SWK312 Literature Review| LITERATURE REVIEW ON MAIN CAUSES OF EATING DISORDERS IN YOUNG AUSTRALIANS
Research topic and key concepts
Eating disorders can be defined as mental illness and self concerns that influence eating habits, distress, and obsession. Eating disorders are one of the significant issues for young Australians as they feel uncomfortable with their bodies working functions. Self esteems, body image, self-worth, and negative thought have increased eating disorders to increase success in the commercial business environment (Young et al. 2017). It is influenced by biological, environmental, psychological, and socio-cultural factors to manage common challenges. Eating health conditions have changed the functional behavioural approaches and functional operational factors of people. Furthermore, eating disorders have increased complexity and challenges in casual relationships between people.
Appearance in the occupational process and concern about weight gaining has significantly regulated the challenges for eating disorder young Australians. Nowadays, people are extremely concerned about the body conditions and try to reduce weight as much as possible for reduction of overweight. Family members and friends are worried about the underweight of young people. Inappropriate eating culture has increased risks for young generations in Australia (Eating disorders overview, 2020). Therefore, unethical eating behaviour increases upset, anxiety, and guilt have increased body challenges for managing challenges.
Different types of disorders
It has seen that around body organs are severely affected by eating disorders and severe complicated health conditions. Eating disorders have affected around 16% of the Australian population, and people faced different types of eating disorders. People faced lifetime disorders due to eating disorder. As per diagnostics of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM5), most common eating disorders of young Australian generation are as follows (Common Types of Eating Disorders, 2020).
- Anorexia Nervosa
- Bulimia Nervosa
- Binge Eating Disorder
- Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorder (OSFED)
It has been found that 88% of bulimia nervosa, 84% of binge eating disorders, and 55% of anorexia nervosa patients have faced comorbid psychiatric conditions in their life. Several challenging issues like substances, bad mood, and anxiety have occurred. According to WHO, obesity is one of the abnormal conditions of the young generation, and it creates complexity for mental health. Obesity has affected 60% of adults and 20% of children in Australia. Eating disorder has continuously have increased the complexity issues among people and rapidly controlled practical challenges (Wufong, Rhodes, & Conti`, 2019). Due to different complexity of eating disorders, mortality rate of young Australians has increased by 5 times for anorexia nervosa disorder in the last few years. Young people having bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder have lower mortality rates.
Relevant Literature review
People faced substantial impacts on body due to personal attitude, body image, as well as functional, esteems to control financial stability. Young Australians are concerned about the positive health in management of different weight incrimination factors. Analysing negative impacts and appearances on health should be reviewed adequately to manage conditions of young people. Standard conditions and behaviours have been hampered by different types of eating disorders of people. Eating disorders have influenced the socio-economic culture of people in Australia, and 1 of every student has eating disorders that make a severe impact on economic development (National Eating Disorders Collaboration, 2020). It creates a challenging cultural environment among young generations and health initiatives for preventing health treatment.
According to research of Australian Institute of Holistic Medicine has investigated that eating disorders have made a serious impact on both physical and psychological consequences. Various serious diseases like gastrointestinal disorders, osteoporosis, infertility, kidney failure, high blood pressure, and Type II diabetes have increased serious impact on health conditions. Nowadays, eating disorders have a mortality rate of 20% due to the presence of serious disorders like cardiovascular disease, depressive disorders, chronic fatigue, and neurological symptoms. \
Around $15 billion productivity impact has been generated due to eating disorders (National Eating Disorders Collaboration, 2020). Eating disorders have created several impacts in employment due to lower participation of disorders people along with greater presenters and absenteeism culture. Burden no diseases of eating disorders have reduced the healthy life of young Australians. Furthermore, $41.2 billion financial threats were generated in Australia in 2012 due to eating disorders.
