Workplaces and employ them to their work fields respectively and also set a salary scale accordingly.

3. An analysis of how the HR function is organized and how HR policies and practices are delivered

How the HR functions are being organized

Considering the role of Human Resource it has been identified that human resource management plays a crucial role hence this administrative department is liable to accept employment applications, handling the insurance cards and processing payroll. The HR functions are being organized by following different functions. The common units which are included in the human resource department are compensation, benefits administration, training and development along with recruitment. By maintaining all the basic matrices of ensuring workplace health and safety guidelines the labor and employee relations can be monitored well (Ali, 2019).

How HR policies and Practices are being delivered

The HR Policies and practices are being delivered by the Human ResourceDepartment of Sainsbury's and Tesco. It has been found that in the business context of Tesco the HR policies are being established as a framework for helping in the management of people. It has been identified that in Tesco the HR professionals follow different HR practices while recruiting employees within the workplace. Moreover the HR policies are being disclosed in front of the employees before recruiting them within the work. Moreover the HR professionals ensure that whether the HR procedures and policies are clear enough in front of them or not.

Do the HR policies follow Ulrich’s model or other forms of delivery?

It can be stated that the HR policies follow Ulrich's Model in a well effective manner. While understanding the inclination between Ulrich’s Model and HR policies it is necessary to incarnate the fundamental approach as per the model. Dave Ulrich's Model There is four parts that are involved within the HR policies such as future and strategic focus, procurement, people and operational focus. As per this model the human resource management is very necessary that can be recognized as the arm of any enterprise and without it no organization can work accordingly. Therefore, the concept of Ulrich’s Model the HR professionals must be aligned with the HR policies and before recruiting employees the policies must be clarified in front of the employees. As per the HR policies the rules and regulations must be followed by the employee. Equally Ulrich's model has explained that in order to ensure procurement and strategic goals it is necessary to impose certs in rules and all these rules must be followed by the employees and HR professionals. Thus it can be stated that the HR policies are being followed and being monitored by the employees.

What are the role and the challenges of line managers in the delivery of HRM?

While delivering Human Resource Management within the workplace different roles are being played by the line managers. They help in developing the company's culture and help the employees in understanding the individual expectations of the firm. Moreover, in Sainsbury the line managers play a vital role in ensuring legal obligations within the organization by the employees. The primary challenges are training issues and trust between the employees and managers. Lack of organizational commitment can be considered as another issue.


A set of recommendations can be stated considering the above issues. The recommendations are as follows,

  • By empowering the employees the trust level and motivational level can be improved.
  • Effective benefits can be given to the employees.
  • The employees should be delivered with training and development session in order to build self confidence among them


After doing this report it can be understood that HR policy depends on the strategies regarding its recruitment and selection, training and the development, performance and the diversity.Sainsbury and Tescousethese HR policies because it has beneficial values for the organization development, improving their level of customer service and increase its sell. In this report we mainly focus on the issues involved in the human resources management. The main focus is to control the present and future requirement with the help of planning and job analysis activities. The goal of HR is to hire efficiently and deploy the right candidates to the right position.


Ali, A., 2019. Impact of HR Policies and Practices on Employee Job Satisfaction.SEISENSE Journal of Management, 2(2), pp.48-57.

Basterretxea, I., Heras?Saizarbitoria, I. and Lertxundi, A., 2019. Can employee ownership and human resource management policies clash in worker cooperatives? Lessons from a defunct cooperative.Human Resource Management, 58(6), pp.585-601.


Khan, M.S.H., 2020.EXPLORING THE POTENTIALITIES OF HR ANALYTICS.Studies in Indian Place Names, 40(4), pp.535-544.

Lössbroek, J., Lancee, B., Van der Lippe, T. and Schippers, J., 2019. Understanding old-age adaptation policies in Europe: The influence of profit, principles and pressures. Ageing & Society, 39(5), pp.924-950.

Makau, M.M. and Muna, W., 2020. Effects of internal organizational policies on performance of government owned commercial banks in Kenya. International Academic Journal of Law and Society, 1(2), pp.1-27.

Patel, C., Budhwar, P., Witzemann, A. and Katou, A., 2019. HR outsourcing: The impact on HR's strategic role and remaining in-house HR function. Journal of Business Research, 103, pp.397-406.

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