Details of different types of eating disorders
It is one of the principles of challenging eating disorders for young Australians as they fear to gain weight. Due to lack of intake of foods and water have imbalanced the body shape and functional operations of people. However, it profoundly affected young girls and young women; young boys also affected due to eating disorders. Psychological imbalance regarding perceiving weight and maintaining body functions have been managed by fewer foods in taking (Eating disorders, 2020). Moreover, turbulence in endocrine and metabolic conditions, excessive threats have generated for young generations. Taking restrictions on diet maintenance and functional challenges management may influence the disorders of people to maintain functional issues. Moreover, clinical diagnosis has not applied over young people regarding the anorexia nervosa to improve health conditions. Furthermore, weight loss is one of the challenging psychological disorders for young Australian.
Symptoms or causes: Anorexia nervosa has created several symptoms among young people that show the signs of disorders. Restriction in food in taking, and change in selection of foods, reduction of working performance, depressions, and emaciation have shown symptoms of disorders within people. Besides, change in thinking approaches, moods, attitude, fear about being overweight, anxiety and lethargy have changed the functional operations of the body. Focus on strict food charts while eating different things and change in thinking style about health conditions can create eating disorders in young people in Australia (Eating disorders, 2020). Mental challenges and suicide attempts have generated excessive disorder symptoms.
Effects of Anorexia Nervosa: Higher impacts of the disease can significantly damage the brain and failure of multiple body organs. Due to lack of intake of daily foods creates reduction of calcium, anaemia, anxiety, lethargy, depression, heart diseases, and infertility for young. Loss of the immune system and abnormality of young Australian has reduced the strength in the healthcare sector. Moreover, menstrual periods and loss of libido have significantly increased issues for functional operations in challenging business environments (Le et al. 2017).
It is associated with compensation of overeating habits of people that created extreme eating disorders. It has seen few per cent of people are over-concern with health conditions and weight gaining. It has seen people focused on forced vomiting to reduce weight gaining. In taking of diuretics and over-exercising creates several challenges for young people. Furthermore, reduction of eating of high energy and fatty acid can create disorder illness for people (Eating disorders, 2020). Excessive preoccupations and over control in the weight gaining process has enhanced psychological disorders for people in challenging business management.
Symptoms: Inducing self vomiting techniques and continuous trip to washrooms after eating is another kind of disorder. Fluctuations of weight, depression, anxiety, avoidance of foods, and swing of moods have increased disorders for young Australian. Furthermore, laxative misuse, hot-tempered nature, and behavioural changes have increased the disorders for people. Excessive taking of alcohol and drugs can enhance challenges for people.
Effects of Bulimia Nervosa: This type of eating disorder has significantly increased challenges for the people regarding chronic severe sore throat, heartburn, and reflux, and indigestion, inflammation. Besides, rupture of stomach, reduction of heartbeat, gum diseases, severe dehydration, depression, and anxiety issues have generated due to this disorder (Murray et al. 2019). Risks of infertility, mortality, and osteoporosis are occurred in social communities in Australia to manage the rate of success.
Binge Eating Disorder
It is opposite of the above two eating disorders that significantly impacted on community health conditions. Excessive eating foods and energy drink even when people are not hungry. Hence, it increases weight gaining of people and causes obesity, diabetics, and heart diseases.
Symptoms: Lower self concentration and overeating foods have irritated body shape and weight. Lack of control over eating and reduction of sleep have created success in the commercial business environment. High depression, secret eating behaviour and difficulties have changed apparent control over functional challenges management. Furthermore, functional challenges and issues regarding eating behaviour have increased success in the commercial business market. Many patients have changed functional consequences to increase active disorders management through controlling functional issues (Richards et al. 2018). Increasing sensitivity over foods has controlled the standard in functional operations management.
Effects of Binge Eating Disorder: Cardiac arrest and obesity are two significant impacts of this eating disorder. Loss of libido, depression, cardiac arrest, lethargy, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are the most common issues of Binge Eating Disorder. Kidney and liver problems have increased a high mortality rate for young Australians.
Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorder (OSFED)
It has seen that 40% of disorders have not been specified for the younger generation. It has been estimated that females are more affected by eating disorders than male. During development of standard body shape, young people have utilised irregular behavioural culture and characteristics during this type of disorder. Here, healthcare professionals have found several disorder cases during evaluation of principal strategies. Furthermore, National Eating Disorders Collaboration 2013 has shown that chronic disorders have influenced challenges for the community. American Psychiatric Association 2017 has stated that thoughts, emotions, and behaviours have triggered eating disorders (Common Types of Eating Disorders, 2020).
Rumination disorder is another kind of eating disorder just like bulimia, anorexia that forces people to regurgitate after eating to manage principles. During this type of disorder, foods are automatically brought out of the mouths that enforce patients to reduce eating to prevent nature. Hence, these types of disorders have increased challenges for young people to control personal life. Lack of interest in eating is an eating disorder that creates challenging factors for young people. Furthermore, avoidance eating disorder provides fear to young (Lam et al. 2017) Australian regarding taking foods to control overweight.
Different causes for eating disorders
Lack of educational and professional support in Australia has generated eating disorders for people. Ineffective psychological treatment and cognitive behavioural theories in functional issues controlling have to influence eating disorders. A single cause can create eating disorders for people in their life. Combinations of many factors like events, feelings, and change in eating tradition have influenced disorders among communities. Lower self esteems, and relationships failure with friends, death of a special person, lack of confidence, high work pressure, and sexual issues have imbalanced the sequence of eating traditions (Eating disorders overview, 2020). Nowadays, people are attached to the internet and social media applications which imbalanced the disorder in a competitive business environment.
Over thinking about anything like body structure, weight, and mental situation have increased abnormality of people about the eating system. During painful situations and depression, young Australians have used alcohol and drugs that increase heart disease, obesity, and kidney and liver problems along with mental consequences. The educational system regarding health infrastructure and treatment facilities have managed the practical challenges for eating disorders of young people in a country (Wright, Halse, & Levy, 2016). However, young Australians are not concerned about academic theories regarding different types of eating disorders. Role of government is very high in managing eating disorders and interests of people regarding proper business challenges management.
Australians are very much concerned about career and professional education. However, lack of employment and satisfaction in academic careers, young Australians have irregular eating structures in daily life. Family issues and social pressure have also impacted on different types of eating disorders for young people. Breakup with lovers and loss of jobs in corporate sectors creates traumatic events for young people that enforce eating disorders (Eating disorders, 2020). Death of the nearest relative, abuse by family members, divorce, and false claims regarding sexual harassment have created irregularity in eating habits to manage principal challenges.
Dieting and starvation is another principal cause for disorders in present modern society in Australia. Excessive starvation reduces strength of health, thinking style, and moods of people. Vulnerability decision making creates due to the presence of restrictive measures in the commercial business environment. Other significant issues for eating disorders are genetic problems in people. It has proved that there is a clear link between eating disorders with families. Genetic disorder or family habit of eating disorder can also impact the young generation. Around 40% to 60% of eating disorders are directly linked with genetic influences that mean family members also faced eating disorders. As per research of Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI), Australia is one of the major countries that face genetic eating disorders (National Eating Disorders Collaboration, 2020).
Environmental causes have played a crucial role in society regarding eating disorders. It has seen that environmental pollution, an imbalanced social environment and high family expectations have created eating disorders. Unrealistic culture and practical challenges have created ineffective body conditions and unrealistic disorders. Lack of stability of mental health and body conditions may generate risks for young people in Australia. Dynamic work culture and lack of performance in a competitive business environment have increased eating disorders of young Australians. Badly treated in childhood, sexual abuses in child have increase number of eating disorders for a society.
Literature Gap and focusing areas
In order to prevent eating disorders, Australian government should focus on the development of effective health policy, plan and environment for managing eating disorders. Broader research to understand issues of young Australians are necessary for prevention of sufficient health infrastructure to manage the diseases. Implementation costs and effective financial platform for young Australians to prevent challenges can control impacts of eating disorders. Moreover, local medical organisation, health insurance companies can provide excellent health coverage for patients. Council of Australian Governments (COAG) has to develop research proposals to create standard health strategies for young Australians to prevent extreme impacts on economic stability (Young et al. 2017).
Prevention of eating disorders
Prevention and treatment are essential for eating disorder people in a country to manage risks as well as challenges. Implementation of standard educational framework and eating behaviours may control disorders for young Australians. Protective environmental factors like improvement of power and status for women, respect to all types of people along with eating disorders can control safer young Australian communities. Family members and young people should review below areas to prevent eating disorders.
Avoid dieting: It is the biggest concern of the modern young community in Australia. Both family members and young Australians should control dieting to reduce the challenges of taking nutrients and vitamins (Wufong, Rhodes, & Conti, 2019). Eating meals and dinners with family members may balance the dieting chart for the younger generation.
Mediation, gym and yoga: It can deliver strength to the young generation to prevent depression, obesity, anxiety, hypertension, and other health diseases due to eating disorders. Mediation has control self esteems and health concern of people regarding prevention of eating disorders. Through regular exercise and workout, young Australian can develop a useful body image. Going to gym and sports may provide benefits in managing eating disorders.
Consult with doctors: During suffering from disorders, consult with doctors regarding proper treatment as essential for patients. Routine medical checkups and body strength analysis during dieting can manage eating disorders (Eating disorders, 2020). Family members and particular relatives should be concerned about significant changes in people to manage eating disorder management.
Conducting surveys on large young people and interviewing health experts can have a moderate impact on Australian society. Hence, further research needed on sustainable development habits and change of behaviour of young Australians. It is necessary to find out reasons and solutions for eating disorders management. Recognising effective research operations can manage health care operations for evaluation of detailed background of eating disorders. Implementing exceptional and unique research methods may control challenges for Australian government.
Lam, Y. Y., Maguire, S., Palacios, T., & Caterson, I. D. (2017). Are the gut bacteria telling us to eat or not to eat? Reviewing the role of gut microbiota in the etiology, disease progression and treatment of eating disorders. Nutrients, 9(6), 602.
Le, L. K. D., Barendregt, J. J., Hay, P., Sawyer, S. M., Paxton, S. J., & Mihalopoulos, C. (2017). The modelled cost?effectiveness of cognitive dissonance for the prevention of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in adolescent girls in Australia. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 50(7), 834-841.
Murray, S. B., Quintana, D. S., Loeb, K. L., Griffiths, S., & Le Grange, D. (2019). Treatment outcomes for anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Psychological Medicine, 49(4), 535-544.
Richards, I. L., Subar, A., Touyz, S., & Rhodes, P. (2018). Augmentative approaches in family?based treatment for adolescents with restrictive eating disorders: A systematic review. European Eating Disorders Review, 26(2), 92-111.
Wright, J., Halse, C., & Levy, G. (2016). Preteen boys, body image, and eating disorders. Men and Masculinities, 19(1), 3-21.
Wufong, E., Rhodes, P., & Conti, J. (2019). “We don’t really know what else we can do”: Parent experiences when adolescent distress persists after the Maudsley and family-based therapies for anorexia nervosa. Journal of eating disorders, 7(1), 5.
Young, S., Touyz, S., Meyer, C., Arcelus, J., Rhodes, P., Madden, S., ... & Hay, P. (2017). Validity of exercise measures in adults with anorexia nervosa: The EDE, compulsive exercise test and other self?report scales. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 50(5), 533-541.
Common Types of Eating Disorders (2020, April 18), eating-disorders, from https://www.ausmed.com/cpd/articles/eating-disorders
Eating disorders (2020, April 19), eating-disorders, from https://healthyfamilies.beyondblue.org.au/age-13/mental-health-conditions-in-young-people/eating-disorders
Eating disorders (2020, April 19), eating-disorders, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/eating-disorders/
National Eating Disorders Collaboration (2020, April 20), eating-disorders-in-australia, from https://www.nedc.com.au/eating-disorders/eating-disorders-explained/something/eating-disorders-in-australia/
Eating disorders overview (2020, April 20), eating-disorders-overview, from https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/eating-disorders-overview